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The SuperCable: Dual Delivery of Chemical and Electric Power Paul M. Grant EPRI Science Fellow (retired) IBM Research Staff Member Emeritus Principal, W2AGZ Technologies SuperGrid October 2004, Urbana, Il Technical Plenary Session – Levis Faculty Center -- UIUC Monday, 25 October 2004, 9:30 AM

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The Discoveries Leiden, 1914 Zürich, 1986

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Superconductivity eeee

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GLAG

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The Flavors of Superconductivity 1/4 H C1 H -M Meissner H C1 Normal TCTC Temperature Magnetic Field < Type I

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Abrikosov Vortex Lattice H

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The Flavors of Superconductivity 1/4 H C1 H -M Meissner H C1 Normal TCTC Temperature Magnetic Field H C2 Mixed > Type II

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Abrikosov Vortex Lattice J H FF

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The Flavors of Superconductivity 1/4 H C1 H -M Meissner H C1 Normal TCTC Temperature Magnetic Field H C2 Mixed > Type II NOT PERFECT CONDUCTOR!

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Abrikosov Vortex Lattice J H FF Pinned

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Meissner H C1 Normal TCTC Temperature Magnetic Field H C2 Mixed The Flavors of Superconductivity R = 0 R 0 Meissner H C1 Normal TCTC Temperature Magnetic Field H C2 Mixed

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No More Ohms Law E = aJ n n = 15 T = 77 K HTS Gen 1 E = 1 V/cm

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ac Hysteresis 1/4 H C1 H -M H C2

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T C vs Year: Temperature, T C (K) Year Low-T C High-T C 164 K MgB 2

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Oxide PowderMechanically Alloyed Precursor 1.Powder Preparation HTSC Wire Can Be Made! A. Extrusion B. Wire Draw C. Rolling Deformation & Processing 3. Oxidation - Heat Treat 4. Billet Packing & Sealing 2. But its 70% silver!

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Finished Cable

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Reading Assignment 1.Garwin and Matisoo, 1967 (100 GW on Nb 3 Sn)Garwin and Matisoo 2.Bartlit, Edeskuty and Hammel, 1972 (LH 2, LNG and 1 GW on LTSC)Bartlit, Edeskuty and Hammel 3.Haney and Hammond, 1977 (Slush LH 2 and Nb 3 Ge)Haney and Hammond 4.Schoenung, Hassenzahl and Grant, 1997 (5 GW on HTSC, 1000 km)Schoenung, Hassenzahl and Grant 5.Grant, 2002 (SuperCity, Nukes+LH 2 +HTSC)Grant 6.Proceedings, SuperGrid Workshop, 2002Proceedings These articles, and much more, can be found at sub-pages SuperGrid/Bibliography

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1967: SC Cable Proposed! 100 GW dc, 1000 km !

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Hydricity SuperCables +v I -v I H2H2 H2H2 Circuit #1 +v I -v I H2H2 H2H2 Circuit #2 Multiple circuits can be laid in single trench

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SuperCable

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Power Flows P SC = 2|V|IA SC, where P SC = Electric power flow V = Voltage to neutral (ground) I = Supercurrent A SC = Cross-sectional area of superconducting annulus Electricity P H2 = 2(QρvA) H2, where P H2 = Chemical power flow Q = Gibbs H 2 oxidation energy (2.46 eV per mol H 2 ) ρ = H 2 Density v = H 2 Flow Rate A = Cross-sectional area of H 2 cryotube Hydrogen

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Power Flows: 5 GW e /10 GW th

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Radiation Losses W R = 0.5εσ (T 4 amb – T 4 SC ), where W R = Power radiated in as watts/unit area σ = 5.67× W/cm 2 K 4 T amb = 300 K T SC = 20 K ε = 0.05 per inner and outer tube surface D H = 45.3 cm W R = 16.3 W/m Superinsulation: W R f = W R /(n-1), where n = number of layers = 10 Net Heat In-Leak Due to Radiation = 1.8 W/m

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Fluid Friction Losses W loss = M P loss /, Where M = mass flow per unit length P loss = pressure loss per unit length = fluid density FluidRe (mm) D H (cm)v (m/s) P (atm/10 km) Power Loss (W/m) H (20K)2.08 x

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Heat Removal dT/dx = W T /(ρvC P A) H2, where dT/dx = Temp rise along cable, K/m W T = Thermal in-leak per unit Length ρ = H 2 Density v = H 2 Flow Rate C P = H 2 Heat Capacity A = Cross-sectional area of H 2 cryotube SuperCable Losses (W/M)K/10km RadiativeFrictionac LossesConductiveTotaldT/dx

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SuperCable H 2 Storage Some Storage Factoids Power (GW) Storage (hrs)Energy (GWh) TVA Raccoon Mountain Alabama CAES120 Scaled ETM SMES188 One Raccoon Mountain = 13,800 cubic meters of LH2 LH 2 in 45 cm diameter, 12 mile bipolar SuperCable = Raccoon Mountain

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H 2 Gas at 77 K and 1850 psia has 50% of the energy content of liquid H 2 and 100% at 6800 psia

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Hybrid SuperCable

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Electrical Issues Voltage – current tradeoffs –Cold vs Warm Dielectric AC interface (phases) –Generate dc? Multipole, low rpm units (aka hydro) Ripple suppression –Filters Cryogenics –Pulse Tubes –Cryobreaks Mag Field Forces Splices (R = 0?) Charge/Discharge cycles (Faults!) Power Electronics –GTOs vs IGBTs –12 wafer platforms –Cryo-Bipolars

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Construction Issues Pipe Lengths & Diameters (Transportation) Coax vs RTD Rigid vs Flexible? On-Site Manufacturing –Conductor winding (3-4 pipe lengths) –Vacuum: permanently sealed or actively pumped? Joints –Superconducting –Welds –Thermal Expansion (bellows)

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Jumpstarting the SuperGrid Do it with SuperCables Focus on the next two decades Get started with superconducting dc cable interties & back-to-backs using existing ROWs As hydrogen economy expands, parallel/replace existing gas transmission lines with SuperCables Start digging

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Al-Can Gas Pipeline Proposals

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Mackenzie Valley Pipeline 1300 km 18 GW-thermal

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Electrical Insulation Super- Insulation Superconductor 105 K 1 atm (14.7 psia) Liquid 77 K Thermal Barrier to LNG LNG SuperCable

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SuperCable Prototype Project H2H2 e–e– H 2 Storage SMES Cryo I/C Station 500 m Prototype Appropriate National Laboratory

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Regional System Interconnections

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