4Militarism: Glorification of War & Military Build up of large reserve armiesMobilization - organize resources for combat (triggers other nations mobilizing)Naval Expansion - William II (GR) fires Bismarck and expands navywants to be equal to G.B. (most powerful)G.B. feels threatened, expands, develops new battleship - Dreadnought
5Alliances Defense Agreements Among Nations Three Emperors’ League: (1881) Germany, Russia, Austria-Hungary - doesn’t last b/c of A-H rivalry with Russia in BalkansTriple Alliance - (1882) Germany, Italy, Austria-Hungary - attempt to isolate FranceTriple Entente - (1907) France, Russia, G.B. Entente: Friendly understanding between nations
7Nationalism Extreme Pride in One’s Nation or Desire to Form a Nation French Nationalists sought revenge against Germany for loss of Alsace-LorraineSlavic Nationalism - Pan-Slavism: Unify all Slavic people under one empire
8Imperialism domination of one country by another Germany and France came close to war over control of MoroccoGermany wanted to create Berlin to Baghdad Railway - caused resentment among British and RussiansBritish feared interference with India and reduce traffic thru Suez Canal
9Anarchy International Anarchy Nations of Europe pursue policies without regard for the wishes of their neighborsCrisis - No international organization to monitor
10Immediate Causes of WWI Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of A-H (June 28, 1914) by Gavrilo Princip - member of Serbian nationalist group “Black Hand”
11Why the Assassination?Ferdinand planned to give Slavs of Bosnia-Herzegovina a voice in the gov’t equal to that of Austro-HungariansThis threatened the movement for a separate Slavic state
12What Happens Next? A-H hold Serbians responsible A-H seeks assurance (backup) from Germany in event of warGermany issues “Blank Check” toA-HWilliam II gives full support to any actions A-H might take against Serbia
13Tensions Build!!A-H issues ultimatum (set of final conditions that must be accepted to avoid severe consequences) to SerbiaDemands that Serbia allow A-H officials into country to suppress all subversive movements & conduct investigationGives Serbia 48 hours to agree or face warSerbia does not agree to all partsA-H declares war on Serbia! (July 28, 1914)
15Declarations of War Germany declares war on Russia (Aug 1, 1914) Germany declares war on France (Aug 3, 1914)Great Britain still hoped to remain neutral and not go to war, but…
16Germany Invades Belgium! Germany demands passage across Belgium to fight France (*Part of Schlieffen Plan)British protest demand made by Germany upon neutral nation of Belgium1839 Treaty signed by G.B., Russia, France & Germany guaranteed Belgium’s neutrality
17Germany invades Belgium G.B. demands they withdrawGermany responds calling treaty,“a scrap of paper”G.B. declares war on Germany (Aug 4, 1914)
18*The Schlieffen PlanGermany’s invasion of Belgium was part of this planGermany had enemies to East & West & did not want to fight a war on both fronts at the same timeBelieved Russia would be slow to mobilize and that they could fight & defeat France (W. Front) first in 6 weeks & then fight Russia on Eastern FrontTHE RACE TO THE SEA!
20French troops marched off shouting, “We’ll be home by Christmas” ExpectationsBoth sides thought the war would be a quick ordeal…Kaiser told his soldiers, “you’ll be home before the leaves have fallen from the trees.”They underestimated the role industrialization would play in this war.French troops marched off shouting, “We’ll be home by Christmas”
21United states in the War LusitaniaZimmerman Telegram
24A picture of soldiers going The British government wanted to encourage men to enlist for war.They said the war would be safe, hardly any fighting, a good lark and over by Christmas.They used advertising posters to encourage this idea!A picture of soldiers going‘Over the Top’
25The reality of ‘going over the top’ was very different!
26Soldiers were expected to carry all of their equipment with them at all times. They were supposed to keep it clean and in good condition – they were British after all.
27How the uniform and equipment changed after just three weeks in the trenches…
28Posters always showed men ready and willing to fight. They never showed the boredom of the trenches or actual fighting taking place.Why do you think the government showed no fighting?What hidden message is in this image?
34The soldiers had very little decent food, and what food they had was often attacked by rats. These rats were the size of small rabbits and badgers because they had fed on the decomposing bodies of dead soldiers.
35WARNING, TRENCH FOOT NASTINESS ON THE NEXT SLIDE!
41German SurrenderOn the 11th Hour of the 11th Day of the 11th Month the war comes to an end (November 11, 1918), as Germany accepts an armistice.Allies meet to discuss a treaty.
42The Treaty of Versailles with Germany The Big Four-all had different allied objectives
43David Lloyd George-Great Britain Prime minister who wanted to expand Britain's Colonial Empire, preserve its naval and industrial supremacy and make Germany pay for the war.
44Georges Clemenceau French Premier Wanted to ensure security against future German invasionWeaken Germany by imposing military limitations, financial payments, and territorial losses.
45Vittorio Orlando Premier of Italy Sought to enlarge Italy's territory in Europe and expand its empire overseas
46Woodrow Wilson President of the United States Sought to provide a just and lasting peace and create a better world by implementing the Fourteen Points*
47*Fourteen Points-Wilson’s Plan for a Lasting Peace 1. Open covenants (treaties) of peace openly arrived at.2. Freedom of the seas3. Removal of international trade barriers (such as tariffs).4. Reduction of armaments5. Impartial adjustment of colonial claims with regard for the interests of native peoples
48Fourteen Points Cont.6-13. Adjustment of European boundaries in accordance with the principle of nationality, that is, the right of any national group to self-determination regarding its own government and independent state.14. Establishment of a League of Nations to handle international disputes.European nations approved of the 14 Points only sparingly because of their nations interests.
49Treaty of VersaillesOf Wilson’s Fourteen Points, only a few were taken seriously.One of them was the League of Nations,What others were taken seriously?
50Differing Views of the Treaty Arguments Against: a harsh treaty that planted the seeds of WWII- The treaty transferred German-inhabited territory, seized all colonies of Germany, and compelled Germany to accept sole war guilt. It forced Germany to be unarmed while other nations remained armed, and it wounded German pride. By attacking the treaty the Nazi party gained support of the German people, achieved power, and brought on WWII.
51Arguments For: A fair treaty that was not enforced The treaty transferred German territory chiefly on the basis of nationality, assigned German colonies as League of Nations mandates with the objective of eventual disarmament, and provided a League of Nations. The treaty alone cannot be blamed for the German people’s support of Nazism. Furthermore, if the military provisions of the treaty had been enforced, Nazi Germany would not have been able to wage war
52Results of WWI-SocialA. almost 10 million soldiers were killed and over 20 million soldiers were woundedB. Millions of civilians died as a result of the hostilities, famine and disease.C. The world was left aflame with hatred, intolerance, and extreme nationalism.D. debt and economic dislocation caused the depression of 1929.
53Political A. The U.S. emerged as a leading world power B. 3 major European powers dethroned- Germans, Austria-Hungary, and RussiaC. New national states arose…Poland and CzechoslovakiaD. League of Nations established to solve international problemsMany European nations turned to dictatorship because of economic and political discontent– Russia, Italy, Germany.
54EconomicA. total cost of the war was 350 billion dollars. Led to heavy taxation of the people of Europe.B. International trade suffered because of increased tariffsC. Russia became communist, thus a new economic system was introduced
81The inevitable war Part I Axis Aggression World War IIThe inevitable warPart IAxis Aggression
821) Invasion of Poland - German invasion of the Polish corridor finally led to a declaration of war by Britain & France2) “phony War” - France & Britain stand by defensively while Germany conquers Poland, Denmark, Norway, Netherlands & Belgium……..
92America’s support role expands 7) Cash & carry - Allies could buy war goods from the US to transport in their own shipsLend-Lease - Allies could buy war goods from US on credit in exchange for leases on military base
93The Atlantic Charter - Churchill and Roosevelt agree on war aims…August 1941
948) Germany invades Balkans - when Mussolini unsuccessfully invades Greece, Hitler has to divert attention to the Balkans to helpGermany takes Hungary, Romania, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria
959) North Africa - Italians and Germans attack French & British holdings in North Africa
96Operation BarbarossaInvasion of the Soviet Union Hitler needs raw materials - oil & grainThree pronged German attack: Leningrad Moscow StalingradStalin responds with scorched earth policy
1062. Battle of Stalingrad - prolonged German offensive Russians hold city against unbelievable oddsRussian counteroffensive encircles entire German 6th army & forces its surrenderBegins Russian offensive
133Now to focus on the Pacific! At Potsdam, the Big Three finalized plans for administration of EuropeGermany & Berlin to be divided into four zones of occupationadministered by Big Three countries plus Francefree elections to be held later for self -determinationNow to focus on the Pacific!
13713. V-J DaySoviet Union declares war on Japan day after Hiroshima bombingJapanese won’t agree to unconditional surrender2nd bomb dropped on Nagasakiunconditional surrender by the Japanese (Sept 2, 1945)
138FEMINISM INTERNATIONAL ROLES CHANGE STATUS OF EQUALITY Why?STATUS OF EQUALITYWORLDWIDE SUFFRAGENEW FEMINISMNOWEqualityRole Rejection
139Definition of the Holocaust Refers to the systematic murder of almost 6 million Jews by the Nazis.Also included the murder of Gypsies, Homosexuals, Jehovah Witnesses, The Disabled, and other people.
140Why did it happen? Traditional anti-Jewish prejudice in Europe. Jews blamed for the betrayal and the death of Christ.Blamed for the Bubonic Plague and other bad things.This prejudice lead to the:Forcing Jews to live in ghettos.Forcing Jews to wear a yellow star for identification.Violence being committed against Jews.
141Why did it happen? The situation in Germany during the 1930s. Great Depression leads to rise of Hitler.Hitler and the Nazis EXTREMELY anti-Jewish.Blame Jews for Germany’s lose in World War I and for the Great Depression. “Scapegoat.”Laws passed in Germany to strip Jewish people of their Civil Rights (Nuremberg Laws).Forced Jews into ghettos and wear the yellow Star of David.Laws passed to strip disabled people of their rights. Forced sterilizations. Murder of sick children.
142Why did it happen? World War II Role of ordinary men and women. Leads to German conquest of large parts of Eastern Europe with large numbers of Jews.Germans in control. With the help of locals, put the“Final Solution” put into effect.Role of ordinary men and women.
143In Germany they first came for the Communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics, and I didn't speak up because I was a Protestant. Then they came for me - and by that time no one was left to speak up.