Presentation on theme: "1 Climate change, renewable energy, the EU and the world wide context Lutz Ribbe (Euronatur), Member of the Economic and Social Committee Round Table EU-Brasil."— Presentation transcript:
1 Climate change, renewable energy, the EU and the world wide context Lutz Ribbe (Euronatur), Member of the Economic and Social Committee Round Table EU-Brasil July 2009
2 content 1.Who is mainly responsible for the GHG emission ( for climate change)? 2.What are the consequences, who is suffering most? 3.What is happening in the EU, and … 4.… what can civil society do, what is our role?
3 The 10 biggest CO 2 -producer (2005) (in million tons – from energy sources: gas, oil, coal) responsible for 2/3 of the global CO 2 -Emission coming from energy use *= 2002 source: iwr use of energy = 80% of GHG sources
4 The 10 biggest CO 2 -producer (2005) (in million tons – from energy sources: gas, oil, coal) Red = G8-member states (so called `developed countries`) G8 (13% of global population) responsible for appr. 45% of the global CO2 Emission USA: more than 22% *= 2002, source: iwr
5 CO2- Emission (tons/ per capita + year) More than 2 to = unsustainable!!!
6 another source: land use (and change) 20% of GHG emission worldwide
8 unsustainable too!!!
9 land use change mainly happens in developing countries - for example - in Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Brazil (and other parts of America), Africa often effected: tropical forests and peat land … …extreme important carbon reservoirs …but also important for the world wide biodiversity (global effect) we effect global “public goods”… … for which the public is not paying for! Yet!
10 land use change … -Indonesia: still 80 Mio ha of rainforest, every year they cut 2 Mio ha ( 600 Mio t of CO 2 ) (=UK) -Amazonas: 50% or more of the rainforest might be destroyed by 2030 ( 96 bln t of CO 2 )
11 … good for our climate? -Deforestation/ overuse is happening in many other countries too very unsustainable way of using land who makes profit? positive regional development? environmental damage (forest protects against flood) EESC opinion adopted in June 2009
12 land use change even land use change nowadays takes place mainly in the so called „developing countries“, the products are often/ mainly consumed in industrialized countries feed stuff for animals (EU: imports protein from more than 10 Mio ha outside the EU, world wide increase of meat production) more and more: biofuels wood (legal and illegal logging)
13 Consequences dramatic economic consequences, for the global but also local economy (f.e. private farmers) (see Stern report, costs: up to 20% of our GDP) People will be directly effected: –many different health problems (see WHO) –hurricanes: more often and stronger –floods (more heavy rainfall, deforestation)
14 Consequences problem: water supply f.e. in those regions, where it depends on glacier (20% of the world wide population), Peru: lost 22% of the glacier mass in the past 25 years Caribbean south of Europe problem: food (quantity of production and food- price), problems with fishery
15 a kind of „summary“ 1.the developed countries are mainly responsible for the GHG emissions, directly or indirectly 2.but: poor people are suffering most! 3.we are at the beginning of new competition in land use between food, feed and energy/ biofuel production (and biodiversity) (different critical opinions prepared and adopted by the EESC = role of civil society)
16 Decisions of the EU-summit CO 2 reduction (EU-summit, march 2007): -30% until 2020, if other industrialized countries contribute in the same way “guaranteed”: -20% until to -80% until 2050 (basis: 1990) ambitious goals! Commission: a new „industrial revolution“
17 CO2- emission (tons/ per capita) 2005
: EU goal - 30%, Germany - 40%
: goal - 60%
: goal - 80%
21 Energy package 20% of all energy coming from renewable sources (by 2020) Energy efficiency: +20% until 2020 1,5% each year: buildings, cars, products Transport policy (more railway) 10% from renewables, not just biofuels (by )
22 Benediktbeuren, 30. April Bioethanol und Biodiesel BrasilUSAEU15 Biofuel-share200421,6 %1,6 %0,8 % benötigte Fläche in % der Getreide-, Ölsaaten- & Zuckerfläche Biofuel goal10 % benötigte Fläche in % der Getreide-, Ölsaaten- & Zuckerfläche
23 37 m 2 solar km m 2 maize
24 Climate change - just a technical problem? Reaching these ambitious goals is not a mere technical issue. It takes more than saving energy and technological solutions like solar/ renewables It is all about political power and markets; the idea is to „make money“ Interest groups !
25 Centralized/ De-centralized structures the age of fossil energy was/is the age of centralized, relatively inefficient energy production structures large power plants with low efficiency rates (35 to 45%, residual heating) very few global operating oil companies not many large energy suppliers, with excellent access to decision maker in Germany: 4, in France: just 1
26 50% of the energy of coal gets lost
27 electricity to warm up water: 90% of the energy of coal gets lost
28 unsustainable too!!!
29 Centralised/De-centralised structures The age of regenerating energies becomes the age of de-centralized and efficient energy structures: Sun on the roof (Electricity and Heating) Combined Power and Heating Systems (with more than 90% energy efficiency, instead of 45% in the case of large power (coal/nuclear) plants) De-centralized energy circuits using biomass Consumer starts to be a producer ( + )
37 Who will profit? new energy producers (consumers becomes producer), new market players new workplaces in the regions: energy saving techniques, short-distance supply networks, solar energy and local workforce, biomass/ -gas, including decentralized vegetable oil technologies but the old „large“ energy suppliers wish to maintain centralized structures; they live from them
38 Project „Desertec“
39 needs a much more efficient use of energy in both, the developed and developing countries structural changes in the energy and transport sector towards non polluting energy help people and governments in establishing appropriate (= cheap) technologies such as renewable from local sources for local use exchange of ideas and best practices programs to implement them
40 Access to cheap energy A crucial question for fighting against poverty !!!
41 EU-India round table discussion on renewable energy and climate change practical example form daily life: how to cook? –today: cow dung, wood, kerosene health problems for women, environmental damage –tomorrow: electricity from big power plants? –or: cooker fired with vegetable oil from local production?
42 Plant Oil Stove - Protos Facts and figures: Power range:1.6–3.8 kW Usage:2 - 6 liters oil per week for a family of 4-5 → liters per year Fuel:All plant oils, also used oils (development with coconut-oil) Efficiency:35 – 48 % Emissions:Ten times lower than with high quality kerosene CO2-balance:Neutral
43 Documentation of integrated project
44 needed: vegetable oil Strategy of de-centralization? – a sustainable vegetable oil production by private farmer – as a new source for a new environmental friendly, regional energy networks – in which a farmer can become a real player in the economic chain or
45 vegetable oil/ biofuel Strategy of centralized structure? –should the farmer just produce a cheap row material? –or do we want to see not farmers, but an “effective” industrial production by big companies –just for export as a “bio”-fuel, to feed the cars all over the world?
46 dezentralized oil-mill Ölmühle Kramerbräuhof in Pfaffenhofen Ölmühle Wöhrl in Galgenhofen / FFB
47 Petrol station on a farm
48 pure vegetable oil for tractors
50 Pure vegetable oil for heating or cooling systems 100 kW el 120 kW th
51 the role of civil society we have to start and to follow the discussion on the „new“ energy policy organize itself to counteract the lobby and self-interest of big multinational companies without civil society the new energy age will not be possible