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World War II The American Perspective. From Neutrality to War 1933 Hitler becomes chancellor of Germany 1934-1936 Nye Commission -finds economic causes.

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Presentation on theme: "World War II The American Perspective. From Neutrality to War 1933 Hitler becomes chancellor of Germany 1934-1936 Nye Commission -finds economic causes."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War II The American Perspective

2 From Neutrality to War 1933 Hitler becomes chancellor of Germany Nye Commission -finds economic causes of WWI (loans to GB & Fr. and lobbying by arms-makers) -increases Americans demands for isolation Neutrality Acts -prohibits Americans from loaning $ to, selling arms to, or traveling on the ships of belligerent nations

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5 From Neutrality to War Japan takes Manchuria and much of China 1938 Germany occupies Austria -Munich Pact gives Sudatenland to Germany -Kristallnacht 1939 Germany invades Czechoslovakia -Germany & Soviet Union invade Poland (Fr. & GB declare war) -FDR offers cash & carry sales of arms 1940 Germany invades France -blitzkrieg takes France in 4 weeks -US trades GB destroyers for leases of bases in the Caribbean -Great Britain defends itself in the Battle of Britain -FDR bans sale of aviation fuel, steel, and scrap metal to Japan

6 From Neutrality to War 1941 –Lend-Lease plan offered to GB (& Russia after Nazi invasion) –Atlantic Charter signed by FDR & Churchill -condemns aggression, affirms self-determination & defense of democracy, endorses collective security & disarmament –FDR declares embargo on all trade w/ Japan -Japan invades Dutch East Indies, etc. to get oil, etc. -leads to Pearl Harbor 12/7/41 -US declares war on Japan 12/8/41 -Germany then declares war on US

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9 War Production War Powers Act gives the President broad powers to fight the war War Production Board & Office of War Mobilization -300k planes, 86k tanks, 86k warships, 2.6M machine guns -defense spending becomes 46% of GNP -federal budget goes from $9B to $98B -spend $320B by end of war (2x ) -federal employees goes from 1.1M to 3.8M -17M new jobs -per capita GNP from $573-$1,074 -corporate profits increase by 70% -real wages increase by 50% Manhattan Project

10 Patriotism & Social Change

11 WWII & Civil Rights 1M serve in armed forces & military segregation ends Double-V Campaign –March on Washington threatened by A. Philip Randolph -FDR responds with Executive Order 8802 which outlaws discrimination in federal agencies and all unions and companies involved in war production -establishes Fair Employment Practices Commission -average yearly wages for blacks increase from $457 to $1,976 (whites increase from $1,064 to $2,600) CORE founded in 1942 Detroit race riot in 1943 kills 25 blacks and 9 whites

12 Japanese Internment 112,000 Japanese-Americans imprisoned in internment camps -2/3 were US citizens Munson Report had found that there was no serious threat of sabotage by Japanese- Americans February 1942, FDR orders evacuation of all Japanese- Americans from the West Coast -not from Hawaii -racism plays a role -many Japanese-Americans lose their businesses & farms Japanese-Americans remain loyal & the 442 Regimental Combat Team becomes one of the most decorated units in the war with highest casualty rates

13 Women in WW II Women working outside home increases from 13M to 19M -300,000 women join armed forces and serve in jobs other than nurses -75% are married -33% have young children -many work in industrial jobs Rosie the Riveter campaigns to get women to work helps destroy ideal of the cult of true womanhood Marriage rate soars during war; divorce and birth rates soar after Nevertheless, womens roles after the war did not change significantly

14 Migration During World War II


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