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World War II Discussing the European and Asian theatres.

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2 World War II Discussing the European and Asian theatres

3 Background Information Following World War I, the countries of Europe wanted to return to normalcy Russia underwent a revolution in 1917 and was now making progress Woodrow Wilson's 14 Points ineffective and meaningless Wilsons League of Nations ineffective and weak The Treaty of Versailles a weak agreement that was not enforced

4 Background Information World War I destroyed most of Europe –France was either blown up or occupied the entire war –Germany suffered severe inflation problems –U.S. gets involved Funds major rebuilding operations U.S. industry profits from huge demand U.S. still very isolationist –Germany forced to pay reparations for the war

5 Background Information With the stock market crash in 1929, the world economy was deeply impacted Communist Russia, under Stalin, witnessed economic growth A power vacuum was created in Europe after World War I – no strong leader Power vacuum leads to Fascism U.S. under Franklin Delano Roosevelt too busy with Depression to worry about Europe

6 Fascism Extreme nationalism / Conservative Nothing good outside of the state Anti-Semitic, Anti-Communist Starts in Italy with Benito Mussolini, then spreads to Spain under Francisco Franco and then Germany Most famous Adolf Hitler

7 Adolf Hitler Born in Austria German army officer during World War I Formed the SA (Sturmabteil), who were ordered to attack Nazi enemies Hitler and his men staged a coup of the Weimar government in 1923 (Beer Hall Putsch), but they were captured and Hitler served jail time While in jail, Hitler wrote Mein Kampf

8 Adolf Hitler Hitler grew in power and was named Chancellor of Germany by Hindenberg When Hindenberg died, Hitler called an emergency and declared himself dictator Hitler purged the SA in 1934 and replaced them with the SS (Schutzstaffel) lead by Heinrich Himmler

9 Adolf Hitler SS did the dirty work of Hitler – cast out the Jewish community, vagrants, gypsies Hitler used racism and nationalism to build up the German military and confidence Very effective public speaker who fooled the German people into believing him Hitler wanted to establish a super race of Germans and unite all the German-speaking nations (Anschluss) to create the 3 rd Reich Hitler takes over Austria

10 Adolf Hitler Hitler wanted to occupy the Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia) but the French and British refused –Meet Hitler in 1938 and agree he could occupy German Czechoslovakia –Hitler promised he would take no more land, PM Neville Chamberlain proclaimed peace –Hitler then took the remaining parts of Czechoslovakia, signifying that he would not stop

11 Adolf Hitler Hitler realized that Europe and America would do everything to avoid another World War Hitler signed a non-aggression pact with Russia Hitler believed that German aggression and European weakness would stop the other countries from making any moves

12 Adolf Hitler "We will not capitulate - no, never! We may be destroyed, but if we are, we shall drag a world with us - a world in flames."

13 Major Allied Players FDR, President of the United States General Douglas MacArthur, Commander of Pacific Operations General George Patton, U.S. commander in Europe General Bernard Montgomery, British commander in Europe Charles De Gaulle, General in command of French resistance forces Sir Winston Churchill, Prime Minister of Great Britain

14 Major Axis Players Joseph Stalin, Dictator of Russia Erwin Rommel, Commander of the Afrika Korps and European forces General Yamamoto, Commander-In- Chief of the combined Japanese fleets Fuhrer Adolf Hitler, Commander of the SS, Dictator of Germany Heinrich Himmler, General of the SS Benito Il Duche Mussolini, Dictator of Italy

15 It Begins Germany invades Poland in 1939 using the Blitzkrieg (Lightning War) –Dive bombers and long range artillery devastated targets – Armored columns penetrate where the initial targeting had been carried out –Mechanized infantry follow the columns –The armored columns and mechanized infantry fan out forcing retreat or surrender –Foot soldiers clean up whats left

16 It Begins Poland no match for German army and the Reds arrive to split Poland Following the occupation of Poland, little action happened, nicknamed theSitzkrieg Sitzkrieg ends when Hitler attacks Norway and Denmark in 1940 –Denmark fell in an afternoon, and Norway was no match

17 It Begins Wehrmacht also took over Belgium and nearly trapped 150k Belgian, French, and British soldiers in Dunkirk Hitler offers peace terms to Britain and France, both refuse Winston Churchill replaces Neville Chamberlain as British Prime Minister (only one who knew what Hitler was up to the whole time)

18 It Begins Hitler invades France after they refuse to surrender Hitler realized that Churchill would be a formidable opponent Germans went right around the French Maginot Line and occupied the northern half of France Germans set up a puppet government in south, called Vichy France Only Britain remained to fight off the Germans Closest Hitler comes to winning the war

19 It Begins

20 Warring Parties Allies –Great Britain –France –U.S. (Later) –Soviet Union (Later) –Italy (Later) Axis –Germany –Italy –Russia –Turkey –Japan

21 World War II Technology Tanks Machine Guns Radar Sonar Submarines (U-Boats) Encryption Devices Grenades Snipers Field Radios Jets Airplanes Aircraft Carriers Kamikaze Pilots H-Bomb Blitzkrieg Light Mechanized Vehicles Rail Guns V-2 Rockets Chem and Bio Weapons

22 Mechanized Infantry German –Panzer Panzerkampfwagen Earliest German tank Lightly armored 13 mm armor 57 hp Krupp gas motor 7.92 MG34 Gun 4 Variants

23 Mechanized Infantry German –Panther Medium Heavy Armor 80 mm front and side armor, 40 mm rear 700 hp Maybach V12 55 mph top speed Main gun 75 mm (2) 7.92 MG34s

24 Mechanized Infantry German –Tiger Heavy Armor 100 mm front and side, 80 mm rear 690 hp Maybach V12 38 mph top speed Main gun 88 mm (2) 7.92 MG34s

25 Mechanized Infantry U.S. –M3 Stuart 1 st American tank Light armor 44 mm front, 25 mm sides and back 262 hp Continental gas motor 58 mph top speed Main gun 37 mm (5).30 cal machine guns

26 Mechanized Infantry U.S. –M4 Sherman Medium Armor 51 mm front, 38 mm sides and rear 400 hp Continental gas motor 34 mph top speed Main gun 75 mm (2).30 cal and 1.50 cal machine guns

27 Mechanized Infantry U.S. –M18 Hellcat Tank Destroyer 13 mm armor around 460 hp Continental gas motor 80 mph top speed Main gun 76 mm (1).50 cal machine gun

28 Mechanized Infantry U.S.S.R. –T-34 Most widely produced Medium armor 45 mm armor around 500 hp Diesel v12 55 mph top speed Main gun 76.2 mm (2) 7.62mm guns

29 The Blitz Massive air attack of London planned by Hermann Goering, commander of the Luftwaffe (Aug 1940) –Initially attacked Royal Air Force (RAF) bases, then turned to cities –RAF pilots were better, with better planes (Spitfire and Hurricane)

30 The Blitz Luftwaffe called off in April 1941 after heavy casualties British had radar, the Germans did not London and Coventry were destroyed Citizens lived in the subways for months Never was so much owed by so many to so few ~ Winston Churchill

31 The Blitz

32 Mid-War Europe

33 Invasion of Russia AKA Operation Barbarossa Hitler wanted to attack in spring 1941 but had to bail out Italy in Albania Hitler follows Napoleons path with the same result, the Russians burn everything and the Germans are not ready for the cold weather and hardships of the Russian terrain Partisans pick apart the German supply line

34 Invasion of Russia Hitler got as far as Smolensk and then split his forces Germans never made it to Moscow Part of his army attempts to take Leningrad –Brutal battle for the city named after the Communist founder –Hitler wanted to deal a morally degrading blow to the Russians

35 Invasion of Russia Big Bertha brought to secure oil supplies in Crimea Hitler also tried to take Stalingrad (named for current dictator) but was cut off by Alexander Zhukov Battles of Leningrad and Stalingrad extremely costly for Hitler and probably cost him the war

36 Invasion of Russia

37 Holocaust Himmler lead the SS in war and ideas Wanted to create the Nazi super race of blonde-haired, blue-eyed Germans Concentration camps were set up to destroy Jews, elderly, sick, and mentally challenged to maintain German purity All camps based on the Dachau model, most famous is Auschwitz

38 Holocaust





43 An estimated 6 million Jews were killed, along with another 2 million gypsies and an unknown number of elderly Most were either buried in mass graves or incinerated in concentration camps Nazis believed that their race was being infected by lesser nations Not all Nazis believed this or were involved, including most citizens

44 Pearl Harbor U.S. only gave aid and weapons until Dec 7, 1941 Japanese attacked Hawaiian naval base, Pearl Harbor, at 7:00 in the morning A Day which will live in infamy ~ FDR Hitler did not want to involve the U.S. U.S. entered the war in 1941 with military and industrial fury

45 Pearl Harbor


47 I fear all we have done is to awaken a sleeping giant and fill him with a terrible resolve. ~ General Yamamoto, following Pearl Harbor

48 Allied Counter British decide to attack the Nazis in Northern Africa German Afrika Korps under the control of Erwin Rommel, the Desert Fox - Rommel not prepared for attack First time U.S. troops were involved in fighting General Patton invades Italy Montgomery forces Nazis out of Northern Africa

49 D-Day (Operation Overlord) Organized by Dwight D. Eisenhower Greatest amphibious landing in history U.S. used diversion techniques to fool the Germans 100k men landed, plus paratroopers Toughest Omaha beach – 80% dead 101 st Airborne parachuted in to provide support behind enemy lines

50 D-Day (Operation Overlord) You are about to embark upon the Great Crusade, toward which we have striven these many months. The eyes of the world are upon you. The hopes and prayers of liberty- loving people everywhere march with you. In company with our brave Allies and brothers- in-arms on other Fronts, you will bring about the destruction of the German war machine, the elimination of Nazi tyranny over the oppressed peoples of Europe, and security for ourselves in a free world. ~ General Dwight D. Eisenhower, Commander of European Operations

51 Battle of the Bulge U.S. forces enter France and liberate Paris in August 1944 Germans concentrate their forces and the Battle of the Bulge begins –See-saw battle between Allied and Axis forces –Germans punched 50 miles into Allied lines but ran out of gas (literally) –Last significant German attack –Allies retake the ground and push forward

52 The Collapse Allied troops pushed the Germans back to the Rhineland (Area b/w Germany and France) Americans discover concentration camps as they march towards Berlin U.S. and Soviet troops meet at the Elbe River in Berlin and the war in Europe is over (V-E Day, May 8, 1945) Hitler and his top aids commit suicide

53 The Collapse The Führers Bunker Cyanide & Pistols Hitler and Eva Braun

54 War in the Pacific Empire of Japan had been expanding since the 1930s with brutal force Invade China, Korea, Manchuria, Vietnam U.S. not happy – freezes Japanese assets, boycotts oil, steel U.S. refuses to talk with Japanese until they pull out – taken as major insult and begin practicing for Pearl Harbor

55 War in the Pacific Pearl Harbor –U.S. broke diplomatic codes but not the military –U.S. Intelligence may have known –8 Battleships and 3 Aircraft carriers (out on assignment) –2500 total dead –Oklahoma sunk and raised to continue fighting

56 War in the Pacific U.S. forces under General MacArthur begin to capture Pacific Islands Philippines, Iwo Jima, then air bombings of Tokyo and the nuclear bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Captured soldiers forced on the Bataan Death march – 76,000 prisoners forced to march 60 miles in the heat to prison camp

57 War in the Pacific


59 Battle of Midway turning point – U.S. takes the island – A battle of aircraft carriers – ships never see eachother U.S. develops nuclear bombs (Manhattan Project) and used them to end the war quickly H-Bomb Little Boy (Enola Gay) dropped on Hiroshima and Fat Man (Boxcar) dropped on Nagasaki

60 War in the Pacific


62 Japan surrenders a few days after the nuclear bombings, which was the intent of President Johnson The use of nuclear force has been questioned since WWII Nuclear option used because of a miscommunication by the translators V-J Day Sept 2, 1945

63 War in the Pacific

64 Life After War Yalta Conference –FDR met with Churchill and Stalin to discuss post-war plans –Germany would be broken up into parts protected by Allied powers –Soviets promise to improve Eastern Europe –FDR dies while in 4 th term and is succeeded by Johnson, who uses the bomb

65 Life After War

66 CountryMen in warBattle deathsWounded Australia1,000,00026,976180,864 Austria800,000280,000350,117 Belgium625,0008,46055,513 1 Brazil 2 40, ,222 Bulgaria339,7606,67121,878 Canada1,086, , ,145 China 3 17,250,5211,324,5161,762,006 Czechoslovakia6, ,017 Denmark4,339 Finland500,00079,04750,000 France201,568400,000 Germany20,000,0003,250, ,250,000 Greece17,02447,290 Hungary147,43589,313 India2,393,89132,12164,354 Italy3,100,000149, ,716 Japan9,700,0001,270,000140,000 Netherlands280,0006,5002,860 New Zealand194,00011, ,000 Norway75,0002,000 Poland664,000530,000 Romania650, ,000 6 South Africa410,0562,473 U.S.S.R.6,115, ,012,000 United Kingdom5,896,000357, ,267 United States16,112,566291,557670,846 Yugoslavia3,741,000305,000425,000 1.Civilians only. 2.Army and navy figures. 3.Figures cover period July 7, 1937 to Sept. 2, 1945, and concern only Chinese regular troops. They do not include casualties suffered by guerrillas and local military corps. 4.Deaths from all causes. 5.Against Soviet Russia; 385,847 against Nazi Germany. 6.Against Soviet Russia; 169,822 against Nazi Germany. 7.National Defense Ctr., Canadian Forces Hq., Director of History. WWII Casualties

67 Life After War Two superpowers emerge: Capitalist U.S. and Communist U.S.S.R. These two world powers begin to create spheres of influence throughout the world Europe was completely destroyed and reconstruction efforts, with U.S. help, begin

68 Life After War The Nuclear Era had begun and an arms race soon began Japan was put under military control by General MacArthur until they became stable Japanese, Italian, and German high officials charged in the Nuremberg Trials

69 Life After War Our national situation, the current situation in the Middle East, and the future of Europe and Russia are all dependant up on World War II Millions of men fought and died to destroy pure evil

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