Presentation on theme: "Evolving Concepts in CNS/ATM"— Presentation transcript:
1 Evolving Concepts in CNS/ATM Mr. John McGraw, FAA20th Annual JAA/FAA International ConferenceIceland, May 29-June 3, 2003
2 Overview RTSP Concept CNS/ATM (r)Evolution COM, SUR, NAV Capstone - Implementing ChangeRequired Total System Performance (RTSP) Concept and the Fundamental elements ofCommunications, Navigation, Surveillance and Air Traffic ManagmenetThe (r) evoltution of CNS/ATM- How today’s technologies driving tomorrow’s implementationExamine CNS/ATM with the Focus on Performance and the Navigation elementPresent one example of how CNS/ATM improvements have been implemented to date.
3 "Performance Based" R T S P COM RCP NAV RNP SUR RSP ATM REQUIRED TOTAL SYSTEM PERFORMANCENAVRNPSURRSPATMDefining the elements of a performance based system we evaluate:Communications – Required Communication PerformanceNavigation – Required Navigation PerformanceSurveillance – Required Surveillance PerformanceAir Traffic Management – Air Navigation Service Provider/Air Traffic Service Provider/intervention/etc.When consider collectively, these elements form the concept of RTSP, required total system performanceBalance between Aircraft-ATS RequirementsCredit for systems and capabilitiesSavings for ANSP - Reduced Infrastructure Requirements6
4 Promoting International Harmonization CNS/ATM (r)EvolutionToday:RNAVRNPRVSMFANSVDL 1, 2, 4ADS-A & BACARSMode S, UATWhat are we doing in CNS/ATM today?1. Development of the RNAV Rule for the US NAS – changing avionics requirements, changing how we define airspace and routes2. Capstone in Alaska – Building a useable IFR infrastructure, Current Operations limited to VFR- WAAS – primary Nav, ADS-B - ATC surveillance, Multilateration, NASA terrain data/displayRoute structure – past was limited by traditional ground based navaids, WAAS permits “optimized” route structure and lower MEA’s. It has brought about the FAA’s Data link decision – ADS-B uplink using 1090 MHz Extended Squitter (1090ES) and Universal Access Transceiver (UAT)3. International Perspective - Flight standards is proactive in support numerous ICAO Panels and Working Groups, including the Global Navigation Satellite System Panel, the Obstacle Clearance Panel, The Separation and Airspace Safety Panel, the Operations Panel, and the Aeronautical Communications Panel. We recognize the importance of the shared responsibility of fostering global harmonization within the international airspace system.We recognize the proactive work New Zealand has undertaken – codifying the use of GPS, hosting ICAO panel and work group meetings, etc.Where should this lead us, globally4D using Time Of Arrival Control (TAOC)ATN – a common aeronautical Telecommunications NetworkAccess to airspace and or operations based on aircraft capabilities and services providedDynamic airspaceWhat must we be mindful of avoiding divergent paths, example – COM VDL-3 vs VDL-4Promoting International HarmonizationAvoiding divergent paths in CommunicationsPromoting convergence in Navigation and Surveillance
5 Communication ADS-B Link Decision July 1, two ADS-B Technologies1090 Extended SquitterFor high altitude airspaceFor airspace principally used by domestic and commercial aircraftSARPS and MOPS exist for 1090 ESUATGA not capable of high altitude flightIf 1090ES alone cannot meet long-term goals, UAT provides a complimentary serviceTIS-B on 1090 uplinkReports for non-ADS-B and UAT equipped aircraftUAT – Cheaper than Mode – SAdds some additional capability – integration of FIS w/UAT
6 NEXCOM “Transition to Digital Communications” Next 5 years5-10 years10-15 years15-20 yearsEnroute High AirspaceDem/ValVDL-3 LinkVDL-2 Datalink0101RCAGAnalogVoiceARTCC01010National AirspaceAFSSEvolutionary step towards end-to-end digital A/G communicationsCPDLCUS Pushing for 8.33 MHzTerminalAirspaceAnalog Voice, 25 KHzInitial Datalink (VDL-2)Full Operational Evaluation & Exercise of Digital Voice and Datalink (VDL-3)Maintain Terminal Analog VoiceImplement VDL-3 Digital VoiceExpand Datalink VDL-2 ApplicationsExpand Enroute Digital Voice (VDL-3)Initiate Terminal Digital Voice (VDL-3)Increase Datalink Capacity & Capability (VDL-2 & VDL-3)Expand Digital Voice (VDL-3) to all domainsExpand Datalink Capacity in all domains and all applications (VDL-2 & VDL-3)
8 AC on Airworthiness and Operational Approval of Surveillance Joint Aircraft Certification and Flight Standards Advisory CircularProvides an airworthiness to operational approval road mapDesign approval guidance for appliance and installationSystem safety assessmentHazard classification and RTCA DO-178B software levelAir/Ground interoperability requirementsSystem validation testsAircraft ground and flight testOperational approval process for applicationsOperational safety assessmentTraining requirements
9 AC on Airworthiness and Operational Approval of Surveillance (cont) Provide guidelines on the design approval of certain aircraft surveillance functions:CDTI symbol set and human factorsTCAS II , CDTI and ADS-B target correlationAirport Surface Situational Awareness (ASSA)Traffic Information Service (TIS)Integrated conflict detection systemsSurveillance display guidance for a Multiple Function DisplayADS-A position reports for oceanic/remote operations1090 MHz data link transpondersUniversal Asynchronous Transceiver data link transpondersAC AAC 90-RNPAC A
10 Surveillance AC Schedule January 21, 2003April 30, 2003December 30, 2003March 15, 2004May 31, 2004July 28, 2004Begin initial draft advisory circularBegin AIR-130/AFS 400 formal reviewClearance record signoffPublish document in the Federal RegisterDisposition commentsPublished Approved AC
11 RVSM Implemented & Planned As of May 2003 Canada North4/02Canada South1/05Europe 1/02Domestic US1/05NAT 3/97Mid East11/03Pacific2/00Pacific2/00EUR/SAMCorridor 1/02WATRS 11/01Asia/EuropeSouth of Himalayas 11/ 03**Western PacificSouth China Sea2/02CAR/SAM2005Australia11/01Most of the world is presently operating as RVSM and as you can see the entire western hemisphere is planned to implement at one time.NAT = North AtlanticSAM = South AmericaWATRS = Western AtlanticCAR = Caribbean** Western Pacific/South China SeaFebruary Implementation Bangkok, Ho Chi Minh, Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur, Manila, Phnom Penh, Sanya, Singapore, TaipeiOctober Implementation Hanoi, Hong Kong, Jakarta, Ujung Pandang, VientianeImplementedPlannedV
12 PROGRAM ELEMENTSAircraft and Operators authorized by the administrator or… for non-US operators/aircraft, the appropriate authorityAircraft altimetry, autopilot, and altitude alert system modified, as necessary to RVSM standardsRVSM policy and procedures incorporated into controller, pilot, and dispatch programsAir Traffic systems and programs revised
13 PROGRAM ELEMENTS (cont) MONITORING:Aircraft altitude keeping observed to confirm performance standards are being metGround and airborne monitoring systems used to independently monitor aircraft performance3-5 Aircraft Geometric Measurement Element Clusters (AGHME) are being sitedSAFETY ANALYSIS:Is being conducted on accepted Collision Risk Modeling Practices (ICAO Doc v2)Completion by June 2004GHMEC – simila to GMU
14 RVSM CONCLUSIONImplement DRVSM from FL290-FL410 in the airspace of the United States, Alaska, the Gulf of Mexico where the FAA provides air traffic services and possibly the San Juan FIR.The United States, Canada, and Mexico are planning a joint implementation of RVSM.DRVSM is proposed to be implemented onJanuary 20, UTC.
15 PA; LNAV; BARO VNAV; RNAV; NPA; GPS CNS - Navigation2010?2015?Vertical RNP4-D TOACThe Future2025?SurveillanceCommunication2005?2003GLS/MLS/ILSRNPSimultaneous RNPTomorrowTo address efficiency issues, we need to address Communications, Navigation and Surveillance (CNS), Air Traffic Management (ATM), and their interrelationships.Today’s focus is on NavigationRNP is a fundamental requirement, promotes the transition to “performance based” airspace,- Navigation is the easiest of the triad to solve. . .- Globally . . .promotes harmonization of capabilitiesHere is a timeline of expected capability gains for today, tomorrow and to define a path for the futureTOAC – Time of Arrival ControlDone2002LPV/WAASRNAVRNPTodayPA; LNAV; BARO VNAV; RNAV; NPA; GPS
16 Special Procedures Capturing Performance Benefits & Promoting Safety RNP for Departure and Approach Enhanced Airport Capacity, Destination Access, SafetySafe 3-D Path to each Rwyand a safe path back outUser Driven Safety BenefitsNo “Dive and Drive”For Air TransportUser driven safety benefits – no dive and drive for Air Transport aircraft; however, dive and drive can still be used for General Aviation, where it supports lower approach minima.Performance is use to promote access to an airport/airspace; and, promotes safety through increased operational requirements that support special procedures.Special Procedures Capturing Performance Benefits & Promoting Safety
17 New York Traffic Flow Proposal LaGuardia vs KennedyThis video provides an example of using tailoring aircraft performance to increase traffic flow efficiency and eliminate constraints caused by the close proximity of airports.
18 Performance as an Enabler Example: Use of RNP Based Arrival and Departure Paths for Dynamic WX AvoidanceATM/CDM Adjusted WPsRNP: A specification for the navigation performance necessary for a particular airspace, area, route, procedure or operation. RNP can be applied to all domains – en route and terminal airspace, and for instrument approach procedures. Currently we are using RNP in airspace and for procedures ranging from Oceanic RNP-10 authorizations to RNP 0.3 approaches.Can be applied to lateral or longitudinal performance, eventually will include vertical performanceConsider this Weather picture from Atlanta (actual event on 8/4/96) – graphic will show dynamic paths in and out of ATLUltimately RNP could be used (along with other CNS/ATM elements to negotiate dynamic paths through weather and fixed terrain, noise and/or adjacent airspace constraints – should be part of Collaborative Decision Making (CDM) concept between ATSP and Operations. Once negotiated and contracted, performance enables dynamic path around constraintsGoal:ATM/CDM Integration ,Dynamic/Flexible Airspace, &System Efficiencies e.g. Weather Avoidance
19 Complex procedures that match aircraft capabilities to the business case Alaska Airlines pioneered the application of complex approaches based on RNP. Further, Alaska has capitalized in matching their current aircraft capabilities to meeting their business case. In these trying economic times, we as regulators must be responsive to the needs of our users.19
20 Capstone Phase II…. Phase II “Usable IFR Infrastructure” Terrain (TAWS compliant)Traffic (CDTI using ADS-B)Weather (AWSS, AFSS, FIS)Flight Locating (J Hopkins USkysource, Flt. Explorer, etc)“Usable IFR Infrastructure”CommunicationsATC and AFSSNavigationSFAR, AIM, Guidance materialGPS/WAAS AvionicsRNAV/GPS Route StructureSurveillanceUAT (Mops compliant ADS-B)JuneauSitkaKetchikanYakutatInvestment in SafetyFAA Alaska RegionAWSS – Automatic WeatherAFSS – Automated Flight Service StationSFAR was to permit use in environment with low level infrastructure.
21 Navigation: Phase II Avionics EquipmentMulti-Function and Primary Flight Displays (MFD and PFD)Universal Access Transceiver (UAT)VFR & IFR ServicesGPS+FDE/WAAS(TSO-C145/6)Terrain Awareness and Warning System (TAWS)Automatic Dependant Surveillance- Broadcast (ADS-B, CDTI)Flight Information Service-Broadcast (FIS-B)Traffic Information Service-Broadcast (TIS-B)
22 Chelton Certification Chelton avionics certification “before and after” University of Alaska C-172 provisional STC installation
23 TSO-145/146 WAAS FDE RAIM Layered Failure Modes GPS RAIM DR Legacy Primary WAAS Benefit (increased access) derived from L-NAV CapabilityPrimary (sole) means, only radionavigation equipment required on aircraftClass Iall airspaceFDERAIMLayered Failure ModesPrimary (sole) meansClass II oceanic and remote airspaceGPS RAIMSupplementalDRTSO-129LegacyVOR/NDBVFRTSO-145/146 Capstone
24 Communications: ATC Voice Coverage @ 2000ft Comm Gaps- Coastal (Yakutat-Sitka)- Lynn Canal/Icy Bay- Stephens PassageCape SpencerProposed RCAG Comm sitesCape SpencerMt Rbt. BarronGunnukBenefitsDirect voice communication with ATC at new RNAV route altitudesMt Rbt BarronGunnukRCAG – Remote Communication Air/GroundCurrent RCAGProposed RCAG
25 Navigation: RNAV Structure RNAV/GPS MEAs on Existing RoutesApproach/Departure RNAV ProceduresFAF4000 ftAT coordination (e.g., airspace and automation integration) (AAL-500 / ZAN / ATP / NATCA) - Oct 02Operational guidance (e.g., SFAR, OpSpecs, NOTAM, AIM, AK Supplement, Inspector handbook) (AFS-400) - Oct 02Review “Specials” (AFS-420) - Aug 02 - special aircrew training required, special aircraft and equipment performance required, flight procedures standard waiver for obstacle, Category A&B aircraft onlyGUMLECIBIXFAFJIGMIFAF2500 ft
26 Surveillance: ADS-B (& FIS-B) Coverage Current RadarInitial 14 Ground Broadcast Transceiver (GBT) SitesCoverage1000 ft3000 ft
27 Thoughts for Tomorrow RVSM Performance-Based Airspace System Database IntegrityElectronic Flight Bag