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World War I A war to end all wars…? World War I- The Great War.

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Presentation on theme: "World War I A war to end all wars…? World War I- The Great War."— Presentation transcript:


2 World War I A war to end all wars…?

3 World War I- The Great War

4 Underlying Causes MANIA Militarism Alliances Nationalism Imperialism Anarchy (international)

5 Militarism: Glorification of War & Military Build up of large reserve armies Mobilization - organize resources for combat (triggers other nations mobilizing) Naval Expansion - William II (GR) fires Bismarck and expands navy – wants to be equal to G.B. (most powerful) – G.B. feels threatened, expands, develops new battleship - Dreadnought

6 Alliances Defense Agreements Among Nations Three Emperors League: (1881) Germany, Russia, Austria-Hungary - doesnt last b/c of A-H rivalry with Russia in Balkans Triple Alliance - (1882) Germany, Italy, Austria- Hungary - attempt to isolate France Triple Entente - (1907) France, Russia, G.B. Entente: Friendly understanding between nations


8 Nationalism Extreme Pride in Ones Nation or Desire to Form a Nation French Nationalists sought revenge against Germany for loss of Alsace- Lorraine Slavic Nationalism - Pan-Slavism: Unify all Slavic people under one empire

9 Imperialism domination of one country by another Germany and France came close to war over control of Morocco Germany wanted to create Berlin to Baghdad Railway - caused resentment among British and Russians – British feared interference with India and reduce traffic thru Suez Canal

10 Anarchy International Anarchy Nations of Europe pursue policies without regard for the wishes of their neighbors Crisis - No international organization to monitor

11 Immediate Causes of WWI Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of A-H (June 28, 1914) by Gavrilo Princip - member of Serbian nationalist group Black Hand

12 Why the Assassination? Ferdinand planned to give Slavs of Bosnia-Herzegovina a voice in the govt equal to that of Austro- Hungarians This threatened the movement for a separate Slavic state

13 What Happens Next? A-H hold Serbians responsible A-H seeks assurance (backup) from Germany in event of war Germany issues Blank Check to A-H – William II gives full support to any actions A-H might take against Serbia

14 Tensions Build!! A-H issues ultimatum (set of final conditions that must be accepted to avoid severe consequences) to Serbia Demands that Serbia allow A-H officials into country to suppress all subversive movements & conduct investigation Gives Serbia 48 hours to agree or face war Serbia does not agree to all parts A-H declares war on Serbia! (July 28, 1914)

15 The Tangled Web of War

16 Declarations of War Germany declares war on Russia (Aug 1, 1914) Germany declares war on France (Aug 3, 1914) Great Britain still hoped to remain neutral and not go to war, but…

17 Germany Invades Belgium! Germany demands passage across Belgium to fight France (*Part of Schlieffen Plan) British protest demand made by Germany upon neutral nation of Belgium – 1839 Treaty signed by G.B., Russia, France & Germany guaranteed Belgiums neutrality

18 Germany invades Belgium G.B. demands they withdraw Germany responds calling treaty, a scrap of paper G.B. declares war on Germany (Aug 4, 1914)

19 *The Schlieffen Plan Germanys invasion of Belgium was part of this plan Germany had enemies to East & West & did not want to fight a war on both fronts at the same time Believed Russia would be slow to mobilize and that they could fight & defeat France (W. Front) first in 6 weeks & then fight Russia on Eastern Front THE RACE TO THE SEA!


21 Expectations Both sides thought the war would be a quick ordeal… Kaiser told his soldiers, youll be home before the leaves have fallen from the trees. They underestimated the role industrialization would play in this war. French troops marched off shouting, Well be home by Christmas

22 United states in the War Lusitania Zimmerman Telegram

23 Life During the War


25 The British government wanted to encourage men to enlist for war. They said the war would be safe, hardly any fighting, a good lark and over by Christmas. They used advertising posters to encourage this idea! A picture of soldiers going Over the Top

26 The reality of going over the top was very different!

27 Soldiers were expected to carry all of their equipment with them at all times. They were supposed to keep it clean and in good condition – they were British after all.

28 How the uniform and equipment changed after just three weeks in the trenches…

29 Posters always showed men ready and willing to fight. They never showed the boredom of the trenches or actual fighting taking place. Why do you think the government showed no fighting? What hidden message is in this image?


31 No smiling and relaxed faces… No clean uniforms… Their equipment is scattered everywhere… Boredom and sleep are obvious…




35 The soldiers had very little decent food, and what food they had was often attacked by rats. These rats were the size of small rabbits and badgers because they had fed on the decomposing bodies of dead soldiers.






41 WWI Comes to an End

42 German Surrender On the 11 th Hour of the 11 th Day of the 11 th Month the war comes to an end (November 11, 1918), as Germany accepts an armistice. Allies meet to discuss a treaty.

43 The Treaty of Versailles with Germany The Big Four-all had different allied objectives

44 David Lloyd George-Great Britain Prime minister who wanted to expand Britain's Colonial Empire, preserve its naval and industrial supremacy and make Germany pay for the war.

45 Georges Clemenceau French Premier Wanted to ensure security against future German invasion Weaken Germany by imposing military limitations, financial payments, and territorial losses.

46 Vittorio Orlando Premier of Italy Sought to enlarge Italy's territory in Europe and expand its empire overseas

47 Woodrow Wilson President of the United States Sought to provide a just and lasting peace and create a better world by implementing the Fourteen Points*

48 *Fourteen Points-Wilsons Plan for a Lasting Peace 1. Open covenants (treaties) of peace openly arrived at. 2. Freedom of the seas 3. Removal of international trade barriers (such as tariffs). 4. Reduction of armaments 5. Impartial adjustment of colonial claims with regard for the interests of native peoples

49 Fourteen Points Cont Adjustment of European boundaries in accordance with the principle of nationality, that is, the right of any national group to self- determination regarding its own government and independent state. 14. Establishment of a League of Nations to handle international disputes. European nations approved of the 14 Points only sparingly because of their nations interests.

50 Treaty of Versailles Of Wilsons Fourteen Points, only a few were taken seriously. One of them was the League of Nations, What others were taken seriously?

51 Differing Views of the Treaty Arguments Against: a harsh treaty that planted the seeds of WWII- The treaty transferred German-inhabited territory, seized all colonies of Germany, and compelled Germany to accept sole war guilt. It forced Germany to be unarmed while other nations remained armed, and it wounded German pride. By attacking the treaty the Nazi party gained support of the German people, achieved power, and brought on WWII.

52 Arguments For: A fair treaty that was not enforced The treaty transferred German territory chiefly on the basis of nationality, assigned German colonies as League of Nations mandates with the objective of eventual disarmament, and provided a League of Nations. The treaty alone cannot be blamed for the German peoples support of Nazism. Furthermore, if the military provisions of the treaty had been enforced, Nazi Germany would not have been able to wage war

53 Results of WWI-Social A. almost 10 million soldiers were killed and over 20 million soldiers were wounded B. Millions of civilians died as a result of the hostilities, famine and disease. C. The world was left aflame with hatred, intolerance, and extreme nationalism. D. debt and economic dislocation caused the depression of 1929.

54 Political A. The U.S. emerged as a leading world power B. 3 major European powers dethroned- Germans, Austria-Hungary, and Russia C. New national states arose…Poland and Czechoslovakia D. League of Nations established to solve international problems Many European nations turned to dictatorship because of economic and political discontent– Russia, Italy, Germany.

55 Economic A. total cost of the war was 350 billion dollars. Led to heavy taxation of the people of Europe. B. International trade suffered because of increased tariffs C. Russia became communist, thus a new economic system was introduced


57 League of Nations

58 Destruction

59 Famine Russia

60 unemployment

61 German money so worthless they burn it to keep warm

62 GlamourThe Charleston

63 Louis Armstrong - Jazz

64 Silent movies


66 Picasso - cubism

67 Rise of fascism in Italy - Benito Mussolini

68 Dictators between the Wars Stalin Hitler Mussolini

69 1930s World-Wide Depression

70 Unemployment & Food lines

71 Walking over the League

72 Hitler (Der Führer) & Nazis come to power in Germany

73 Nazi book burnings

74 Francisco Franco - fascist Spain

75 German annexation of Austria

76 Concentration Camps Established - Dachau

77 Chamberlain and Daladier

78 Sudetenland falls to Hitler

79 Anti-semitism

80 Kristallnacht businesses destroyed

81 Nazi - Soviet Non- Aggression Pact Molotov & Ribbentrop sign pact

82 World War II The inevitable war Part I Axis Aggression

83 1) Invasion of Poland - German invasion of the Polish corridor finally led to a declaration of war by Britain & France 2) phony War - France & Britain stand by defensively while Germany conquers Poland, Denmark, Norway, Netherlands & Belgium……..

84 Invasion of Poland

85 Occupied Warsaw

86 3) Dunkirk - French & British troops trapped by Germanys rapid advance through France are evacuated to Britain

87 Blitzkrieg……...

88 Dunkirk after evacuation

89 France surrenders…… 4) Vichy Regime - S. France which became a fascist collaborating puppet government N. France occupied by Germany

90 Armistice signed in the same train car...

91 6) Battle of Britain - Germany began a massive bombing campaign to demoralize the British RAF successfully defended - radar!

92 British bomb shelter

93 Americas support role expands 7) Cash & carry - Allies could buy war goods from the US to transport in their own ships Lend-Lease - Allies could buy war goods from US on credit in exchange for leases on military base

94 The Atlantic Charter - Churchill and Roosevelt agree on war aims…August 1941

95 8) Germany invades Balkans - when Mussolini unsuccessfully invades Greece, Hitler has to divert attention to the Balkans to help Germany takes Hungary, Romania, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria

96 9) North Africa - Italians and Germans attack French & British holdings in North Africa

97 Operation Barbarossa Invasion of the Soviet Union - Hitler needs raw materials - oil & grain Three pronged German attack: Leningrad Moscow Stalingrad Stalin responds with scorched earth policy

98 Leningrad Moscow Stalingrad

99 Germans invade Russia (contradiction of previous treaty)

100 Japanese in Asia - Japan moves to take Dutch & French colonial holdings US responds with trade embargo against Japan

101 Pearl Harbor - Japanese bombers attacked US Pacific fleet based in Hawaii sank battleships…but aircraft carriers were not at port!

102 Destroyed US battleships...

103 BELLIGERENTS ……... Axis: Germany Italy Japan Allies: Great Britain Soviet Union (Russia) United States govts in exile - Free French The Axis Powers seem invincible!

104 World War II The Inevitable War Part II Allied Advance

105 Gradual gains for the allies 1. The Bismarck - unsinkable new German battleship British sink it - ends German ability to dominate the Atlantic with surface ships

106 The Battleship Bismarck

107 2. Battle of Stalingrad - prolonged German offensive Russians hold city against unbelievable odds Russian counteroffensive encircles entire German 6th army & forces its surrender Begins Russian offensive

108 Trapped German 6th army

109 3. German advance in North Africa……..

110 Erwin Rommel - the Desert Fox

111 Halted by British and American Tanks in North Africa…...

112 British General Bernard Montgomery Monty

113 British troops advance at 3. El Alamein

114 Germans & Italians surrender in North Africa

115 4. Allied invasion of Italy Allies launch invasion of Sicily from North Africa Mussolini is denounced and arrested by Italian government Italy announces declaration of war against Germany

116 Mussolini & mistress

117 5. American Victories in the Pacific Battle of Midway - Americans sink Japanese aircraft carriers Americans begin island leapfrogging Japanese kamikazes -

118 Battle of Midway

119 Kamikaze about to hit Intrepid

120 6. D-Day June 6, 1944 American led Allied forces launch a surprise invasion of German-occupied France at Normandy

121 paratroopers

122 Germans expect landing at Calais

123 Transport ships ferried troops for the largest amphibious attack in history high casualties

124 7. Allied Drive from West

125 Allied paratroopers land in the Netherlands- largest ever

126 German counteroffensive in the Ardennes The Battle of the Bulge

127 8. Soviet Drive from East Supported by industry beyond the Ural Mountains Soviets Drive towards Berlin The Soviets reach Berlin FIRST

128 9. Yalta ChurchillRoosevelt Stalin

129 The Big Three agree that: Germany would be divided. Part of Poland would go to the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union would declare war on Japan two to three months after defeating Germany.

130 10. V-E DAY Montgomery presides over German Surrender

131 Germans sign unconditional surrender War in Europe is over! (May 8, 1945)

132 11. Potsdam

133 New Big Three Stalin (still there) Clement Attlee (replaced Churchill) Harry Truman (replaced Roosevelt)

134 Now to focus on the Pacific ! At Potsdam, the Big Three finalized plans for administration of Europe Germany & Berlin to be divided into four zones of occupation administered by Big Three countries plus France free elections to be held later for self -determination

135 12. Hiroshima/Nagasaki Little Boy and Fat Man

136 Devastation Innocents

137 Nagasaki

138 13. V-J Day Soviet Union declares war on Japan day after Hiroshima bombing Japanese wont agree to unconditional surrender 2nd bomb dropped on Nagasaki unconditional surrender by the Japanese (Sept 2, 1945)


140 Definition of the Holocaust Refers to the systematic murder of almost 6 million Jews by the Nazis. Also included the murder of Gypsies, Homosexuals, Jehovah Witnesses, The Disabled, and other people.

141 Why did it happen? Traditional anti-Jewish prejudice in Europe. – Jews blamed for the betrayal and the death of Christ. – Blamed for the Bubonic Plague and other bad things. – This prejudice lead to the: Forcing Jews to live in ghettos. Forcing Jews to wear a yellow star for identification. Violence being committed against Jews.

142 Why did it happen? The situation in Germany during the 1930s. – Great Depression leads to rise of Hitler. – Hitler and the Nazis EXTREMELY anti-Jewish. – Blame Jews for Germanys lose in World War I and for the Great Depression. Scapegoat. – Laws passed in Germany to strip Jewish people of their Civil Rights (Nuremberg Laws). – Forced Jews into ghettos and wear the yellow Star of David. – Laws passed to strip disabled people of their rights. Forced sterilizations. Murder of sick children.

143 Why did it happen? World War II – Leads to German conquest of large parts of Eastern Europe with large numbers of Jews. – Germans in control. With the help of locals, put theFinal Solution put into effect. Role of ordinary men and women.

144 In Germany they first came for the Communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics, and I didn't speak up because I was a Protestant. Then they came for me - and by that time no one was left to speak up.

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