Militarism: Glorification of War & Military Build up of large reserve armies Mobilization - organize resources for combat (triggers other nations mobilizing) Naval Expansion - William II (GR) fires Bismarck and expands navy – wants to be equal to G.B. (most powerful) – G.B. feels threatened, expands, develops new battleship - Dreadnought
Alliances Defense Agreements Among Nations Three Emperors League: (1881) Germany, Russia, Austria-Hungary - doesnt last b/c of A-H rivalry with Russia in Balkans Triple Alliance - (1882) Germany, Italy, Austria- Hungary - attempt to isolate France Triple Entente - (1907) France, Russia, G.B. Entente: Friendly understanding between nations
Nationalism Extreme Pride in Ones Nation or Desire to Form a Nation French Nationalists sought revenge against Germany for loss of Alsace- Lorraine Slavic Nationalism - Pan-Slavism: Unify all Slavic people under one empire
Imperialism domination of one country by another Germany and France came close to war over control of Morocco Germany wanted to create Berlin to Baghdad Railway - caused resentment among British and Russians – British feared interference with India and reduce traffic thru Suez Canal
Anarchy International Anarchy Nations of Europe pursue policies without regard for the wishes of their neighbors Crisis - No international organization to monitor
Immediate Causes of WWI Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of A-H (June 28, 1914) by Gavrilo Princip - member of Serbian nationalist group Black Hand
Why the Assassination? Ferdinand planned to give Slavs of Bosnia-Herzegovina a voice in the govt equal to that of Austro- Hungarians This threatened the movement for a separate Slavic state
What Happens Next? A-H hold Serbians responsible A-H seeks assurance (backup) from Germany in event of war Germany issues Blank Check to A-H – William II gives full support to any actions A-H might take against Serbia
Tensions Build!! A-H issues ultimatum (set of final conditions that must be accepted to avoid severe consequences) to Serbia Demands that Serbia allow A-H officials into country to suppress all subversive movements & conduct investigation Gives Serbia 48 hours to agree or face war Serbia does not agree to all parts A-H declares war on Serbia! (July 28, 1914)
The Tangled Web of War
Declarations of War Germany declares war on Russia (Aug 1, 1914) Germany declares war on France (Aug 3, 1914) Great Britain still hoped to remain neutral and not go to war, but…
Germany Invades Belgium! Germany demands passage across Belgium to fight France (*Part of Schlieffen Plan) British protest demand made by Germany upon neutral nation of Belgium – 1839 Treaty signed by G.B., Russia, France & Germany guaranteed Belgiums neutrality
Germany invades Belgium G.B. demands they withdraw Germany responds calling treaty, a scrap of paper G.B. declares war on Germany (Aug 4, 1914)
*The Schlieffen Plan Germanys invasion of Belgium was part of this plan Germany had enemies to East & West & did not want to fight a war on both fronts at the same time Believed Russia would be slow to mobilize and that they could fight & defeat France (W. Front) first in 6 weeks & then fight Russia on Eastern Front THE RACE TO THE SEA!
Expectations Both sides thought the war would be a quick ordeal… Kaiser told his soldiers, youll be home before the leaves have fallen from the trees. They underestimated the role industrialization would play in this war. French troops marched off shouting, Well be home by Christmas
United states in the War Lusitania Zimmerman Telegram
Life During the War
The British government wanted to encourage men to enlist for war. They said the war would be safe, hardly any fighting, a good lark and over by Christmas. They used advertising posters to encourage this idea! A picture of soldiers going Over the Top
The reality of going over the top was very different!
Soldiers were expected to carry all of their equipment with them at all times. They were supposed to keep it clean and in good condition – they were British after all.
How the uniform and equipment changed after just three weeks in the trenches…
Posters always showed men ready and willing to fight. They never showed the boredom of the trenches or actual fighting taking place. Why do you think the government showed no fighting? What hidden message is in this image?
No smiling and relaxed faces… No clean uniforms… Their equipment is scattered everywhere… Boredom and sleep are obvious…
The soldiers had very little decent food, and what food they had was often attacked by rats. These rats were the size of small rabbits and badgers because they had fed on the decomposing bodies of dead soldiers.
WARNING, TRENCH FOOT NASTINESS ON THE NEXT SLIDE!
WWI Comes to an End
German Surrender On the 11 th Hour of the 11 th Day of the 11 th Month the war comes to an end (November 11, 1918), as Germany accepts an armistice. Allies meet to discuss a treaty.
The Treaty of Versailles with Germany The Big Four-all had different allied objectives
David Lloyd George-Great Britain Prime minister who wanted to expand Britain's Colonial Empire, preserve its naval and industrial supremacy and make Germany pay for the war.
Georges Clemenceau French Premier Wanted to ensure security against future German invasion Weaken Germany by imposing military limitations, financial payments, and territorial losses.
Vittorio Orlando Premier of Italy Sought to enlarge Italy's territory in Europe and expand its empire overseas
Woodrow Wilson President of the United States Sought to provide a just and lasting peace and create a better world by implementing the Fourteen Points*
*Fourteen Points-Wilsons Plan for a Lasting Peace 1. Open covenants (treaties) of peace openly arrived at. 2. Freedom of the seas 3. Removal of international trade barriers (such as tariffs). 4. Reduction of armaments 5. Impartial adjustment of colonial claims with regard for the interests of native peoples
Fourteen Points Cont Adjustment of European boundaries in accordance with the principle of nationality, that is, the right of any national group to self- determination regarding its own government and independent state. 14. Establishment of a League of Nations to handle international disputes. European nations approved of the 14 Points only sparingly because of their nations interests.
Treaty of Versailles Of Wilsons Fourteen Points, only a few were taken seriously. One of them was the League of Nations, What others were taken seriously?
Differing Views of the Treaty Arguments Against: a harsh treaty that planted the seeds of WWII- The treaty transferred German-inhabited territory, seized all colonies of Germany, and compelled Germany to accept sole war guilt. It forced Germany to be unarmed while other nations remained armed, and it wounded German pride. By attacking the treaty the Nazi party gained support of the German people, achieved power, and brought on WWII.
Arguments For: A fair treaty that was not enforced The treaty transferred German territory chiefly on the basis of nationality, assigned German colonies as League of Nations mandates with the objective of eventual disarmament, and provided a League of Nations. The treaty alone cannot be blamed for the German peoples support of Nazism. Furthermore, if the military provisions of the treaty had been enforced, Nazi Germany would not have been able to wage war
Results of WWI-Social A. almost 10 million soldiers were killed and over 20 million soldiers were wounded B. Millions of civilians died as a result of the hostilities, famine and disease. C. The world was left aflame with hatred, intolerance, and extreme nationalism. D. debt and economic dislocation caused the depression of 1929.
Political A. The U.S. emerged as a leading world power B. 3 major European powers dethroned- Germans, Austria-Hungary, and Russia C. New national states arose…Poland and Czechoslovakia D. League of Nations established to solve international problems Many European nations turned to dictatorship because of economic and political discontent– Russia, Italy, Germany.
Economic A. total cost of the war was 350 billion dollars. Led to heavy taxation of the people of Europe. B. International trade suffered because of increased tariffs C. Russia became communist, thus a new economic system was introduced
League of Nations
German money so worthless they burn it to keep warm
Louis Armstrong - Jazz
Picasso - cubism
Rise of fascism in Italy - Benito Mussolini
Dictators between the Wars Stalin Hitler Mussolini
1930s World-Wide Depression
Unemployment & Food lines
Walking over the League
Hitler (Der Führer) & Nazis come to power in Germany
World War II The inevitable war Part I Axis Aggression
1) Invasion of Poland - German invasion of the Polish corridor finally led to a declaration of war by Britain & France 2) phony War - France & Britain stand by defensively while Germany conquers Poland, Denmark, Norway, Netherlands & Belgium……..
Invasion of Poland
3) Dunkirk - French & British troops trapped by Germanys rapid advance through France are evacuated to Britain
Dunkirk after evacuation
France surrenders…… 4) Vichy Regime - S. France which became a fascist collaborating puppet government N. France occupied by Germany
Armistice signed in the same train car...
6) Battle of Britain - Germany began a massive bombing campaign to demoralize the British RAF successfully defended - radar!
British bomb shelter
Americas support role expands 7) Cash & carry - Allies could buy war goods from the US to transport in their own ships Lend-Lease - Allies could buy war goods from US on credit in exchange for leases on military base
The Atlantic Charter - Churchill and Roosevelt agree on war aims…August 1941
8) Germany invades Balkans - when Mussolini unsuccessfully invades Greece, Hitler has to divert attention to the Balkans to help Germany takes Hungary, Romania, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria
9) North Africa - Italians and Germans attack French & British holdings in North Africa
Operation Barbarossa Invasion of the Soviet Union - Hitler needs raw materials - oil & grain Three pronged German attack: Leningrad Moscow Stalingrad Stalin responds with scorched earth policy
Leningrad Moscow Stalingrad
Germans invade Russia (contradiction of previous treaty)
Japanese in Asia - Japan moves to take Dutch & French colonial holdings US responds with trade embargo against Japan
Pearl Harbor - Japanese bombers attacked US Pacific fleet based in Hawaii sank battleships…but aircraft carriers were not at port!
Destroyed US battleships...
BELLIGERENTS ……... Axis: Germany Italy Japan Allies: Great Britain Soviet Union (Russia) United States govts in exile - Free French The Axis Powers seem invincible!
World War II The Inevitable War Part II Allied Advance
Gradual gains for the allies 1. The Bismarck - unsinkable new German battleship British sink it - ends German ability to dominate the Atlantic with surface ships
The Battleship Bismarck
2. Battle of Stalingrad - prolonged German offensive Russians hold city against unbelievable odds Russian counteroffensive encircles entire German 6th army & forces its surrender Begins Russian offensive
Trapped German 6th army
3. German advance in North Africa……..
Erwin Rommel - the Desert Fox
Halted by British and American Tanks in North Africa…...
British General Bernard Montgomery Monty
British troops advance at 3. El Alamein
Germans & Italians surrender in North Africa
4. Allied invasion of Italy Allies launch invasion of Sicily from North Africa Mussolini is denounced and arrested by Italian government Italy announces declaration of war against Germany
Mussolini & mistress
5. American Victories in the Pacific Battle of Midway - Americans sink Japanese aircraft carriers Americans begin island leapfrogging Japanese kamikazes -
Battle of Midway
Kamikaze about to hit Intrepid
6. D-Day June 6, 1944 American led Allied forces launch a surprise invasion of German-occupied France at Normandy
Germans expect landing at Calais
Transport ships ferried troops for the largest amphibious attack in history high casualties
7. Allied Drive from West
Allied paratroopers land in the Netherlands- largest ever
German counteroffensive in the Ardennes The Battle of the Bulge
8. Soviet Drive from East Supported by industry beyond the Ural Mountains Soviets Drive towards Berlin The Soviets reach Berlin FIRST
9. Yalta ChurchillRoosevelt Stalin
The Big Three agree that: Germany would be divided. Part of Poland would go to the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union would declare war on Japan two to three months after defeating Germany.
10. V-E DAY Montgomery presides over German Surrender
Germans sign unconditional surrender War in Europe is over! (May 8, 1945)
New Big Three Stalin (still there) Clement Attlee (replaced Churchill) Harry Truman (replaced Roosevelt)
Now to focus on the Pacific ! At Potsdam, the Big Three finalized plans for administration of Europe Germany & Berlin to be divided into four zones of occupation administered by Big Three countries plus France free elections to be held later for self -determination
12. Hiroshima/Nagasaki Little Boy and Fat Man
13. V-J Day Soviet Union declares war on Japan day after Hiroshima bombing Japanese wont agree to unconditional surrender 2nd bomb dropped on Nagasaki unconditional surrender by the Japanese (Sept 2, 1945)
FEMINISM INTERNATIONAL INTERNATIONAL ROLES CHANGE ROLES CHANGE – Why? STATUS OF EQUALITY STATUS OF EQUALITY WORLDWIDE SUFFRAGE WORLDWIDE SUFFRAGE – age age age NEW FEMINISM NEW FEMINISM – NOW – Equality – Role Rejection
Definition of the Holocaust Refers to the systematic murder of almost 6 million Jews by the Nazis. Also included the murder of Gypsies, Homosexuals, Jehovah Witnesses, The Disabled, and other people.
Why did it happen? Traditional anti-Jewish prejudice in Europe. – Jews blamed for the betrayal and the death of Christ. – Blamed for the Bubonic Plague and other bad things. – This prejudice lead to the: Forcing Jews to live in ghettos. Forcing Jews to wear a yellow star for identification. Violence being committed against Jews.
Why did it happen? The situation in Germany during the 1930s. – Great Depression leads to rise of Hitler. – Hitler and the Nazis EXTREMELY anti-Jewish. – Blame Jews for Germanys lose in World War I and for the Great Depression. Scapegoat. – Laws passed in Germany to strip Jewish people of their Civil Rights (Nuremberg Laws). – Forced Jews into ghettos and wear the yellow Star of David. – Laws passed to strip disabled people of their rights. Forced sterilizations. Murder of sick children.
Why did it happen? World War II – Leads to German conquest of large parts of Eastern Europe with large numbers of Jews. – Germans in control. With the help of locals, put theFinal Solution put into effect. Role of ordinary men and women.
In Germany they first came for the Communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics, and I didn't speak up because I was a Protestant. Then they came for me - and by that time no one was left to speak up.