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Yokogawa Electric Corporation YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation Friday, October 24, 2006 Industrial Ethernet and Networking October 24,

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Presentation on theme: "Yokogawa Electric Corporation YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation Friday, October 24, 2006 Industrial Ethernet and Networking October 24,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Yokogawa Electric Corporation YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation Friday, October 24, 2006 Industrial Ethernet and Networking October 24, 2006 Craig LaRose Product Sales Engineer Network Solutions

2 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.2 Basic hardware and addressing TCP/IP protocol Routers, Bridges, & Switches Webservers, & FTP Dial-up networking OPC connectivity software Wireless networking Additional Resources What You Will Learn

3 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.3 What is Ethernet? It is not the cable you connect to your PC It is group of standards which cover the transmission of data over a medium Term Alert: ETHERNET

4 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.4 OSI 7 Layer Model The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model is an attempt to standardize the functionality of end to end computer communications. Standards How can we best describe these standards

5 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.5 Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) Model 7 Layer OSI Model Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical 7 – Network Application 6 – Formatting of data and encryption 5 – Establishment and maintenance of sessions 4 – Provides reliable end-to-end delivery 3 – Packet delivery, including routing 2 – Framing of information and error checking 1 – Physical Medium requirements Layer Function

6 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.6 The path of data through the stack OSI Model Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Sender Receiver

7 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.7 How Ethernet Fits in the OSI Model 7 Layer OSI Model Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Ethernet Standard Determine of Data Path in Network Error Checking Logical Link Control Media Access Control Media specifications

8 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.8 Layer 1 Specifications 7 Layer OSI Model Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Ethernet Standard Determine of Data Path in Network Error Checking Logical Link Control Media Access Control Media specifications

9 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.9 Physical Layer Specifications

10 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.10 Cables and Connectors 10baseT Speed = 10 Mbps Physical Media (Twisted Pair) Cat 5e: voice and data at 100 mbps Cat 6: voice and data at 250 mbps Patch cable: straight thru; used with hubs & routers Cross cable: crossed; used for PC to device direct RJ45: standard 10baseT (twisted pair) connector* 100baseFL Speed = 100 Mbps Physical Media (Fiber Optic)

11 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.11 Multimode Fiber Optic Cables, ST®-ST 10baseFL, 100baseFL Backbone Coax Cable 10base5 ThinNet Coax Cable 10BASE-2 Physical Layer: More Wires

12 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.12 Layer 2 Specifications 7 Layer OSI Model Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Ethernet Standard Determine of Data Path in Network Error Checking Logical Link Control Media Access Control Media specifications

13 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.13 Logical Link Control Sub layer Establishes and Controls Logical Links between Local Devices on a Network Makes it Possible for Different Technologies to Work Seamlessly with Higher Layers Layer 2 : Data Link

14 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.14 Media Access Control Layer Procedures used by devices to control access Responsible for final encapsulation of data frames that are sent over the network Responsible for Final Addressing of Messages on Network. Responsible for Error Detection and Handling.. Layer 2 : Data Link

15 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.15 MAC Addressing Each device on a Network has a unique number called a MAC Address that is used to ensure that data for an intended machine gets to it properly. Made up of a 48 bit number First 6 bytes assigned by IEEE (Vendors ID) Last 6 bytes assigned by Vendor Layer 2 : Data Link a Vendor Device is the Yokogawa vendor ID

16 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.16 MAC Addresses: How do you find yours? Layer 2 : Data Link Windows NT/2000/2003/XP Open the command prompt from Run From the command prompt type "ipconfig /all" Find the network adapter you want to know the MAC address of Locate the number next to Physical Address. This is your MAC address Note: there are 2 48 = × available Mac addresses. Dont worry we wont run out.

17 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.17 Layer 3 Specifications 7 Layer OSI Model Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Ethernet Standard Logical Addressing Routing Logical Link Control Media Access Control Error Checking Media specifications

18 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.18 Network Layer Functions Logical Addressing – every device over a network has a logical address. For example the Internet Protocol (IP) is the network layer protocol and every machine has an unique IP address. Routing – responsible for information to move data across interconnected networks. Datagram Encapsulation Fragment and Reassembly Error Handling and Diagnostics Layer 3 : Network Layer

19 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.19 The TCP/IP protocol suite is named for two of its most important protocols. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) Internet Protocol (IP) The design goal of TCP/IP was to build an interconnection of networks that provided universal communication services: an Internet. TCP/IP provides a common interface for user- applications inderpendent of the underlying physical network. IP (Internet protocol) address –Known as the logical address –What Network is the device on? Term Alert: TCP/IP

20 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.20 An IP address is a unique identifier for a node or host connection on an IP network Every IP address consists of two parts, one identifying the network and one identifying the node. The Class determines which part belongs to the network address and which part belongs to the node Class A addresses begin with 1 to 126 Class B addresses begin with 128 to 191 Class C addresses begin with 192 to 223 Class D addresses begin with 224 to 239 Class E addresses begin with 240 to The Big 3: IP, Subnet, Gateway Class C Class A IP Addressing

21 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.21 network.host.host.host network.network.host.host network.network.network.host Internet Assigned Numbers Authority 4676 Admiralty Way, Suite 330 Marina del Rey, CA USA (phone) (facsimile) More About IP Addresses

22 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.22 Can be done for use of different physical media, preservation of address space, security, or more commonly to control network traffic Example 1: The Big 3: IP, Subnet, Gateway Example 2 : Subnetting Class B IP Address Default Class B Subnet Mask Network Address Default subnet masks IP Address Subnet Mask Subnet Address Broadcast Address Total of 49,140 node versus 65,534 using a unsubnetted Class B address

23 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.23 A Default Gateway is a node (Router) on a computer network that serves as an access point to another network. Example: The Big 3: IP, Subnet, Gateway Gateway IP Address: Subnet: Default Gateway: IP Address: Subnet: Default Gateway: IP Address: Subnet: Default Gateway: IP Address: Subnet: Default Gateway: IP Address: NETWORK ADDRESSES RANGE FROM TO Packets addressed outside of this range, for example are instead sent to the default gateway address, in this case to , which is resolved into a MAC address as usual. The destination IP address will stay , it is just the next- hop physical address that is used, in this case it will be the router's interface physical address. IP Address: IP Address: Subnet: Default Gateway:

24 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.24 Recap : IP and MAC Addresses IP Address Subnet Mask Gateway IP address tells you which network and what device in that network IP addresses must be unique within a network Subnet mask identifies network vs. device Gateway defines a router that moves data to higher level networks 255 means network 0 means device This is the network This is the.3 device IP MAC Media Access Control Internet Protocol Vendor Device MAC address identifies the device at hardware level (physical address) MAC addresses contain unique vendor and device IDs

25 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.25 Network Info on DX2000

26 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.26 IPv4 to IPv6 IPv4 supports 4.3 Billion addresses –Will not be enough to support the future IPv6 will support 3.4 x addresses There are fewer grains of sands in the Sahara Desert than will be available IP addresses Will this be enough address to support our needs?

27 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.27 Domain Name Server Software running on a host machine that links an IP address with a name. Allows users to connect to a device by IP address or by name. dx200.yca.com Domain names ending with.biz,.com,.info,.name,.net or.org can be registered through many different companies (known as "registrars"). Term Alert: DNS

28 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.28 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Process of automatically assigning an IP address when a device is connected to a local area network. Typically used in an office to conserve IP addresses. DX2000 and MW100 can run static or dynamic (DHCP) Term Alert: DHCP

29 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.29 Static IP Dynamic IP (DHCP) Static vs. Dynamic Addressing

30 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.30 winipcfg (W95, W98, ME) ipconfig (NT 4.0, 2000) Looking at Your Network

31 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.31 Pinging to test an IP address Reply from : bytes=32 time<10ms TTL=128 IP Address Number of bytes transmitted Time To Live Maximum Hops Round Trip Time Looking at Your Network

32 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.32 Layer 4 Specifications 7 Layer OSI Model Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Ethernet Standard Logical Addressing Routing Error Checking Media specifications Logical Link Control Media Access Control

33 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.33 Provides transparent transfer of data between hosts. It is usually responsible error recovery and flow control, and ensuring complete data transfer. Reliable Data The Transport layer can detect and repair data errors. Flow Control The Transport layer controls the amount of data flow on the network. The amount of memory on a computer is limited, and without flow control a larger computer might flood a computer with so much information that it can't hold it all before dealing with it. Byte Orientation Rather than dealing with things on a packet-by-packet basis, the Transport layer may add the ability to view communication just as a stream of bytes. This is nicer to deal with than random packet sizes, however, it rarely matches the communication model which will normally be a sequence of messages of user defined sizes. Ports Ports are essentially ways to address multiple entities in the same location. Computer applications will each listen for information on their own ports, which is why you can use more than one network-based application at the same time. On the Internet there are a variety of Transport services, but the two most common are TCP and UDP. TCP is the more complicated, providing a connection and byte oriented stream which is almost error free, with flow control, multiple ports, and same order delivery. UDP is a very simple 'datagram' service, which provides limited error reduction and multiple ports. TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol, while UDP stands for User Datagram Protocol. Other options are the Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP) and Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP). Layer Four: Transport

34 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.34 Collision Devices wait until the wire is empty Allows two devices to try and talk at the same time Collisions occur (contention based) Has methods to handle collisions is a broadcast network Success IEEE Ethernet Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection

35 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.35 Port numbers are divided into three ranges: Well Known Ports Registered Ports Dynamic and/or Private Ports Term Alert: Ethernet Ports

36 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.36 Wide Area Network Wide-area networks (WANs) interconnect LANs with geographically dispersed users to create connectivity. Some of the technologies used for connecting LANs include T1, T3, ATM, ISDN, ADSL, Frame Relay, radio links, and others. New methods of connecting dispersed LANs are appearing everyday. Term Alert: WAN

37 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.37 WAN PC DARWIN DC100 DX200 PLC Router: Plant B Plant A PC Router: Corporate Router: I nternet S ervice P rovider Network: Non-Routeable Using NAT Network: Routeable Network: Routeable

38 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.38 Layer 5,6,7 Specifications 7 Layer OSI Model Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Application Layer HTTP, FTP & SMTP Logical Addressing Routing Error Checking Media specifications Logical Link Control Media Access Control

39 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.39 What Can We Do on the Application Layer? Configure Devices View operations remotely Control operations remotely Transfer data files Transfer graphics

40 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.40 Web Server Application software embedded in a network device that automatically delivers a pre-formatted screen and data views to a PC when a browser (Internet Explorer or Netscape) connects to the device over a network. Uses software technology like html, JAVA, and CGI. Provides access with custom software! Term Alert: Web Server

41 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.41 PC( ) DX /C2 option MB master What is a Web Server ?

42 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.42 Configuration via Network

43 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.43 PNG Graphic Files via Network

44 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.44

45 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.45 Network Interface Card A computer card containing and Ethernet controller chip and communications transceivers able to connect to the wire and talk using Ethernet rules and format. Desktop NIC Card IEEE802.3 Laptop PCMCIA Card IEEE802.3 Laptop PCMCIA Card Wireless IEEE Desktop NIC Card IEEE802.3u Term Alert: NIC

46 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.46 Layer 1 Devices Hardware Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Device Types Repeaters Media converters Hubs Function Signal regeneration Media conversion Isolate network faults by segmenting How they work Operate at the Ethernet physical layer Receive Messages, regenerate and repeat on all ports

47 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.47 All devices in the same collision domain All devices in the same Broadcast domain Devices share the same bandwith Hub: Good Performance

48 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.48 LAN LAN Hub Data Flow in TCP/IP Networks

49 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.49 Layer 2 Devices Hardware Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Device Types Bridges Switches Function Segmentation of Networks Speed Transition How they work Processes Ethernet header information Learns a nodes location by examining source address, forwards messages based on the destination address

50 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.50 Each device has a unique collision domain All devices in the same broadcast domain Devices do not share bandwith Switch: Better Performance

51 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.51 Layer 3 Devices Hardware Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Device Types Routers Layer 3 Switch Function Coupling of subnets Network transition (ISDN – Ethernet) Internet Connectivity How they work Processe IP header information Forwards packets between networks based on Network layer information

52 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.52 Unique collision domain for each device Unique broadcast domain for each device Devices do not share bandwith Router: Best Performance

53 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.53 Data Flow with a Switch Switch Hub Send Packet Send Reply

54 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.54

55 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.55 File Transfer Protocol A format and procedure making it easy to send/receive/view files between devices on a network. DX uses FTP to automatically send files to a network server, eliminating need for manual collection of data files. Term Alert: FTP

56 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.56 Using an FTP client on the PC, files on DX can be copied &deleted. Internet Explorer has an embedded FTP client. PC( ) Server Client PC pulls files DX=FTP Server, PC=FTP Client

57 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.57 PC( ) Using an FTP server on the PC, DX will automatically send files to the PC. Server Client DX pushes files DX=FTP Client, PC=FTP Server

58 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.58 Internet Information Services (IIS) is the Windows component that makes it easy to publish information and bring business applications to the Web. IIS makes it easy for you to create a strong platform for network applications and communications. Setup your PC as an ftp Server Internet Information Services

59 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.59

60 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.60 Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Post Office Protocol Version 3 SMTP is a protocol in OSI 7 layer model that defines format and procedure for a network device to send to another device on the network. POP3 is a protocol that defines how to retrieve on the Internet Term Alert: SMTP & POP3

61 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.61 Argosoft Mail server POP SMTP PC( ) DX with SMTP Server/Client

62 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.62

63 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.63 Device Servers enable non-Ethernet ready products to communicate via Ethernet(TCP/IP). Yokogawa Chart Recorder Serial RS422 Interface Device Server IP Address Virtual Com Port Redirector COM5 = : Terminal/Device Servers

64 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.64 OLE for Process Control A software standard developed by hardware vendors, software vendors and end users that specifies a common client/server interface format between hardware and software. SCADA/HMI vendors create OPC clients. Hardware vendors create OPC servers. Term Alert: OPC

65 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.65 The OPC Concept Other Vendor Devices PC Running OPC Server SCADA/HMI Software Wonderware Intellution Iconics RSView Lookout Plant Information Management Software Yokogawa Exaquantum OSI PI Aspentech Ethernet or Serial Interfaces

66 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.66

67 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.67 MODBUS, a defacto standard from Modicon Three basic types, RTU, ASCII, TCP MODBUS TCP is over Ethernet MODBUS Plus is an enhanced peer to peer Modbus TCP is Modbus Protocol encapsulated in a TCP Packet. MODBUS Protocol

68 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.68 Daqstation A-B PLC with Prosoft MODBUS card Modbus provides a common interface between hardware from multiple products. RS422/485 MODBUS: DX to SLC500

69 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page Analog Inputs via Modbus RS422/485 Serial DARWIN I/O RS422/485 Modbus Slave Device DAQSTATION RS422/RS485 Modbus Master Device 30 Analog Inputs Ethernet MODBUS: Extended Inputs

70 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.70 DAQSTATION CX RS422/RS485 Modbus Master Device 16 Single Loop Controllers via Modbus RS422/485 Serial 20 Analog Inputs Ethernet MODBUS: External Controllers

71 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.71 World's First F OUNDATION TM Fieldbus-Compatible Recorder DAQSTATION will support the F OUNDATION TM Fieldbus that's becoming the bi-directional digital communication standard for instrumentation in the 21st century. The F OUNDATION TM Fieldbus can: Dramatically increase the amount of data transmitted. Drastically reduce the wiring costs. Support a multivendor environment. Simplify control. DPharp EJA Digital differential pressure transmitter YEWFLO Vortex flowmeter YVP Valve positioner ADMAG-AE Electromagnetic flowmeter YTA Temperature transmitter DAQSTATION Device type:Link master Function blocks AI:8 blocks MAI:8 channels 1 block MAO:8 channels 1 block Foundation Fieldbus

72 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.72 Fieldbus Applications

73 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.73 Fieldbus Applications

74 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.74 Fieldbus Applications

75 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page VPN Server IP: SN: DG: Hub ?.? INTERNET Remote User VPN Client Typical Office LAN Typical Data Acquisition LAN Ftp Server Primary Ftp Server Secondary LAN Router WAN Router PI Database Server ISP IP: SN: DG: IP: SN: DG: IP: SN: DG: Recap

76 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page Copy of PowerPoint - PDFs of tutorials and white papers - Links to useful sites Additional Resources

77 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.77 What You Will Learn Today Introduction to basic network concepts Radio frequency and spread spectrum technology basics Wired and wireless standards Wireless topologies (Ad Hoc vs. Infrastructure) Security in wireless networks Setting up an office grade wireless router Radio Physics Types of wireless radios (industrial and office) Implementation issues (antennaes, site surveys) Typical uses of wireless in industrial settings

78 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.78 Microwaves, RC Cars, Cordless Phones, & Door Openers These everyday devices use radio frequency technology Microwave (2.5 GHz) Garage Door Opener ( MHz) Cordless Phones (900MHz, 2.4GHz, 5.8GHz) RC Toys (27 or 49 MHz)

79 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.79 A Look At Radio Frequencies Radio frequency spectrum is assigned by governments –CB radio: MHz –FM radio: MHz –WiFi for PCs: 2.4 GHZ Licensed vs. Unlicensed bands –Licensed provides more power! Two licensed frequency bands –400 MHz –900 MHz 3 unlicensed frequency bands in U.S. –ISM bands (Industrial, Scientific, Medical) – MHz –2.4 to GHz –5.725 to GHz (U-NII*). *Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure

80 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.80 Frequencies By Country North America License-free 900MHz, 2.4 GHZ, and 5.4 GHZ spread spectrum Licensed 400MHz to 500MHz fixed frequency Europe License-free 433 MHz (all countries) UK, Sweden, Finland, Spain, Portugal, Poland, Czech also have special channels in the 400 MHz band 869MHz 500mW 10% duty factor or 5mW 100% duty factor Licensed 450MHz (most countries) South America License-free 900MHz spread spectrum (most countries) Licensed 400MHz to 500MHz fixed frequency Asia License-free 450MHz (Singapore, Hong Kong) License-free 220MHz fixed frequency (China) Licensed 400MHz to 500 MHz fixed frequency (most countries) Middle East Licensed 900MHz spread spectrum (some countries) Licensed 400MHz to 500 MHz fixed frequency (most countries) Africa License-free 433MHz (some countries) Licensed 400MHz to 500MHz fixed frequency

81 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.81 Sending Information by Radio Start with data Modulate the data over the fixed frequency carrier Resulting signal has data

82 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.82 Narrow Band vs. Spread Spectrum Two approaches for signal delivery Spread Spectrum is our interest for Office and Industrial

83 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.83 Who is this Woman? Hedwig Eva Maria Kiesler

84 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.84 What is Spread Spectrum? Original application of spread spectrum was Military Industrial radios use spread spectrum technology –Lower power density (less power at any given frequency) –Higher noise immunity and resistance to interference –Improved security Two types of spread spectrum –Direct Sequence (DSSS) –Frequency Hopping (FHSS) The signal from the radio transmitter is spread across a wider range of radio frequency than is required for standard narrow band applications (like FM radio)

85 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.85 A Bit of History : The Frequency Hopping Patent In the United States Hedy Lamarr and George Antheil, shunned by the Navy, no longer pursued their invention. But in 1957, the concept was taken up by engineers at the Sylvania Electronic Systems Division, in Buffalo, New York. Their arrangement, using, of course, electronics rather than piano rolls, ultimately became a basic tool for secure military communications. It was installed on ships sent to blockade Cuba in 1962, about three years after the Lamarr-Antheil patent had expired. Subsequent patents in frequency changing, which are generally unrelated to torpedo control, have referred to the Lamarr- Antheil patent as the basis of the field, and the concept lies behind the principal anti-jamming device used today, for example, in the U.S. government's Milstar defense communication satellite system. Heddy Lamarr

86 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.86 Back to Basics The Two Commonly Used Types of Spread Spectrum Technology FHSS Frequency Hopping DSSS Direct Sequence

87 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.87 DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum) Base transmission is centered at a specific frequency Transmitted with frequency changing many times per data bit Multiple copies of each original data bit are sent at different frequencies Transmission at each frequency is sent at lower power DSSS Spreads the message across a wide frequency

88 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.88 DSSS Encoding Scheme THE WIRELESS OPTION FOR INDUSTRIAL ETHERNET 0 = = Encoding is done in the data stream before transmission Direct sequence encoding uses psuedo-random noise generator (PN) Each data bit is encoded into a longer data string Resulting longer message is now encrypted, only matching radio can decode

89 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.89 DSSS Signal Advantages Encoded data looks like noise Transmission is sent at low power so it is harder to detect RFI noise can easily be discriminated from data signal

90 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.90 FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum) A single data packet is transmitted at one frequency The radio then hops to a new frequency to transmit the next packet Transmitter and receiver are programmed with the same hop pattern The frequency hops appear random to observers Hopping avoids interference (usually narrow band at one frequency) Redundancy is achieved by re-transmitting at different frequency FHSS moves the message between different frequencies

91 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.91 FHSS Encoding THE WIRELESS OPTION FOR INDUSTRIAL ETHERNET Frequency hopping encoding is done at transmission The hop pattern for the frequency is encoding Data itself is not directly encoded (as in direct sequence) Observed frequencies do not show any obvious pattern

92 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.92 Comparison of DSSS vs. FHSS DSSS encodes the data FHSS encodes the frequency Data speed: DSSS has higher rates (FHSS has hop latency ) Power: FHSS is lower power (DSSS has complex circuits) Cost: FHSS is generally lower in cost Robustness: FHSS has stronger noise immunity Density: More FHSS in one area than DSSS Data Accuracy: DSSS wins on this one

93 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.93 OFDM: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Used in g and a home/office radios Provides higher data rates Uses multiple sub-carrier frequencies each centered at different frequencies Breaks the data message into parts Transmits all the parts at the same time using the sub-carriers Fast transmission is sent as many parallel slow transmissions Not used in current generation of industrial radios A Third Type of Spread Spectrum Technology !

94 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.94 Quick Quiz #1 Do industrial radios use narrow band or spread spectrum technology? –Spread spectrum Name the 2 types of spread spectrum technology used in industrial radios –DSSS: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum –FHSS: Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum Which is capable of higher speeds, DSSS or FHSS? –DSSS ISM is an abbreviation for what? –Industrial, Scientific, and Medical How many ISM bands exist? –Three Are the ISM bands licensed or unlicensed? –Unlicensed What are the frequencies of the ISM bands? –900 MHz, 2.4 GHz, 5.8 GHz What is the primary advantage of a licensed band? –More power than unlicensed bands (i.e. more power is more distance)

95 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.95 Wired & Wireless Standards Wired i u 802.3af 10base-T ethernet Token Ring (IBM…) 100base-TX ethernet Powered ethernet 802.3ab 1000base-T gigabit copper Wireless WPAN (wireless personal area network) 802.1x a b g Mbps at 5.4 GHz Wi-Fi, 11 Mbps in 2.4 GHz 54 Mbps at 2.4 GHz Bluetooth Zigbee WMAN (wireless metropolitan area network) WLAN (wireless local area network)

96 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.96 Wireless Standards –1 or 2 Mbps transmission in the 2.4 GHz band –Frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) –Direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) b (2.4 to GHz) –Data speeds to 11Mbps –DSSS only –Wi-Fi is interoperability standard for b (WECA) g (2.4 to GHz) –54 Mbps speed extension of b with OFDM –Backward compatible with b for <11 Mbps a (5.15 to GHz) –Data speeds to 54 Mbps –300 MHz bandwidth indoor, OFDM –Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)

97 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.97 Wireless A B G Wireless Standard Wireless B Wireless G ( G) Wireless G w/Speedbooster Wireless A/G Wireless G with SRX Wireless G with SRX200 Wireless G with SRX400 N/A Up to 5 Times Faster Than Wireless B 35% Faster than Wireless G Uncrowded 5GHz Band Up To 8X Faster than Wireless G. Range up to 3X farther Up To 6X Faster than Wireless G. Range up to 2X farther Up To 10X Faster than Wireless G. Range up to 3X farther 2.4Ghz 2.4Ghz & 5Ghz2.4Ghz Typically Up To 150ft Up to 150 ft Up to 150 ft (Wireless G) Up to 3X farther than Wireless G Up to 2X farther than Wireless G Up to 3X farther than Wireless G More Popular Standards for hotspots Yes Yes in a Wireless- G Mode Growing use in Wireless-A Yes b & g a, b & g b & g Based on MiMo Technology Legacy StandardFast SpeedFaster Speed Fast Speed with less interferance from other Wireless LANs. Works with all wireless standards Farthest Range & Fastest Speed Superior Range & Superior Speed Premium Range & Speed

98 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.98 Why are the Standards numbered 802? IEEEs development of LAN standards was assigned the project number 802, for February 1980 when the committee convened. Get it? 2/80 or 802

99 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.99 Quick Quiz #2 What is the 802 sub-designation for wireless technologies – b is known by the common name of ? –Wi-Fi The max data rate of b is ??? Mbps –11 Mbps True or False, b supports both FHSS and DSSS? –False. FHSS is not available in b. FHSS is too slow to support 11 Mbps True or False, All industrial radios support standards –False, many industrial radios use proprietary FHSS or DSSS A microwave oven could interfere with which technologies –802.11b and g because they are 2.4 GHz & a microwave is 2.5 GHz

100 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.100 Wireless Topologies: Ad-Hoc vs. Infrastructure Ad-Hoc (or point-to-point) –2 or more network devices transfering data directly between themselves. –Most efficient network with a minimum of network overhead Infrastructure (or access point) –With this network one of the Ethernet radio modems is configured as the "access point ". –Access Point is then used as a wireless bridge to the cabled LAN network. –All nodes (either wireless cards or other Ethernet radio modems configured as remotes) communicate only with the Access Point that serves the WLAN as a HUB THE WIRELESS OPTION FOR INDUSTRIAL ETHERNET by Eric Marske from

101 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.101 A Little About Channels in b/g 11 channels with each channel 22MHz in width. Each channel is centered at 5MHz intervals starting at 2.412GHz and ending at 2.462GHz b and g standards have a maximum of three non-overlapping channels carrying 11 Mbps throughput each (33 Mbps total) and 54 Mbps (162 Mbps total) throughput a has a maximum of eight non-overlapping channels carrying 54 Mbps throughput each, or 432 Mbps total throughput MHz 3 MHz GHz GHz GHz GHz

102 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.102 Our Wireless Network MX FA-M3 PLC Linksys G Wireless Router g wireless b wireless UT CX Radiolinx

103 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.103 Hands-On #1: Setting Up an Office g Router baseT hardwire g wireless (internal wireless) 1.Use web configuration to setup wireless router IP address 2.Keep SSID at default of linksys 3.Set up channel (1 thru 11) 4.Do not activate WEP encryption 5.Activate DHCP (dynamic host configuration protocol) FA-M3 PLC

104 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.104

105 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.105 Security SSID (Service Set IDentifier) - Your wireless network's name. WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) - A method of encrypting data transmitted on a wireless network for greater security. WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access ) -WPA was designed to be a replacement for WEP networks without requiring hardware replacements. Now WPA2 is being offered.

106 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.106 A Few Terms VPN – Virtual Private Network –Creates another layer of networking on top of wireless. –This layer is encrypted. –Independent of any weakness in the network technology

107 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.107 So What About Security in Wireless? 1) MAC Address Spoofing Packets transmitted over a network, either your local network or the Internet, are preceded by a Packet Header. These packet headers contain both the source and destination information for that packet. A hacker can use this information to spoof (or fake) a MAC Address allowed on the network. With this spoofed MAC Address, the hacker can also intercept information meant for another user. 2) Data Sniffing Data "sniffing" is a method used by hackers to obtain network data as it travels through unsecured networks, such as the Internet. Tools for just this kind of activity, such as protocol analyzers and network diagnostic tools, are often built into operating systems and allow the data to be viewed in clear text. 3) Man in the Middle Attacks Once the hacker has either sniffed or spoofed enough information, he can now perform a "man in the middle" attack. This attack is performed, when data is being transmitted from one network to another, by using this information to reroute the data and appear to be the intended destination. This way, the data appears to be going to its intended recipient. From Linksys VPN whitepaper The first and obvious weakness of wireless is no wire Three Popular hacking methods

108 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.108 How to Improve Basic Security in Networks Lets look at a live example with the Linksys router –Change SSID (must know or guess SSID to connect) –Turn off SSID broadcast (cannot automatically see network) –Activate WEP encryption (data is visible but not readable) –Turn off DHCP (Even if you connect, you must guess IP) –Activate MAC filtering (Must specify MAC address)

109 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.109 A Quick Comparison: Office vs. Industrial Power Distance Operating Temp Construction Mounting 500 mW 20 miles outdoor -30 C to 60 C Aluminum 32 mW 200 feet indoors 0 C to 40 C Plastic

110 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.110 Hands-On #2: Setting Up an Industrial b radio baseT hardwire b wireless (internal wireless) 1.Use web configuration to setup wireless router IP address 2.Set up SSID as Radiolinx 3.Set up channel as 1 4.Activate WEP encryption to improve security UT351E Controller

111 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.111 A Few Quick Points on RF Propogation Higher frequencies have higher data rates (bandwith) –There is 1000 times more spectrum between 1-2 GHz as there is between 1-2 MHz. RF waves lose power as they travel in the air –Higher frequencies lose power (attenuate) faster RF waves attenuate as they pass through objects –Higher frequencies attenuate faster Lower Frequencies (i.e. 900 mHz have greater distance)

112 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.112 Performance of 2.4 GHZ vs. 900 MHz 2.4 GHz has 10-20% of the reliable distances of 900 MHz 900 MHz has 5-10 times the distance of 2.4 GHz inside 2.4GHz, 1W plus 6dB gain antennas 5 – 15 miles 900MHz, 1W plus 6dB gain antennas 15 – 25 miles 2.4GHz, 100mW plus 16dB antennas 10 – 40 miles 900MHz, 100mW plus 16dB antennas 20 – 60 miles 2.4GHz, 1W 100 – 600 feet 900MHz, 1W 500 – 5000 feet Typical Outdoors with Line of Sight Typical Indoors in Congested Environment

113 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.113 Office vs. Industrial Radios Radio linx FH MDS iNet900 Radio linx Hotspot

114 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.114 The Physics of Radios: Terms and Formulas What is a decibel (dB)? RF power calculation basics EIRP (Effective Isotropic Radiated Power) Types of propogation losses (attenuation) –Free space loss –Penetration loss Multipath fading Near/far problem in DSSS radios Interference from other RF sources Collocation

115 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.115 What is a decibel? The decibel (abbreviated dB) must be the most misunderstood measurement since the cubit. Although the term decibel always means the same thing, decibels may be calculated in several ways, and there are many confusing explanations of what they are. The decibel is not a unit in the sense that a foot or a dyne is. Dynes and feet are defined quantities of force and distance. A decibel is a RELATIONSHIP between two values of POWER. Decibels are designed for talking about numbers of greatly different magnitude, such as 23 vs. 4,700,000,000,000. With such vast differences between the numbers, the most difficult problem is getting the number of zeros right. We could use scientific notation, but a comparison between 2.3 X 10 and 4.7 X is still awkward. For convenience, we find the RATIO between the two numbers and convert that into a logarithm. This gives a number like As long as we are going for simplicity, we might as well get rid of the decimal, so we multiply the number times ten. If we measured one value as 23 hp and another as 4.7 trillon hp, we say that one is 113dB greater than the other. The usefulness of all this becomes becomes apparent when we think about how the ear perceives loudness. First of all, the ear is very sensitive. The softest audible sound has a power of about watt/sq. meter and the threshold of pain is around 1 watt/sq. meter, giving a total range of 120dB. In the second place, our judgment of relative levels of loudness is somewhat logarithmic. If a sound has 10 times the power of a reference (10dB) we hear it as twice as loud. If we merely double the power (3dB), the difference will be just noticeable. [The calculations for the dB relationships I just gave go like this; for a 10 to one relationship, the log of 10 is 1, and ten times 1 is 10. For the 2 to one relationship, the log of 2 is 0.3, and 10 times that is 3. Incidentally, if the ratio goes the other way, with the measured value less than the reference, we get a negative dB value, because the log of 1/10 is -1.] Decibels measure the power of a radio system!

116 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.116 Understanding Gain Measurements Antenna performance is primarily established by its gain. There are three common references used when defining gain in radios: Gain referenced to a dipole antennae:dBd Gain referenced to an isotropic source:dBi Gain referenced to power in milliwatts:dBm

117 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.117 Understanding Power in Radios RF transmitter and receiver power is expressed in watts. RF power can also be expressed in dBm (decibels relative to milliwatts) dBm for RF power is useful when calculating radio system gains (since other gains and losses from cables & Antennas are in dBs) The relation between dBm and watts can be expressed as follows: Power(dBm) = 10 x Log 10 Power(mW) 1 Watt = 1000 mW; PdBm = 10 x Log 10 (1000) = 30 dBm 100 mW; PdBm = 10 x Log 10 (100) = 20 dBm 1mW:PdBm = 10 x Log 10 (1) = 0 dBm Power(mW) = 10 (Power(dBm)/10) 15 dBm = 10 (15/10) = 10 (1.5) = 32 mW

118 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.118 A Table of mW to dBm

119 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.119 EIRP (Effective Isotropic Radiated Power) Take the following example: transmitter power out = Pout = 50mW cable loss (attenuation) = Ct = 4dB transmitting antenna gain = Gt = 6 dBi convert transmitter power from mW to dBm 10 x log (50/10) = 17 dBm EIRP = 17dBm - 4 dBm + 6 dBm = 19 dBm EIRP is the effective power transmitted from the antenna. EIRP = (power at transmitter) - (cable attenuation) + antenna gain EIRP = Pout - Ct - Gt Pout = output power of transmitter in dBm Ct = transmitter cable attenuation in dB Gt = transmitting antenna gain in dBi

120 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.120 Path Loss

121 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.121 Link Budget Calculation

122 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.122 Antenna Basics

123 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.123 Extra Power: A Gift from the FCC The FCC had already decided to place a limit of +36 dBm (4 watts) Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP) on Multi- Point WLAN links, and a maximum power of +30 dBm (1 watt) at the WLAN tranmitter's connector. So they also defined that if any antenna used in point-to- point links has a gain higher than 6 dBi, the transmitter power must be reduced so that the "peak output power of the intentional radiator" is reduced by 1 dB for every 3 dB of antenna gain beyond 6 dBi. This is a gift from the FCC. It allows point-to-point WLANs to achieve an EIRP well in excess of +36 dBm, and the greater range that results from the higher power. Here is a table of some typical values:

124 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.124 Discuss RSSI Sensivitiy Calculations Look at specs with RSSI -dBm and BEC rate….

125 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.125 Factors Affecting Performance Higher frequency signals show bigger losses Multipath fading Near/far problem in DSSS radios Interference from other RF sources Collocation

126 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.126 Attenuation

127 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.127 Multipath

128 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.128 Near/far

129 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.129 Interference

130 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.130 Collocation

131 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.131 Typical Distances The End Result (elpro technical article 1.1 Wireless Solutions for Process Applications) The end result of the effects of RF power, propagation losses, penetration attenuation, defraction and reflection loss is that 2.4GHz has only a very short reliable operating distance in industrial environments - with reliable distances of only around 10-20% of the lower frequency bands. That is, the lower frequency bands reach 5-10 times the distance in plants and factories. In many applications, distances of more than 100 metres (300 feet) cannot be achieved with 2.4GHz over congested obstructed paths. This is an important factor, as for most 100 metre applications, it is still cheaper to install wiring than use wireless. Elpro MDS iNet900 Radio linx

132 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.132 Speed vs. Distance

133 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.133 Transmission Technology Options

134 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.134 Elpro II

135 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.135 What is a Mesh Radio? WPAN –Bluetooth –Zigbee Features –Bi-directional –Self-forming –Self-healing

136 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.136 Other Radio Types Mesh Cellular (CDPD) Satellite

137 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.137 Radiolinx Products sold by Yokogawa RLX-FHE: Frequency Hopping Ethernet ($1,395 per radio) Use with Ethernet DAQ/FA-M3/Controllers Does not use b so it will not link to PC wireless RLX-FHS: Frequency Hopping Serial ($1,250 per radio) Use with serial DAQ/FA-M3/Controllers Supports MODBUS RTU Runs Yokogawa protocol in transparent mode RLX-FHES: Frequency Hopping Ethernet with serial server ($1,495 per radio) Has RS232/RS485 port built-in Use when you need to get serial protocol into Ethernet RLX-IH: b HotSpot ($1,549) Use when you need Ethernet with PC wireless connectivity Antennas, connectors and cables are also available from Yokogawa

138 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.138 RLX-FHE Frequency Hopping Ethernet (2.4GHz) Mobile configuration and data logging without wires! Frequency hopping 2.4 GHz unlicensed (ISM band) Not compatible with wireless (Wi-Fi) Designed for industrial environment (-40 to 158 degF) Up to 16 mile range with line of sight with hi gain antennas Proprietary radio frequency protocol (158 hopping patterns) 40 or 128 bit hardware data encryption $1,395 per radio

139 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.139 RLX-FHE Frequency Hopping Ethernet (2.4 GHz) DX104 RLX-FHE RS232 MODBUS RTU Slave #1 RS232 MODBUS RTU Slave #2 RS232 MODBUS RTU Slave #3 10BaseT Ethernet Data from Remote DX100s is Consolidated in PC PC running: DAQStandard (configuration) DAQLogger SCADA/HMI with OPC

140 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.140 RLX-FHS Frequency Hopping Serial (2.4GHz) Mobile data logging without wires! Frequency hopping 2.4 GHz unlicensed (ISM band) Modbus RTU, Modbus ASCII, DF1, generic ASCII RS232, RS422, or RS485 Flexible set-up modes Point to point Point to multi-point Peer to peer Designed for industrial environment (-40 to 158 degF) Up to 16 mile range with line of sight with hi gain antennas Proprietary radio frequency protocol (158 hopping patterns) 40 or 128 bit hardware data encryption $1,250 per radio

141 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.141 RLX-FHS Frequency Hopping Serial (2.4 GHz) DX104 DA100 UT450 RLX-FHS DX220 RS232 MODBUS RTU RS232 MODBUS RTU Slave #1 RS485 MODBUS RTU Slave #2 RS485 MODBUS RTU Slave #3 10BaseT Ethernet Data from Remote DX100s is Consolidated in DX200

142 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.142 RLX-IH b Industrial Wireless Radio Mobile configuration and data logging without wires! b direct sequence spread spectrum radios Can be implemented with a single radio! 2.4 GHz unlicensed (ISM band) Compatible with standard PC wireless cards Designed for industrial environment Up to 20 mile range in outdoor settings $1,549 per radio

143 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.143 UT351 with Radiolinx b Hotspot Laptop with b Wi-Fi wireless ability Laptop with b Wi-Fi wireless ability

144 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.144 Advanced Security Issues for i –Security Enhancements to –Encryption & Authentication TKIP – Temporal Key Integrity Protocol – interim solution AES – Advanced Encryption Algorithm – new hardware –802.1x Authentication Framework included in i Authentication protocol (EAP-TTLS, LEAP) Dynamic encryption key distribution method Supported in Windows XP

145 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.145 Security Issues for FHSS and DSSS Breezecom FHSS DSSS

146 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.146 Example of Security Setup in Linksys

147 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.147 Site Surveys : Indoor Software packages such as Ekahau ESS site survey Determine performance characteristics Help locate access point positions Determine antennae selection and positioning Detect foreign connections

148 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.148 Site Surveys : Outdoors

149 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.149 Site Surveys : Outdoors

150 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.150 Industrial Radio Types Radio Modems (Ethernet and Serial data ) I/O (Telemetry) Wireless gateways Combined Data and I/O Wireless Device Servers Cellular Satellite

151 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.151 Product Samples: Ethernet Radio Modems MDS iNET900 ELPRO 905U-D YLink RadioLinx 2.4 GHz FHSS 900 MHz FHSS SCADALINK LANBRIGDE 900 MHz FHSS

152 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.152 Product Samples: Serial Radio Modems SCADALINK SM MHz FHSS Prosoft RadioLinx 2.4 GHz FHSS Put serial devices on radio

153 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.153 Product Samples: (I/O) Telemetry SCADALINK IO MHz FHSS Elpro 905-U 900 MHz FHSS Phoenix (Omnex) Think of 4-20 ma radios!

154 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.154 Product Samples: Wireless Protocol Gateways105UG105UG 105UG Profibus DF1 Modbus

155 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.155 Product Samples: Combined Modem/IO SCADALINK 900-MB 900 MHz FHSS SCADALINK 900-MB 900 MHz FHSS

156 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.156 Home/Office Radio Types Wireless routers –With and without cable/DSL broadband Wireless access points (bridges) Wireless print servers

157 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.157 Product Samples: Home/Office Linksys g Access Point g DSSS Linksys a/g Router a/g DSSS Netgear g Wireless Cable/DSL WGR614 Router g DSSS DLink b Print Server DP-311P b DSSS

158 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.158 Product Samples: Device Servers

159 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.159 Product Samples: Cellular SCADALINK UNICON IP Cellular IP Modem/RTU (CDPD or IDEN) SCADALINK MobileGateway CDMA to b/g

160 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.160 Product Samples: Satellite

161 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.161 MODBUS RTU between DX Video Recorders

162 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.162

163 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.163 Resources Ethernet University (Contemporary Controls) –http://www.industrialethernetu.com/index.htmlhttp://www.industrialethernetu.com/index.html

164 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.164 Glossary

165 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.165 Questions Which radios are DS vs FH Is without any letter a standard? What determines actual throughput What happens if you have 10baseT trying to run on 1 meg Does OFDM run under DS and FH or is it a third type? Are all industrial radios compliant or do they run proprietary?

166 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.166 SS II BreezeACCESS and BreezeNET: A Robust Wireless Access Solution for Unlicensed Band ISP Services Although both technologies are implemented differently, the rules are focused on providing a set of guidelines that minimized the probability of these systems interfering with other radio systems and to also minimized the probability of these systems being interfered with. To accomplish this, the transmitted signal is spread over a wide bandwidth to reduce the power spectral density. (The power spectral density is the amount of RF power per MHz.) As part of the spreading, redundant information is also spread over the same wide bandwidth. The idea is that in the presence of interference, some information may be lost but is recoverable due to the built in redundancy. The amount of redundancy is measured as the processing gain of the system. Both direct sequence and frequency hopping systems are restricted to 1 watt of transmitter power to the antenna of 6 dBi maximum gain (for multipoint systems, the gain may be increased 1 dB for every dB the power is reduced).

167 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.167 Questions for Kevin Zamzow Does a FHSS transmit each hop at lower power? Why does DS modulating at a faster bit rate mean more bandwith? DS gets signal gain by encoding with 11 bit barker? I do not get this signal gain issue The faster the carrier is modulated the more bandwith it requires See DSSS notes

168 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.168 Comparison II When making a decision on which physical layer to use, consider the following characteristics of frequency hopping: Lower cost. Lowest power consumption Most tolerant to signal interference Lowest potential data rates from individual physical layers. Highest aggregate capacity using multiple physical layers Less range than direct sequence, but greater range than infrared Lowest aggregate capacity using multiple physical layers than frequency hopping. Smallest number of geographically separate radio cells due to a limited number of channels. More range than frequency hopping and infrared physical layers

169 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.169 More about Channels and Collocation Breezecom FHSS DSSS DSSS technologies (Direct Signal Spread Spectrum)work in 22MHz- wide bands (IEEE b).This provides three non-overlapping 22MHz channels over the band to GHz.

170 Yokogawa Electric Corporation YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation Friday, October 24, 2006 Yokogawa DAQ Systems: Network Security July 2005

171 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.171 Corporate and Plant Network

172 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.172 Plant Network Detail Increasing Plant Floor Security Today Rockwell Automation

173 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.173 Security Problems with PCs on a Network Unauthorized access (Invasion) Viruses (via or hackers) Hackers spam Leakage of System Information Resulting security problems –Unauthorized control of equipment or process –Data manipulation –File deletion –Configuration changes or deletion –Corruption of operating system

174 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.174 The Basic Defense at Corporate IT Level Routers Firewalls Proxy servers VPNs Virus protection Anti-spy software IT Tools

175 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.175 Corporate IT vs. Plant Floor Network

176 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.176 Ports and TCP Servers

177 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.177 Test Your System Five Ways 1) Open ports 2) Simple network management protocol (SNMP) robustness 3) Malformed packets 4) Broadcast traffic storms 5) Resource starvation Test your System 5 Ways InTech March 2003 Eric Byres

178 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.178 Why is a DAQSTATION Safer than a PC? No Intel chips No Microsoft software Proprietary OS based on u-Itron realtime OS Does not accept Built-in username/password login Password access

179 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.179 Preventive Actions Standard IT security –Routers, proxy servers and firewalls –Intrusion detection software –Turn of ICMP (ping) in routers –Consider VPN for remote access –Implement a security and risk assessment DAQStation –Utilize control logins with username/password Restrict access Change on a periodic basis –Use passwords for webserver access –Isolate FTP server from primary network

180 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.180 ISA 99: Network Security Part 1: Models and Terminology Part 2: Establishing a Manufacturing & Control Systems Security Program Part 3: Operating a Manufacturing and Control Systems Security Program Part 4: Specific Security Requirements for Manufacturing & Control Systems

181 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page Steps to Improving SCADA Security Department of Energy Office of Energy Assurance

182 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.182 Steps 1-11

183 YCAU II Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation July 2005 Industrial Ethernet and Networking Page.183 Steps 12-21


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