Presentation on theme: "Franklin Roosevelt and Shadow of War How the U.S. moved permanently from Isolation to Global Intedependence Dec. 7, 1941- August 6 and 9,1945."— Presentation transcript:
Franklin Roosevelt and Shadow of War How the U.S. moved permanently from Isolation to Global Intedependence Dec. 7, August 6 and 9,1945
America in the 1930s War of the Worlds
Following WWI, the US rode economic roller coaster. Prosperous roaring 20s followed by worst economic depression ever known. US prided itself on independence and isolation US fought hard to keep out of the Second World War But would enter and develop and USE the most destructive weapon of all time WWI made US a global power but WWII would transform nation into a world leader When this war began, the US military ranked 17 th in the world. By the wars end, the US had become Superpower with no equal Germany in a desperate situation. The terms of the Treaty of Versailles cripple the economy and prevent German recovery after the war. This in turn leads to the new, Weimar, government being unable to restore pre-war conditions. Animosity towards those who signed the treaty grows and many German people look for people to blame for the crisis, leading to theories of the stab in the back. The new government, already under fire, is likely to fail in its duty to provide security, prosperity and comfort given the conditions that it has inherited
Roosevelt unwilling to sacrifice possibility of domestic recovery for the sake of international cooperation London Conference 1933 (Sec of State Cordell Hull) Tydings-McDuffie Act 1934 Recognize Soviet Union 1933! Good Neighbor - renounce (Teddy) Roosevelt Corrollary- formally endorese nonintervention and negotiation (Power to President; Mexico) *Reciprocal Trade Act 1934 (Hawley Smoot Power to President; these acts dont take Congressional power)
Hitlers Goals: Destroy the Treaty of Versailles Gain Lebensraum (living space) in the east Bring all Germans into one Reich Make Germany strong again
1936 Rome Berlin Axis 1934 Japan terminates Washington Naval Conference Johnson Debt Default Act 1935 Hitler moves into Rhineland
Storm Cellar Neutrality Overview : Although isolationist feeling was strong and neutrality legislation supported such sentiments, by 1939 Roosevelt had slowly and skillfully turned America toward an internationalist approach. After Japans attack on Pearl Harbor, the U.S. finally entered World War II
Pablo Picassos Guernica 1937
In China... In December of 1937, the Japanese Imperial Army marched into China's capital city of Nanking and proceeded to murder 300,000 out of 600,000 civilians and soldiers in the city. The six weeks of carnage would become known as the Rape of Nanking and represented the single worst atrocity during the World War II era in either the European or Pacific theaters of war.
Quarantine speech October 5, 1937: Roosevelt indicated his opposition to the isolationist attitude of the neutrality acts He recommended a quarantine of aggressors to preserve peace The speech was also a response to Japans aggression against China Chiefly because of the lack of enthusiasm of Secretary Hull and the British, nothing came directly out of this proposal. However, it was a significant speech because it displayed Roosevelts long-held belief in a system of collective security. Soon afterward, the president requested a billion-dollar appropriation for naval expansion, and then almost at once he asked for even more. Congress obliged, and the defense build-up was under way. Roosevelt's Quarantine Speech (1937) It seems to be unfortunately true that the epidemic of world lawlessness is spreading.at the epidemic of world lawlessness is spreading. When an epidemic of physical diseaWhen an epidemic of physical disease starts to spread, the community approves and joins in a quarantine of the patients in order to protect the health of the community against the spread of the disease. order to protect the health of the community against the spread of the disease. War is a contagion, whether it be declared or undeclared. It can engulf states and peoples remote from the original scenWar is a contagion, whether it be declared or undeclared. It can engulf states and peoples remote from the original scene of hostilities.... We are adopting such measures as will minimize our risk of involvement, but we cannot have complete protection in a world of disorder in which confidence and security have broken down.own. If civilization is to survive the principles of the Prince of Peace must be restored. Shattered trust between nations must be revived. Most important of all, the will for peace on the part of peace-loving nations must express itself to the end that nations that may be tempted to violate their agreements and the rights oMost important of all, the will for peace on the part of peace-loving nations must express itself to the end that nations that may be tempted to violate their agreements and the rights of others will desist from such a cause. There must be positive endeavors to preserve peace. America hates war. America hopes for peace. Therefore, America actively engages in the search for peace. THE SPEECH
Quarantine speech October 5, 1937: Roosevelt indicated his opposition to the isolationist attitude of the neutrality acts He recommended a quarantine of aggressors to preserve peace The speech was also a response to Japans aggression against China Panay incident (December 12, 1937): Japanese planes bombed the U.S. gunboat Panay and three oil tankers on the Yangtze River in China, killing two Americans. Yielding to American public pressure on the administration, the Japanese agreed to apologize for this accident. Selective Service and Training Act (Burke-Wadworth Act) (1940): Established the first peacetime military draft in America, and required the registration of men between 21 and 35 (later between 18 and 64) National Defense Advisory Commission (May 1940): Headed by General Motors President William B. Knudsen, this agency was created to obtain materials, manage labor problems, control prices, supervise transportation, and encourage industrial and farm production. In January 1941, it became part of the Office of Production Management Aid to Britain (September 1940): Two measure were significant Roosevelt traded 50 U.S. World War I destroyers for 99 year leases on a number of British air and naval bases in the West Indies and the Atlantic The Lend-Lease Act (March 1941) authorized the president to lend or lease arms and equipment to nations whose defense he considered vital to the U.S. The act was designed to help Great Britain, but its provisions were extended to the U.S.S.R. in 1941
Part of NAZI platform was to overturn Versailles Treaty. March 1935 Hitler rearmed Germany violating the condition limiting Germanys Army. League failed to respond
Austrian Crisis 1938 The Depression has made Austria weak Taking over Austria will be very popular in Germany It will bring many Germans into the Reich However other countries might oppose Hitler sends troops into Vienna - no one opposes him
October 1935 Italy- Mussolini Attacks Ethiopia Tests new chemical weapons on Ethiopian population Tests new chemical weapons on Ethiopian population Easily defeats Ethiopians Easily defeats Ethiopians Ethiopian ruler Haile Selassie appealed to League of Nations for help Ethiopian ruler Haile Selassie appealed to League of Nations for help League condemned attacks but did nothing League condemned attacks but did nothing "It is us today. It will be you tomorrow." Haile Selassie
Czechoslovakia Crisis 1938 September 1938 – Hitler demanded the Sudetenland from Czechsolovakia Czech asked France for help Munich Conference Sept proposed by Mussolini -Britain, France, Germany, and Italy. (excluded Soviet Union) This is called appeasment Britain and France gave Germany the Sudetenland if Germany would respect Czechs new borders. 6 months later Hitler took all of Czech
New Player: U.S.S.R.s Joseph Stalin Joseph Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union, set in motion events designed to cause a famine in the Ukraine ( ) to destroy the people there seeking independence from his rule. As a result, an estimated 7,000,000 persons perished in this farming area, known as the breadbasket of Europe, with the people deprived of the food they had grown with their own hands.
New Player: U.S.S.R.s Joseph Stalin Stalin gained no satisfaction from the League. Instead he saw failures Abyssinia Spanish Civil War German rearmament The Munich Agreement This agreement made Stalin even more wary Stalin was not consulted about the agreement Stalin concluded that Britain and France were powerless to stop Hitler Or that they were happy for Hitler to take over Eastern Europe and the USSR
The Next Move Despite misgivings Stalin was still prepared to talk to Britain and France about an alliance The three countries met in March 1939 Chamberlain (prime minister of England) was reluctant to commit Britain Stalin believed that Britain and France made things worse by guaranteeing to defend Poland if it were attacked Chamberlain saw the guarantee as a warning to Hitler Stalin saw it as support for a potential A New Twist! Negotiations continued between Britain, France and the USSR throughout Spring and Summer Stalin, however, was also getting visits from Nazi foreign minister Ribbentrop to discuss a Nazi-Soviet pact
The Deed is Done On 24 August 1939 Stalin made his decision and signed a pact with Germany The world was shocked as two arch enemies promised not to attack each other. Privately they also agreed to divide Poland
It Begins! September 1 st 1939 – Hitler Invades Poland (Blitzkreig= lightening war) Sept 3 rd 1939 – Britain and France declare war on Germany
Prelude to the Final Solution When Hitler seized power in 1933 he used his new powers under the Enabling Law to begin his attack on the Jews. In 1938, the Nazi attack on the Jews changed and became more violent with Himmler launching Kristallnacht on 11 th November 1938.
Prelude to the Final Solution In 1939, Germany invaded Poland which had a much larger population of 3 million Jews. In 1941, Germany invaded Russia which had a population of 5 million Jews.
Change of Tactics: Einsatzgruppen Himmler sent four specially trained SS units called Einsatzgruppen battalions into German occupied territory and shot at least 1 million Jews. Victims were taken to deserted areas where they were made to dig their own graves and shot. When the SS ran out of bullets they sometimes killed their victims using flame throwers.
The Final Solution In January 1942, Himmler decided to change tactics once again and called a special conference at Wannsee. At this conference it was decided that the existing methods were too inefficient and that a new Final Solution was necessary.
Was the Final Solution successful? The Nazis aimed to kill 11 million Jews at the Wannsee Conference in 1941 Today there are only 2000 Jews living in Poland. The Nazis managed to kill at least 6 million Jews. Men like Schindler helped Jews escape the Final Solution. Not all Jews went quietly into the gas cambers. In 1943, the Warsaw Ghetto, like many others revolted against the Nazis when the Jews realised what was really happening.
Fall of France - Phony War Hitler invaded Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands. With everyones attention on Hitlers sweep of these nations he sent an even larger force into France through the Ardrennes Forest, avoiding the Maginot Line - a system of fortifications along Frances border with Germany. Allied forces and German forces stared at each other. Became known as Stizkrieg
Fall of France - Phony War By June 14 Germans had taken Paris French surrendered on June 22, Germans controlled the North and set up a puppet government in the south. capital in Vichy and headed by Marshall Petain Charles de Gaulle- set up a government-in-exile in Britain. April 9 th 1940 Hitler launched attack on Denmark and Norway. Hitler turns his attention to Great Britain Josehine Baker and French Resistence
US Begins Mobilizing for War FDR wins 1940 Presidential election (3 rd term) FDR wins 1940 Presidential election (3 rd term) Moves towards further intervention in WWII. Moves towards further intervention in WWII. Four-Freedoms speech US and Britain stand for Four-Freedoms speech US and Britain stand for Freedom of Speech Freedom of Speech Freedom of Worship Freedom of Worship Freedom from Want Freedom from Want Freedom from Fear Freedom from Fear
Selective Service and Training Act (Burke-Wadworth Act) (1940): Established the first peacetime military draft in America, and required the registration of men between 21 and 35 (later between 18 and 64) National Defense Advisory Commission (May 1940): Headed by General Motors President William B. Knudsen, this agency was created to obtain materials, manage labor problems, control prices, supervise transportation, and encourage industrial and farm production. In January 1941, it became part of the Office of Production Management National Defense Research Committee (June 1940): Created to develop scientific research for military purposes Worked with military departments, industry, and science Was replaced by the Office of Scientific Research and Development in 1941
Aid to Britain (September 1940): Two measure were significant Roosevelt traded 50 U.S. World War I destroyers for 99 year leases on a number of British air and naval bases in the West Indies and the Atlantic The Lend-Lease Act (March 1941) authorized the president to lend or lease arms and equipment to nations whose defense he considered vital to the U.S. The act was designed to help Great Britain, but its provisions were extended to the U.S.S.R. in 1941 US Becomes the Great Arsenal of Democracy. Lends Britain $50 billion Lend -lease Act did not make provisions for getting arms to Britain. German submarines patrolling the Atlantic Ocean and were sinking British ships US response: Roosevelt declared the entire western half of the Atlantic was part of the Western hemisphere and therefore nuetral. WWII graves where in Currituck? Corolla – no beach access til 9am Had to collect bodies and take across sound to bury w/ anchor symbol over the grave
Battle of Britain Never have so many owed so much to so few Winston Churchill Chamberlin gone - Churchill is the new prime minister of England
War preparation viewpoints: Two opposing groups sought to influence Congress and the public Committee to Defend American by Aiding the Allies: Led by journalist William Allen White, it advocated intervention in World War II America First Committee: Established by Charles Lindbergh, Senator Gerald Nye, and former NRA head Hugh Johnson, it agitated to keep America out of the war Atlantic Charter (1941): Document issued by Roosevelt and Churchill during their secret meeting near Newfoundland; it proclaimed war aims and common principles. Foundation of the U.N. The four freedoms (1941): Cited by Roosevelt in a speech to Congress, the four freedoms consisted of freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom from want, and freedom from fear. Undeclared naval war (1941): Four events were significant: In September, a German U-boat fired on the American destroyer Greer Roosevelt ordered American ships to fire on German submarines on sight When the Reuben James, an American destroyer, was sunk by Nazi submarines in October, American sailors died Congress then ratified a bill allowing merchant vessels to be armed and to sail into belligerent ports Pearl Harbor (December 7, 1941): Japanese assets in the U.S. had been frozen in response to Japanese aggression in Asia While negotiations trying to reverse this action were under way, the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, killing over 2,000 Americans On December 8 the U.S. declared war against Japan and on December 11, against Italy and Germany
The Definition of Insanity is doing the same thing over and over again and expecting a different result.