3Japan Emperor Hirohito General Hideki Tojo Support of Hitler and MussoliniExtreme NationalistsGeneral Hideki TojoWartime Prime Minister
4Spain Francisco Franco Fascist leader during Spanish Civil War Supported by Hitler and MussoliniOverthrew monarchy, Franco becomes leader
5ItalyFascism- new militant, political movement that emphasized loyalty to the state and obedience to its leaderBenito Mussolini (Il Duce)Black Shirts attack Communists and SocialistsAbolished democracy and outlawed other political partiesGovernment censors
6The Black Shirts were a paramilitary squad organized in Italy by dictator Benito Mussolini in 1919.
7Russia Joseph Stalin “Man of steel” Perfect Communist State Propaganda Agriculture- no private farmsIndustry- build massive gov’t owned factories, steel mills, power plants5 Year Plans- attempt to build up economyPropagandaRussian Rights- they had NONE!!Police StateGreat Purge- “enemies of the people”
10Compare Differences: Lenin vs. Stalin Goal: create a classless societyAllow some private business; let some peasants hold landStandard of living rises for many workers and peasantsGoal: make USSR into a modern industrial power with all production under gov’t controlCreates a command economyBrings all agriculture under gov’t control w/ peasant group farmsStandard of living falls for most workers
11Germany Adolf Hitler (der Fuhrer) National Socialist German Workers’ PartyNazismBeer Hall PutschChancellor
12Germany cont’d Beliefs “Master Race” – Aryans = blue-eyed, blond-hair Germans“Inferior Races” – Jews, Slavs, Gypsies, Catholics, homosexuals, handicapped, and opponents of HitlerLebensraum – “living space,” Germany wanted to gain land for German speaking peopleThird Reich – Third Empire to “last thousand years.”Military – Hitler started to raise an army, navy, and air force. This was against the Treaty of Versailles.
14The Schutzstaffel, or SS, was the most feared organization The Schutzstaffel, or SS, was the most feared organization. The SS was responsible for running the Nazi concentration camps and extermination centers. New members of the SS are sworn in at a midnight ceremony.
15Swastika The swastika is the Aryan symbol for the Sun! It’s ‘even-ness’ balances its-self out, like Yin- Yang.It was used by Hitler
16Causes of WWII Hitler’s Aims The aggression of Hitler’s Allies Democratic powers were passiveThe League of Nations failed
17Japan’s Dominance Manchuria- 1931 Withdraws from League of Nations ChinaRape of Nanjing- brutal invasion of Chinese mainland (1937)
22Italian Invasion Italy takes over Ethiopia-1936 Stop sale of weapons/materials to Italy
23Hitler’s Defiance of Treaty Rebuild armyRhineland- 1936Took over Austria (1938), Sudetenland (1938), and Czechoslovakia (1939)
24German Troops in Cologne in the 1930s German Chancellor Adolf Hitler built up Germany’s armed forces and sent troops into the Rhineland and Austria. Hitler’s forces then seized Czechoslovakia, Poland, Denmark, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Belgium, Norway, and France.
26War Starts Munich Conference European democracies agreed that Germany would control Sudetenland to prevent warNonaggression Pact (Nazi-Soviet Pact)Agreement 1 – To split PolandAgreement 2 – To agree not to attack each other. Eliminates possibility of 2 front war.Blitzkrieg – “lightning war,” take enemy by surprise and quickly crush opponent with overwhelming forceStalin Annexes – Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, & Finland.Europe – Germany overran Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Belgium
27Key Leaders/Groups Teams and Leaders Axis – Germany, Italy, and Japan Allies – Great Britain, USSR, France, & USAPresidentsEuropean CommanderPacific Commander
33Hitler’s Lightning War BlitzkriegSoviet MoveInvaded Poland, annexedLatvia, Lithuania, Estonia,Finland
34Result of German Blitzkrieg on Poland- September 1,1939
35Turning Points in the war Britain and France declare war on Germany for invading PolandFrance FallsItalian and German troops attack FranceParis – Germans entered Paris in 6 weeksFree French – French gov’t in exile worked to liberate their homelandBattle of Britain – Germany bombed London, but Britain never gave up (Sept 1940)
38Turning Points cont’d Germany wins most of Europe in 6 weeks USA Enters (1941)Common Beliefs – USA/ Britain both against Nazi aggressionWeapons – US sells/ leases weapons to BritainUS bans sale of war materials to JapanPearl Harbor“A day that will live in infamy”- December 7, 1941Crippled US fleet in one blowReason- cutting off oil
44Japanese Kamikaze Attack Kamikaze, which in Japanese means “divine wind,” were suicide squadrons organized by the Japanese air force in the last months of World War II. Pilots flew their aircraft, loaded with explosives, directly into U.S. naval vessels. Kamikaze pilots, sacrificing their lives in a last-ditch effort to stop the American advance, sank about 40 U.S. ships.
46Areas of WarEuropeNorth AfricaPacificTwo-Front War
47The Allies Strike Back Allies Turn the Tide of War Allies stop Japanese southward expansionThe Battle of MidwayAllies crippled Japanese fleet“revenge for Pearl Harbor;” outnumbered 4 to 1, US beat JapaneseThe Allies go on the Offensive“island-hopping”
48The Allies Are Victorious The Allies Plan for VictoryTide Turns on Two FrontsNorth African CampaignsBattle of El Alamein (1942)- British/ American forces trap Rommel’s army and he surrenderedGeneral Erwin Rommel gained many victories in N AfricaInvasion of Italy – victory in N Africa allowed for Allies to land in Italy (7/ 1943)
50French Troops in North Africa The engaged in several successful battles, led by General Philippe Leclerc, against Axis forces led by German General Erwin Rommel. In May 1943, after months of fighting, the Allies were able to force the final surrender of German and Italian troops in North Africa.
55Allied AdvancesAllied Troops – ferried across English Channel and land on beaches of Normandy, FranceGerman Defenses – broken and Allies advance toward Paris to free it from German controlAfter Paris, Allies head to Germany
56Battle of Stalingrad (1942-1943) Turning Point for SovietsGermans – invade Soviet Union in 1941Stalled – German troops stopped outside of Moscow and Leningrad (head to Stalingrad)German Troops – surrender because of freezing winterRed Army – drove Germans out of Soviet Union and advance toward Germany
58Defense of StalingradIn the ruins of Stalingrad, shown here, Soviet soldiers fought the Germans building-by-building in a savage battle for the city that lasted for five months.
59Life on Allied Home Fronts Mobilizing for Total WarWomenMilitaryWorkplaceRosie the RiveterAfter the War
60America’s Women go to Work After America’s entrance into World War II, military production in the United States increased. Many women took jobs or volunteered in staffing weapons factories, earning the nickname of “Rosie the Riveter.” Intense rationing efforts of certain foods and materials, such as rubber and metals, were also enacted to feed America’s war machine.
63Japanese Americans Relocation Executive Order 9066 – established military zones for the imprisonment of Japanese AmericansWhy – Americans feared Japanese Americans presented a threat to national securityGerman/Italian descent – no similar action taken
68The Holocaust Begins Hitler’s “Final Solution” Kristallnacht- “Night of Broken GlassFlood of RefugeesIsolating the JewsHitler’s “Final Solution”Mass killings beginThe Final Stage- Mass ExterminationThe Survivors
75IsraelAfter WWII, the Allies (specifically Great Britain), created the country of Israel for Jews to have a ‘safe’ homeland. The problem was that the land used to create Israel was known as Palestine – an area controlled by Arabs.
78Ending the War FDR Dies - Before war is over, Truman takes over Europe D-Day – US/ British Invasion of EuropeBattle of the Bulge – little movement, but Germans lost irreplaceable troops, tanks, guns, and planesGermany’s Unconditional Surrender (V-E Day- 1945)FDR Dies - Before war is over, Truman takes over
79Invasion of NormandyA force of about 120,00 Allied soldiers were supported by more than 20,000 paratroopers. It was the largest seaborne invasion in history. Germans were take by surprise, because they expected an invasion to come from farther north, near Calais, at the narrowest part of the English Channel.
82The Battle of the Bulge was the last German offensive of World War II The Battle of the Bulge was the last German offensive of World War II. It was launched at the end of 1944 in an attempt to divide the British and American forces and retake the seaport of Antwerp, in Belgium. Shown here are German troops.
83Manhattan Project- creation of Atom Bomb J. Robert OppenheimerCreatedUse it or notPro – Save millions of American lives in warCon – Destruction and effects of bomb
84Interesting Fact:Einstein himself decided to write President Roosevelt to make him aware of the critical challenge that nuclear power posed and the need to develop atomic weaponry before the Germans did. This led to the idea of the Manhattan Project, in Los Alamos, NM.Einstein did not work on the project, but his theories were used.
91Aftermath of Atomic Bomb in Hiroshima The blast destroyed 68 percent of the city and damaged another 24 percent, and an estimated 60,000 to 70,000 people were killed or reported missing, according to United States estimates.
93Post- war Japan Occupation – 6 yr, reformed economy/ gov’t MacArthur Constitution – democratic constitution, still used todayWar Crimes – Tojo and others tried and 7 sentenced to death/ others jailed.
94Japanese SurrenderJapanese officials formally surrendered to the Allies on September 2, 1945, aboard the United States battleship Missouri. Japan's surrender brought an end to World War II ( ).
96Impact of WWII Human Losses 75 million peopleStalin killed 15 millionEconomic Losses- parts of Europe and Asia destroyed by warNuremberg Trials22 surviving Nazi leaders tried for “crimes against humanity”Showed leaders could be held accountable for actions
97Impact cont’d Occupied Nations United Nations To prevent another war W. Nations- occupied Japan and W. Germany (democratic governments)Soviets occupied Eastern Europe (communist governments)United NationsProvided place to discuss world problems and develop solutionsGeneral Assembly- includes representatives from all member nations with one vote eachSecurity Council- 15 member nations; 5 permanent (US, Russia, France, Britain, & China)