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Evolving Concepts in CNS/ATM

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Presentation on theme: "Evolving Concepts in CNS/ATM"— Presentation transcript:

1 Evolving Concepts in CNS/ATM
Mr. John McGraw, FAA 20th Annual JAA/FAA International Conference Iceland, May 29-June 3, 2003

2 Overview RTSP Concept CNS/ATM (r)Evolution COM, SUR, NAV
Capstone - Implementing Change Required Total System Performance (RTSP) Concept and the Fundamental elements of Communications, Navigation, Surveillance and Air Traffic Managmenet The (r) evoltution of CNS/ATM - How today’s technologies driving tomorrow’s implementation Examine CNS/ATM with the Focus on Performance and the Navigation element Present one example of how CNS/ATM improvements have been implemented to date.

3 "Performance Based" R T S P COM RCP NAV RNP SUR RSP ATM
REQUIRED TOTAL SYSTEM PERFORMANCE NAV RNP SUR RSP ATM Defining the elements of a performance based system we evaluate: Communications – Required Communication Performance Navigation – Required Navigation Performance Surveillance – Required Surveillance Performance Air Traffic Management – Air Navigation Service Provider/Air Traffic Service Provider/intervention/etc. When consider collectively, these elements form the concept of RTSP, required total system performance Balance between Aircraft-ATS Requirements Credit for systems and capabilities Savings for ANSP - Reduced Infrastructure Requirements 6

4 Promoting International Harmonization
CNS/ATM (r)Evolution Today: RNAV RNP RVSM FANS VDL 1, 2, 4 ADS-A & B ACARS Mode S, UAT What are we doing in CNS/ATM today? 1. Development of the RNAV Rule for the US NAS – changing avionics requirements, changing how we define airspace and routes 2. Capstone in Alaska – Building a useable IFR infrastructure, Current Operations limited to VFR - WAAS – primary Nav, ADS-B - ATC surveillance, Multilateration, NASA terrain data/display Route structure – past was limited by traditional ground based navaids, WAAS permits “optimized” route structure and lower MEA’s. It has brought about the FAA’s Data link decision – ADS-B uplink using 1090 MHz Extended Squitter (1090ES) and Universal Access Transceiver (UAT) 3. International Perspective - Flight standards is proactive in support numerous ICAO Panels and Working Groups, including the Global Navigation Satellite System Panel, the Obstacle Clearance Panel, The Separation and Airspace Safety Panel, the Operations Panel, and the Aeronautical Communications Panel. We recognize the importance of the shared responsibility of fostering global harmonization within the international airspace system. We recognize the proactive work New Zealand has undertaken – codifying the use of GPS, hosting ICAO panel and work group meetings, etc. Where should this lead us, globally 4D using Time Of Arrival Control (TAOC) ATN – a common aeronautical Telecommunications Network Access to airspace and or operations based on aircraft capabilities and services provided Dynamic airspace What must we be mindful of avoiding divergent paths, example – COM VDL-3 vs VDL-4 Promoting International Harmonization Avoiding divergent paths in Communications Promoting convergence in Navigation and Surveillance

5 Communication ADS-B Link Decision
July 1, two ADS-B Technologies 1090 Extended Squitter For high altitude airspace For airspace principally used by domestic and commercial aircraft SARPS and MOPS exist for 1090 ES UAT GA not capable of high altitude flight If 1090ES alone cannot meet long-term goals, UAT provides a complimentary service TIS-B on 1090 uplink Reports for non-ADS-B and UAT equipped aircraft UAT – Cheaper than Mode – S Adds some additional capability – integration of FIS w/UAT

6 NEXCOM “Transition to Digital Communications”
Next 5 years 5-10 years 10-15 years 15-20 years Enroute High Airspace Dem/Val VDL-3 Link VDL-2 Datalink 0101 RCAG Analog Voice ARTCC 01010 National Airspace AFSS Evolutionary step towards end-to-end digital A/G communications CPDLC US Pushing for 8.33 MHz Terminal Airspace Analog Voice, 25 KHz Initial Datalink (VDL-2) Full Operational Evaluation & Exercise of Digital Voice and Datalink (VDL-3) Maintain Terminal Analog Voice Implement VDL-3 Digital Voice Expand Datalink VDL-2 Applications Expand Enroute Digital Voice (VDL-3) Initiate Terminal Digital Voice (VDL-3) Increase Datalink Capacity & Capability (VDL-2 & VDL-3) Expand Digital Voice (VDL-3) to all domains Expand Datalink Capacity in all domains and all applications (VDL-2 & VDL-3)

7 Advanced Avionics Surveillance Advisory Circular
Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Contract (ADS-C)

8 AC on Airworthiness and Operational Approval of Surveillance
Joint Aircraft Certification and Flight Standards Advisory Circular Provides an airworthiness to operational approval road map Design approval guidance for appliance and installation System safety assessment Hazard classification and RTCA DO-178B software level Air/Ground interoperability requirements System validation tests Aircraft ground and flight test Operational approval process for applications Operational safety assessment Training requirements

9 AC on Airworthiness and Operational Approval of Surveillance (cont)
Provide guidelines on the design approval of certain aircraft surveillance functions: CDTI symbol set and human factors TCAS II , CDTI and ADS-B target correlation Airport Surface Situational Awareness (ASSA) Traffic Information Service (TIS) Integrated conflict detection systems Surveillance display guidance for a Multiple Function Display ADS-A position reports for oceanic/remote operations 1090 MHz data link transponders Universal Asynchronous Transceiver data link transponders AC A AC 90-RNP AC A

10 Surveillance AC Schedule
January 21, 2003 April 30, 2003 December 30, 2003 March 15, 2004 May 31, 2004 July 28, 2004 Begin initial draft advisory circular Begin AIR-130/AFS 400 formal review Clearance record signoff Publish document in the Federal Register Disposition comments Published Approved AC

11 RVSM Implemented & Planned As of May 2003
Canada North 4/02 Canada South 1/05 Europe 1/02 Domestic US 1/05 NAT 3/97 Mid East 11/03 Pacific 2/00 Pacific 2/00 EUR/SAM Corridor 1/02 WATRS 11/01 Asia/Europe South of Himalayas 11/ 03 **Western Pacific South China Sea 2/02 CAR/SAM 2005 Australia 11/01 Most of the world is presently operating as RVSM and as you can see the entire western hemisphere is planned to implement at one time. NAT = North Atlantic SAM = South America WATRS = Western Atlantic CAR = Caribbean ** Western Pacific/South China Sea February Implementation Bangkok, Ho Chi Minh, Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur, Manila, Phnom Penh, Sanya, Singapore, Taipei October Implementation Hanoi, Hong Kong, Jakarta, Ujung Pandang, Vientiane Implemented Planned V

12 PROGRAM ELEMENTS Aircraft and Operators authorized by the administrator or… for non-US operators/aircraft, the appropriate authority Aircraft altimetry, autopilot, and altitude alert system modified, as necessary to RVSM standards RVSM policy and procedures incorporated into controller, pilot, and dispatch programs Air Traffic systems and programs revised

MONITORING: Aircraft altitude keeping observed to confirm performance standards are being met Ground and airborne monitoring systems used to independently monitor aircraft performance 3-5 Aircraft Geometric Measurement Element Clusters (AGHME) are being sited SAFETY ANALYSIS: Is being conducted on accepted Collision Risk Modeling Practices (ICAO Doc v2) Completion by June 2004 GHMEC – simila to GMU

14 RVSM CONCLUSION Implement DRVSM from FL290-FL410 in the airspace of the United States, Alaska, the Gulf of Mexico where the FAA provides air traffic services and possibly the San Juan FIR. The United States, Canada, and Mexico are planning a joint implementation of RVSM. DRVSM is proposed to be implemented on January 20, UTC.

CNS - Navigation 2010? 2015? Vertical RNP 4-D TOAC The Future 2025? Surveillance Communication 2005? 2003 GLS/MLS/ILS RNP Simultaneous RNP Tomorrow To address efficiency issues, we need to address Communications, Navigation and Surveillance (CNS), Air Traffic Management (ATM), and their interrelationships. Today’s focus is on Navigation RNP is a fundamental requirement, promotes the transition to “performance based” airspace, - Navigation is the easiest of the triad to solve. . . - Globally . . .promotes harmonization of capabilities Here is a timeline of expected capability gains for today, tomorrow and to define a path for the future TOAC – Time of Arrival Control Done 2002 LPV/WAAS RNAV RNP Today PA; LNAV; BARO VNAV; RNAV; NPA; GPS

16 Special Procedures Capturing Performance Benefits & Promoting Safety
RNP for Departure and Approach Enhanced Airport Capacity, Destination Access, Safety Safe 3-D Path to each Rwy and a safe path back out User Driven Safety Benefits No “Dive and Drive” For Air Transport User driven safety benefits – no dive and drive for Air Transport aircraft; however, dive and drive can still be used for General Aviation, where it supports lower approach minima. Performance is use to promote access to an airport/airspace; and, promotes safety through increased operational requirements that support special procedures. Special Procedures Capturing Performance Benefits & Promoting Safety

17 New York Traffic Flow Proposal
LaGuardia vs Kennedy This video provides an example of using tailoring aircraft performance to increase traffic flow efficiency and eliminate constraints caused by the close proximity of airports.

18 Performance as an Enabler
Example: Use of RNP Based Arrival and Departure Paths for Dynamic WX Avoidance ATM/CDM Adjusted WPs RNP: A specification for the navigation performance necessary for a particular airspace, area, route, procedure or operation. RNP can be applied to all domains – en route and terminal airspace, and for instrument approach procedures. Currently we are using RNP in airspace and for procedures ranging from Oceanic RNP-10 authorizations to RNP 0.3 approaches. Can be applied to lateral or longitudinal performance, eventually will include vertical performance Consider this Weather picture from Atlanta (actual event on 8/4/96) – graphic will show dynamic paths in and out of ATL Ultimately RNP could be used (along with other CNS/ATM elements to negotiate dynamic paths through weather and fixed terrain, noise and/or adjacent airspace constraints – should be part of Collaborative Decision Making (CDM) concept between ATSP and Operations. Once negotiated and contracted, performance enables dynamic path around constraints Goal: ATM/CDM Integration ,Dynamic/Flexible Airspace, & System Efficiencies e.g. Weather Avoidance

19 Complex procedures that match aircraft capabilities to the business case
Alaska Airlines pioneered the application of complex approaches based on RNP. Further, Alaska has capitalized in matching their current aircraft capabilities to meeting their business case. In these trying economic times, we as regulators must be responsive to the needs of our users. 19

20 Capstone Phase II…. Phase II “Usable IFR Infrastructure”
Terrain (TAWS compliant) Traffic (CDTI using ADS-B) Weather (AWSS, AFSS, FIS) Flight Locating (J Hopkins U Skysource, Flt. Explorer, etc) “Usable IFR Infrastructure” Communications ATC and AFSS Navigation SFAR, AIM, Guidance material GPS/WAAS Avionics RNAV/GPS Route Structure Surveillance UAT (Mops compliant ADS-B) Juneau Sitka Ketchikan Yakutat Investment in Safety FAA Alaska Region AWSS – Automatic Weather AFSS – Automated Flight Service Station SFAR was to permit use in environment with low level infrastructure.

21 Navigation: Phase II Avionics
Equipment Multi-Function and Primary Flight Displays (MFD and PFD) Universal Access Transceiver (UAT) VFR & IFR Services GPS+FDE/WAAS(TSO-C145/6) Terrain Awareness and Warning System (TAWS) Automatic Dependant Surveillance- Broadcast (ADS-B, CDTI) Flight Information Service-Broadcast (FIS-B) Traffic Information Service-Broadcast (TIS-B)

22 Chelton Certification
Chelton avionics certification “before and after” University of Alaska C-172 provisional STC installation

23 TSO-145/146 WAAS FDE RAIM Layered Failure Modes GPS RAIM DR Legacy
Primary WAAS Benefit (increased access) derived from L-NAV Capability Primary (sole) means, only radionavigation equipment required on aircraft Class I all airspace FDE RAIM Layered Failure Modes Primary (sole) means Class II oceanic and remote airspace GPS RAIM Supplemental DR TSO-129 Legacy VOR/NDB VFR TSO-145/146 Capstone

24 Communications: ATC Voice Coverage @ 2000ft
Comm Gaps - Coastal (Yakutat-Sitka) - Lynn Canal/Icy Bay - Stephens Passage Cape Spencer Proposed RCAG Comm sites Cape Spencer Mt Rbt. Barron Gunnuk Benefits Direct voice communication with ATC at new RNAV route altitudes Mt Rbt Barron Gunnuk RCAG – Remote Communication Air/Ground Current RCAG Proposed RCAG

25 Navigation: RNAV Structure
RNAV/GPS MEAs on Existing Routes Approach/Departure RNAV Procedures FAF 4000 ft AT coordination (e.g., airspace and automation integration) (AAL-500 / ZAN / ATP / NATCA) - Oct 02 Operational guidance (e.g., SFAR, OpSpecs, NOTAM, AIM, AK Supplement, Inspector handbook) (AFS-400) - Oct 02 Review “Specials” (AFS-420) - Aug 02 - special aircrew training required, special aircraft and equipment performance required, flight procedures standard waiver for obstacle, Category A&B aircraft only GUMLE CIBIX FAF JIGMI FAF 2500 ft

26 Surveillance: ADS-B (& FIS-B) Coverage
Current Radar Initial 14 Ground Broadcast Transceiver (GBT) Sites Coverage 1000 ft 3000 ft

27 Thoughts for Tomorrow RVSM Performance-Based Airspace System
Database Integrity Electronic Flight Bag

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