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**The SuperCable: Dual Delivery of Chemical and Electric Power**

Paul M. Grant EPRI Science Fellow (retired) IBM Research Staff Member Emeritus Principal, W2AGZ Technologies 2004 SuperGrid 2 October 2004, Urbana, Il Technical Plenary Session – Levis Faculty Center -- UIUC Monday, 25 October 2004, 9:30 AM

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The Discoveries Zürich, 1986 Leiden, 1914

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Superconductivity 101 + • e - • - e

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GLAG

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**The Flavors of Superconductivity**

HC1 H -M Meissner Normal TC Temperature Magnetic Field < Type I

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**Abrikosov Vortex Lattice**

H

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**The Flavors of Superconductivity**

> Type II 1/4p HC1 H -M Meissner Normal TC Temperature Magnetic Field HC2 Mixed

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**Abrikosov Vortex Lattice**

H F J

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**The Flavors of Superconductivity**

> Type II 1/4p HC1 H -M Meissner Normal TC Temperature Magnetic Field HC2 Mixed NOT PERFECT CONDUCTOR!

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**Abrikosov Vortex Lattice**

H “Pinned” F J

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**The Flavors of Superconductivity**

Meissner HC1 Normal TC Temperature Magnetic Field HC2 HC2 Normal R 0 Magnetic Field R = 0 Mixed Mixed HC1 Meissner TC Temperature

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No More Ohm’s Law E = aJn n = 15 T = 77 K HTS Gen 1 E = 1 V/cm

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ac Hysteresis 1/4p HC1 H -M HC2

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**TC vs Year: 1991 - 2001 Temperature, TC (K) Year 200 1900 1920 1940**

1960 1980 2000 High-TC 164 K 150 Temperature, TC (K) 100 50 MgB2 Low-TC Year

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**HTSC Wire Can Be Made! But it’s 70% silver! Oxide Powder**

Mechanically Alloyed Precursor 1. Powder Preparation Billet Packing & Sealing 2. A. Extrusion B. Wire Draw C. Rolling Deformation & Processing 3. Oxidation - Heat Treat 4. But it’s 70% silver!

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Finished Cable

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**Reading Assignment Garwin and Matisoo, 1967 (100 GW on Nb3Sn)**

Bartlit, Edeskuty and Hammel, 1972 (LH2, LNG and 1 GW on LTSC) Haney and Hammond, 1977 (Slush LH2 and Nb3Ge) Schoenung, Hassenzahl and Grant, 1997 (5 GW on HTSC, 1000 km) Grant, 2002 (SuperCity, Nukes+LH2+HTSC) Proceedings, SuperGrid Workshop, 2002 These articles, and much more, can be found at sub-pages SuperGrid/Bibliography

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1967: SC Cable Proposed! 100 GW dc, 1000 km !

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**“Hydricity” SuperCables**

+v I -v H2 Circuit #1 +v I I -v Multiple circuits can be laid in single trench H2 H2 Circuit #2

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SuperCable

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**Power Flows Electricity Hydrogen PSC = 2|V|IASC, where **

PSC = Electric power flow V = Voltage to neutral (ground) I = Supercurrent ASC = Cross-sectional area of superconducting annulus Electricity PH2 = 2(QρvA)H2, where PH2 = Chemical power flow Q = Gibbs H2 oxidation energy (2.46 eV per mol H2) ρ = H2 Density v = H2 Flow Rate A = Cross-sectional area of H2 cryotube Hydrogen

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Power Flows: 5 GWe/10 GWth

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**Radiation Losses WR = 0.5εσ (T4amb – T4SC), where **

WR = Power radiated in as watts/unit area σ = 5.67×10-12 W/cm2K4 Tamb = 300 K TSC = 20 K ε = 0.05 per inner and outer tube surface DH = 45.3 cm WR = 16.3 W/m Superinsulation: WRf = WR/(n-1), where n = number of layers = 10 Net Heat In-Leak Due to Radiation = 1.8 W/m

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**Fluid Friction Losses Wloss = M Ploss / ,**

Where M = mass flow per unit length Ploss = pressure loss per unit length = fluid density Fluid Re (mm) DH (cm) v (m/s) P (atm/10 km) Power Loss (W/m) H (20K) 2.08 x 106 0.015 45.3 4.76 2.0 3.2

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**SuperCable Losses (W/M)**

Heat Removal dT/dx = WT/(ρvCPA)H2, where dT/dx = Temp rise along cable, K/m WT = Thermal in-leak per unit Length ρ = H2 Density v = H2 Flow Rate CP = H2 Heat Capacity A = Cross-sectional area of H2 cryotube SuperCable Losses (W/M) K/10km Radiative Friction ac Losses Conductive Total dT/dx 1.8 3.2 1 7 10-2

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**LH2 in 45 cm diameter, 12 mile bipolar SuperCable**

SuperCable H2 Storage Some Storage Factoids Power (GW) Storage (hrs) Energy (GWh) TVA Raccoon Mountain 1.6 20 32 Alabama CAES 1 Scaled ETM SMES 8 One Raccoon Mountain = 13,800 cubic meters of LH2 LH2 in 45 cm diameter, 12 mile bipolar SuperCable = Raccoon Mountain

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**H2 Gas at 77 K and 1850 psia has 50% of the energy content of liquid H2**

and 100% at 6800 psia

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“Hybrid” SuperCable

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**Electrical Issues Voltage – current tradeoffs AC interface (phases)**

“Cold” vs “Warm” Dielectric AC interface (phases) Generate dc? Multipole, low rpm units (aka hydro) Ripple suppression Filters Cryogenics Pulse Tubes “Cryobreaks” Mag Field Forces Splices (R = 0?) Charge/Discharge cycles (Faults!) Power Electronics GTOs vs IGBTs 12” wafer platforms Cryo-Bipolars

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**Construction Issues Pipe Lengths & Diameters (Transportation)**

Coax vs RTD Rigid vs Flexible? On-Site Manufacturing Conductor winding (3-4 pipe lengths) Vacuum: permanently sealed or actively pumped? Joints Superconducting Welds Thermal Expansion (bellows)

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**Jumpstarting the SuperGrid**

Do it with SuperCables Focus on the next two decades Get started with superconducting dc cable interties & back-to-backs using existing ROWs As “hydrogen economy” expands, parallel/replace existing gas transmission lines with SuperCables Start digging

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**Al-Can Gas Pipeline Proposals**

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**Mackenzie Valley Pipeline**

1300 km 18 GW-thermal

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**Electrical Insulation**

LNG SuperCable Electrical Insulation “Super-Insulation” Superconductor 105 K 1 atm (14.7 psia) Liquid 77 K Thermal Barrier to LNG

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**SuperCable Prototype Project**

H2 e– Cryo I/C Station H2 Storage SMES 500 m Prototype “Appropriate National Laboratory”

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**Regional System Interconnections**

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