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Praxis Prep. Alveolar fricative: Sound produced with the tip of the tongue on or near the tooth ridge Example: /s/ in sit Manner of articulation: Describes.

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Presentation on theme: "Praxis Prep. Alveolar fricative: Sound produced with the tip of the tongue on or near the tooth ridge Example: /s/ in sit Manner of articulation: Describes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Praxis Prep

2 Alveolar fricative: Sound produced with the tip of the tongue on or near the tooth ridge Example: /s/ in sit Manner of articulation: Describes how the tongue, lips, jaw, & other speech organs are involved in making a sound make contact Typically, refers to consonants

3 Palato-alveolar fricative: Sound produced with the tongue farther back in the mouth Example: [S] as in she Circumlocution: Indirect way of saying something; use of wordiness to avoid getting to the point Example: its not you; its me. Youre great! Anyone would be lucky to have a boyfriend like you. One day, Ill regret this decision.

4 Minimal pair: Two words that differ in one sound only Example: bit/pit, bet/set, lap/lab Palatalization: Pronounce a consonant with the tongue against the roof of the mouth Redundancy reduction: Redundancy is providing more information than is needed for communication; reduction is reducing the occurrence of this

5 When using more than one adjective in a sentence, use the following order: 1 st 2 nd 3 rd 4 th Opinion & general description Dimension, size, & weight AgeShape Example: nice, funny Example: big, small Example: old, new Example: round, square 5 th 6th7th8th ColorCountry of Origin MaterialPurpose & Power Example: green, red Example: English, Italian Example: wooden, cotton Example: tennis (shoes), walking (stick)

6 What is the difference between the following forms of assessment: Achievement (measures what a person knows or can do) Proficiency (measures performance according to a set goal) Diagnostic (reveals strengths/weaknesses) Placement (used to determine accurate instructional needs) Performance-based assessment (measures application of skills, etc. through meaningful 7 engaging tasks)

7 Linguistic approach Language experience approach Basel-reader approach Sight-word recognition Explores teaching based on ABCs, grammar, spelling, etc. Makes use of students experiences and emphasizes meaning Based on commercialized series of books; scope & sequence Focuses on the learners ability to recognize high-functional or basic sight words instantly; automaticity

8 Use English to communicate in social settings Social language Use English to achieve academically Academic language Use English in socially & cultural appropriate ways Socio-cultural knowledge

9 Community language learning approach: Students work together to determine what aspect of language is to be learned Communicative language teaching approach: Emphasizes skills used in real communication rather than in academic situations Audio- lingual (ism) approach: Focuses on drill & kill; believes that language learning is a matter of habit formation

10 Fossilization: Point past which language learners can not progress w/o exceptional effort or motivation Negative transfer: Relating prior experience in a detrimental manner to a new task Semiotics: Study of signs and their meanings based on semantics (relation to referents), syntactic (relation among formal structures) & pragmatics (relation to the effect they have on people)

11 TheoristBasic Premise Key Elements Georgi LozanovLearning is a Matter of attitude, not aptitude. Presentation (prep stage where students are helped to relax & form a positive attitude) First Concert/Active Concert (active presentation of material to be learned) Second Concert/Passive Concert (students are told to relax & listen) Practice (the use of games, puzzles, etc. to consolidate the learning)

12 Transitional bilingual program: Makes use of the idea that students will progress in L2 faster if proficient in their L1 Involves bilingual teaching in core subject areas with the learner transitioning to English only Maintenance bilingual program: Builds on L1 while learning L2 Believes that L1 should be enhanced & preserved Enrichment model that builds both L1 & L2 in a continual model

13 CognitiveAffective (Behavioral) Psychomotor Thought or knowledge Measureable What the student is able to do Observable Example: TLW know the difference between the types of objectives. Feelings or choices How the student chooses to behave or act Example: TLW will demonstrate a positive attitude toward others of different cultures and language registers. Physical skills What the student can perform Example: TLW complete jumping jacks as illustrated in class.

14 Paralinguistic features of communication: Aspects of language that are encoded separately from words (using vocal cues... Changing our speech patterns based on questions, punctuation, purpose, etc.) Meta-linguistic knowledge: Awareness of the features & rules of a given language, beyond simply being able to use them; interaction between language and a written text Scaffolding: actions that build or increase comprehension What are some scaffolding strategies?

15 Pedagogical approach: An approach that looks at how we teach, particularly on the strategies we choose and how we present information Silent way of teaching method: Avoids the use of vernacular; teacher is in control and is able to listen to L2s descriptions of actions performed and gestures used

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