Presentation on theme: "World War II Unresolved Business. Rise of Totalitarian Regimes Definition Examples."— Presentation transcript:
World War II Unresolved Business
Rise of Totalitarian Regimes Definition Examples
Japan Emperor Hirohito Support of Hitler and Mussolini Extreme Nationalists General Hideki Tojo Wartime Prime Minister
Spain Francisco Franco Fascist leader during Spanish Civil War Supported by Hitler and Mussolini Overthrew monarchy, Franco becomes leader
Italy Fascism- new militant, political movement that emphasized loyalty to the state and obedience to its leader Benito Mussolini (Il Duce) Black Shirts attack Communists and Socialists Abolished democracy and outlawed other political parties Government censors
The Black Shirts were a paramilitary squad organized in Italy by dictator Benito Mussolini in 1919.
Russia Joseph Stalin Man of steel Perfect Communist State Agriculture- no private farms Industry- build massive govt owned factories, steel mills, power plants 5 Year Plans- attempt to build up economy Propaganda Russian Rights- they had NONE!! Police State Great Purge- enemies of the people
Compare Differences: Lenin vs. Stalin Goal: create a classless society Allow some private business; let some peasants hold land Standard of living rises for many workers and peasants Goal: make USSR into a modern industrial power with all production under govt control Creates a command economy Brings all agriculture under govt control w/ peasant group farms Standard of living falls for most workers
Germany Adolf Hitler (der Fuhrer) National Socialist German Workers Party Nazism Beer Hall Putsch Chancellor
Germany contd Beliefs Master Race – Aryans = blue-eyed, blond-hair Germans Inferior Races – Jews, Slavs, Gypsies, Catholics, homosexuals, handicapped, and opponents of Hitler Lebensraum – living space, Germany wanted to gain land for German speaking people Third Reich – Third Empire to last thousand years. Military – Hitler started to raise an army, navy, and air force. This was against the Treaty of Versailles.
The Schutzstaffel, or SS, was the most feared organization. The SS was responsible for running the Nazi concentration camps and extermination centers. New members of the SS are sworn in at a midnight ceremony.
Swastika The swastika is the Aryan symbol for the Sun! Its even-ness balances its- self out, like Yin- Yang. It was used by Hitler
Causes of WWII Hitlers Aims The aggression of Hitlers Allies Democratic powers were passive The League of Nations failed
Japans Dominance Manchuria Withdraws from League of Nations China Rape of Nanjing- brutal invasion of Chinese mainland (1937)
Japanese Troops Enter Manchuria
Hirohito Reviews the Troops
Italian Invasion Italy takes over Ethiopia-1936 Stop sale of weapons/materials to Italy
Hitlers Defiance of Treaty Rebuild army Rhineland Took over Austria (1938), Sudetenland (1938), and Czechoslovakia (1939)
German Troops in Cologne in the 1930s German Chancellor Adolf Hitler built up Germanys armed forces and sent troops into the Rhineland and Austria. Hitlers forces then seized Czechoslovakia, Poland, Denmark, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Belgium, Norway, and France.
War Starts Munich Conference European democracies agreed that Germany would control Sudetenland to prevent war Nonaggression Pact (Nazi-Soviet Pact) Agreement 1 – To split Poland Agreement 2 – To agree not to attack each other. Eliminates possibility of 2 front war. Blitzkrieg – lightning war, take enemy by surprise and quickly crush opponent with overwhelming force Stalin Annexes – Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, & Finland. Europe – Germany overran Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Belgium
Key Leaders/Groups Teams and Leaders Axis – Germany, Italy, and Japan Germany Italy Japan Allies – Great Britain, USSR, France, & USA Presidents European Commander Pacific Commander
Western Democracy Failure to Halt Aggression US Cuts Oil Off To Japan Neutrality Acts – laws to prevent the US from selling arms or making loans to countries at war. Appeasement- Britain and France
Hitlers Lightning War Blitzkrieg Soviet Move Invaded Poland, annexed Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Finland
Result of German Blitzkrieg on Poland- September 1,1939
Turning Points in the war Britain and France declare war on Germany for invading Poland France Falls Italian and German troops attack France Paris – Germans entered Paris in 6 weeks Free French – French govt in exile worked to liberate their homeland Battle of Britain – Germany bombed London, but Britain never gave up (Sept 1940)
Winston Churchill and Charles de Gaulle
Turning Points contd Germany wins most of Europe in 6 weeks USA Enters (1941) Common Beliefs – USA/ Britain both against Nazi aggression Weapons – US sells/ leases weapons to Britain US bans sale of war materials to Japan Pearl Harbor A day that will live in infamy- December 7, 1941 Crippled US fleet in one blow Reason- cutting off oil
Pearl Harbor Attack
Japanese Kamikaze Attack Kamikaze, which in Japanese means divine wind, were suicide squadrons organized by the Japanese air force in the last months of World War II. Pilots flew their aircraft, loaded with explosives, directly into U.S. naval vessels. Kamikaze pilots, sacrificing their lives in a last-ditch effort to stop the American advance, sank about 40 U.S. ships.
FDR talking to Congress
Areas of War Europe North Africa Pacific Two-Front War
The Allies Strike Back Allies Turn the Tide of War Allies stop Japanese southward expansion The Battle of Midway Allies crippled Japanese fleet revenge for Pearl Harbor; outnumbered 4 to 1, US beat Japanese The Allies go on the Offensive island-hopping
The Allies Are Victorious The Allies Plan for Victory Tide Turns on Two Fronts North African Campaigns Battle of El Alamein (1942)- British/ American forces trap Rommels army and he surrendered General Erwin Rommel gained many victories in N Africa Invasion of Italy – victory in N Africa allowed for Allies to land in Italy (7/ 1943)
Field Marshall Erwin Rommel
French Troops in North Africa The engaged in several successful battles, led by General Philippe Leclerc, against Axis forces led by German General Erwin Rommel. In May 1943, after months of fighting, the Allies were able to force the final surrender of German and Italian troops in North Africa.
Allied Advances Allied Troops – ferried across English Channel and land on beaches of Normandy, France German Defenses – broken and Allies advance toward Paris to free it from German control After Paris, Allies head to Germany
Battle of Stalingrad ( ) Turning Point for Soviets Germans – invade Soviet Union in 1941 Stalled – German troops stopped outside of Moscow and Leningrad (head to Stalingrad) German Troops – surrender because of freezing winter Red Army – drove Germans out of Soviet Union and advance toward Germany
Germans Freeze in Battle of Stalingrad
Defense of Stalingrad In the ruins of Stalingrad, shown here, Soviet soldiers fought the Germans building- by-building in a savage battle for the city that lasted for five months.
Life on Allied Home Fronts Mobilizing for Total War Women Military Workplace Rosie the Riveter After the War
Americas Women go to Work After Americas entrance into World War II, military production in the United States increased. Many women took jobs or volunteered in staffing weapons factories, earning the nickname of Rosie the Riveter. Intense rationing efforts of certain foods and materials, such as rubber and metals, were also enacted to feed Americas war machine.
Rosie the Riveter
Japanese Americans Relocation Executive Order 9066 – established military zones for the imprisonment of Japanese Americans Why – Americans feared Japanese Americans presented a threat to national security German/Italian descent – no similar action taken
The Holocaust Begins Kristallnacht- Night of Broken Glass Flood of Refugees Isolating the Jews Hitlers Final Solution Mass killings begin The Final Stage- Mass Extermination The Survivors
Map of Kristallnacht
Jewish Refugees Leave Germany Nazi soldiers jeer as this Jewish family leaves Memel, Germany, en route to Lithuania on April 6, 1939.
Concentration Camp Map
Glasses from Auschwitz
Israel After WWII, the Allies (specifically Great Britain), created the country of Israel for Jews to have a safe homeland. The problem was that the land used to create Israel was known as Palestine – an area controlled by Arabs.
Diplomacy Atlantic Charter Yalta Conference Potsdam Conference
Ending the War Europe D-Day – US/ British Invasion of Europe Battle of the Bulge – little movement, but Germans lost irreplaceable troops, tanks, guns, and planes Germanys Unconditional Surrender (V-E Day- 1945) FDR Dies - Before war is over, Truman takes over
Invasion of Normandy A force of about 120,00 Allied soldiers were supported by more than 20,000 paratroopers. It was the largest seaborne invasion in history. Germans were take by surprise, because they expected an invasion to come from farther north, near Calais, at the narrowest part of the English Channel.
The Battle of the Bulge was the last German offensive of World War II. It was launched at the end of 1944 in an attempt to divide the British and American forces and retake the seaport of Antwerp, in Belgium. Shown here are German troops.
Manhattan Project- creation of Atom Bomb J. Robert Oppenheimer Created Use it or not Pro – Save millions of American lives in war Con – Destruction and effects of bomb
Interesting Fact: Einstein himself decided to write President Roosevelt to make him aware of the critical challenge that nuclear power posed and the need to develop atomic weaponry before the Germans did. This led to the idea of the Manhattan Project, in Los Alamos, NM. Einstein did not work on the project, but his theories were used.
Atomic Bomb Dropped Truman makes decision Hiroshima Dropped By – Enola Gay Nagasaki Bombs Names – Little Boy and Fat Man V-J Day
An Atomic Bomb
Aftermath of Atomic Bomb in Hiroshima The blast destroyed 68 percent of the city and damaged another 24 percent, and an estimated 60,000 to 70,000 people were killed or reported missing, according to United States estimates.
Hiroshima After the Bomb
Post- war Japan Occupation – 6 yr, reformed economy/ govt MacArthur Constitution – democratic constitution, still used today War Crimes – Tojo and others tried and 7 sentenced to death/ others jailed.
Japanese Surrender Japanese officials formally surrendered to the Allies on September 2, 1945, aboard the United States battleship Missouri. Japan's surrender brought an end to World War II ( ).
Impact of WWII Human Losses 75 million people Stalin killed 15 million Economic Losses- parts of Europe and Asia destroyed by war Nuremberg Trials 22 surviving Nazi leaders tried for crimes against humanity Showed leaders could be held accountable for actions
Impact contd Occupied Nations To prevent another war W. Nations- occupied Japan and W. Germany (democratic governments) Soviets occupied Eastern Europe (communist governments) United Nations Provided place to discuss world problems and develop solutions General Assembly- includes representatives from all member nations with one vote each Security Council- 15 member nations; 5 permanent (US, Russia, France, Britain, & China)