Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The SuperCable: Dual Delivery of Chemical and Electric Power Paul M. Grant EPRI Science Fellow (retired) IBM Research Staff Member Emeritus Principal,

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "The SuperCable: Dual Delivery of Chemical and Electric Power Paul M. Grant EPRI Science Fellow (retired) IBM Research Staff Member Emeritus Principal,"— Presentation transcript:

1 The SuperCable: Dual Delivery of Chemical and Electric Power Paul M. Grant EPRI Science Fellow (retired) IBM Research Staff Member Emeritus Principal, W2AGZ Technologies SuperGrid October 2004, Urbana, Il Technical Plenary Session – Levis Faculty Center -- UIUC Monday, 25 October 2004, 9:30 AM

2 The Discoveries Leiden, 1914 Zürich, 1986

3 Superconductivity eeee

4 GLAG

5 The Flavors of Superconductivity 1/4 H C1 H -M Meissner H C1 Normal TCTC Temperature Magnetic Field < Type I

6 Abrikosov Vortex Lattice H

7 The Flavors of Superconductivity 1/4 H C1 H -M Meissner H C1 Normal TCTC Temperature Magnetic Field H C2 Mixed > Type II

8 Abrikosov Vortex Lattice J H FF

9 The Flavors of Superconductivity 1/4 H C1 H -M Meissner H C1 Normal TCTC Temperature Magnetic Field H C2 Mixed > Type II NOT PERFECT CONDUCTOR!

10 Abrikosov Vortex Lattice J H FF Pinned

11 Meissner H C1 Normal TCTC Temperature Magnetic Field H C2 Mixed The Flavors of Superconductivity R = 0 R 0 Meissner H C1 Normal TCTC Temperature Magnetic Field H C2 Mixed

12 No More Ohms Law E = aJ n n = 15 T = 77 K HTS Gen 1 E = 1 V/cm

13 ac Hysteresis 1/4 H C1 H -M H C2

14 T C vs Year: Temperature, T C (K) Year Low-T C High-T C 164 K MgB 2

15 Oxide PowderMechanically Alloyed Precursor 1.Powder Preparation HTSC Wire Can Be Made! A. Extrusion B. Wire Draw C. Rolling Deformation & Processing 3. Oxidation - Heat Treat 4. Billet Packing & Sealing 2. But its 70% silver!

16 Finished Cable

17 Reading Assignment 1.Garwin and Matisoo, 1967 (100 GW on Nb 3 Sn)Garwin and Matisoo 2.Bartlit, Edeskuty and Hammel, 1972 (LH 2, LNG and 1 GW on LTSC)Bartlit, Edeskuty and Hammel 3.Haney and Hammond, 1977 (Slush LH 2 and Nb 3 Ge)Haney and Hammond 4.Schoenung, Hassenzahl and Grant, 1997 (5 GW on HTSC, 1000 km)Schoenung, Hassenzahl and Grant 5.Grant, 2002 (SuperCity, Nukes+LH 2 +HTSC)Grant 6.Proceedings, SuperGrid Workshop, 2002Proceedings These articles, and much more, can be found at sub-pages SuperGrid/Bibliography

18 1967: SC Cable Proposed! 100 GW dc, 1000 km !

19 Hydricity SuperCables +v I -v I H2H2 H2H2 Circuit #1 +v I -v I H2H2 H2H2 Circuit #2 Multiple circuits can be laid in single trench

20 SuperCable

21 Power Flows P SC = 2|V|IA SC, where P SC = Electric power flow V = Voltage to neutral (ground) I = Supercurrent A SC = Cross-sectional area of superconducting annulus Electricity P H2 = 2(QρvA) H2, where P H2 = Chemical power flow Q = Gibbs H 2 oxidation energy (2.46 eV per mol H 2 ) ρ = H 2 Density v = H 2 Flow Rate A = Cross-sectional area of H 2 cryotube Hydrogen

22 Power Flows: 5 GW e /10 GW th

23 Radiation Losses W R = 0.5εσ (T 4 amb – T 4 SC ), where W R = Power radiated in as watts/unit area σ = 5.67× W/cm 2 K 4 T amb = 300 K T SC = 20 K ε = 0.05 per inner and outer tube surface D H = 45.3 cm W R = 16.3 W/m Superinsulation: W R f = W R /(n-1), where n = number of layers = 10 Net Heat In-Leak Due to Radiation = 1.8 W/m

24 Fluid Friction Losses W loss = M P loss /, Where M = mass flow per unit length P loss = pressure loss per unit length = fluid density FluidRe (mm) D H (cm)v (m/s) P (atm/10 km) Power Loss (W/m) H (20K)2.08 x

25 Heat Removal dT/dx = W T /(ρvC P A) H2, where dT/dx = Temp rise along cable, K/m W T = Thermal in-leak per unit Length ρ = H 2 Density v = H 2 Flow Rate C P = H 2 Heat Capacity A = Cross-sectional area of H 2 cryotube SuperCable Losses (W/M)K/10km RadiativeFrictionac LossesConductiveTotaldT/dx

26 SuperCable H 2 Storage Some Storage Factoids Power (GW) Storage (hrs)Energy (GWh) TVA Raccoon Mountain Alabama CAES120 Scaled ETM SMES188 One Raccoon Mountain = 13,800 cubic meters of LH2 LH 2 in 45 cm diameter, 12 mile bipolar SuperCable = Raccoon Mountain

27 H 2 Gas at 77 K and 1850 psia has 50% of the energy content of liquid H 2 and 100% at 6800 psia

28 Hybrid SuperCable

29 Electrical Issues Voltage – current tradeoffs –Cold vs Warm Dielectric AC interface (phases) –Generate dc? Multipole, low rpm units (aka hydro) Ripple suppression –Filters Cryogenics –Pulse Tubes –Cryobreaks Mag Field Forces Splices (R = 0?) Charge/Discharge cycles (Faults!) Power Electronics –GTOs vs IGBTs –12 wafer platforms –Cryo-Bipolars

30 Construction Issues Pipe Lengths & Diameters (Transportation) Coax vs RTD Rigid vs Flexible? On-Site Manufacturing –Conductor winding (3-4 pipe lengths) –Vacuum: permanently sealed or actively pumped? Joints –Superconducting –Welds –Thermal Expansion (bellows)

31 Jumpstarting the SuperGrid Do it with SuperCables Focus on the next two decades Get started with superconducting dc cable interties & back-to-backs using existing ROWs As hydrogen economy expands, parallel/replace existing gas transmission lines with SuperCables Start digging

32

33 Al-Can Gas Pipeline Proposals

34 Mackenzie Valley Pipeline 1300 km 18 GW-thermal

35 Electrical Insulation Super- Insulation Superconductor 105 K 1 atm (14.7 psia) Liquid 77 K Thermal Barrier to LNG LNG SuperCable

36 SuperCable Prototype Project H2H2 e–e– H 2 Storage SMES Cryo I/C Station 500 m Prototype Appropriate National Laboratory

37 Regional System Interconnections


Download ppt "The SuperCable: Dual Delivery of Chemical and Electric Power Paul M. Grant EPRI Science Fellow (retired) IBM Research Staff Member Emeritus Principal,"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google