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THE SECOND WORLD WAR http://www.printmini.com/printables/mil/index.shtml (camo) 1941-1945 A27 7.3.22.

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Presentation on theme: "THE SECOND WORLD WAR http://www.printmini.com/printables/mil/index.shtml (camo) 1941-1945 A27 7.3.22."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE SECOND WORLD WAR (camo) A27 7.3.22

2 GUIDING QUESTION To what extent did the Second World War bring about lasting change in the American society, economy and government?

3 WAR ON THE HOME FRONT

4 MOBILIZING THE ECONOMY
1. Industrial Production War Production Board (later: Office of War Mobilization) By 1944, war production double that of all Axis powers “cost-plus” basis Results: end of Depression; consolidation of U.S. industry Faragher, Out of Many, 3rd Ed.;

5 Effects of War Spending
Faragher, Out of Many, 3rd Ed.;

6 MOBILIZING THE ECONOMY
2. Rationing and Price Controls Office of Price Administration rationing Anti-Inflation Act 3. Controlling Labor ”no-strike” pledges Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act (War Labor Disputes Act) (1943) personal income union membership: major increase Labor Union Membership, Pojer (ration card); Brinkley 10e (union membership) Ration Card

7 MOBILIZING THE ECONOMY
4. Farmers – farm income doubled, as in World War I 5. Financing the War: $321 billion total! cost $100 billion for 1945 alone Income Tax (Revenue Act of 1942 – %!, everyone, withholding) Liberty Bonds Military Expenditures and the National Debt, Bond – Pojer; Nash, The American People 6e; War Bond

8 MOBILIZING THE ECONOMY
6. Propaganda Office of War Information Result: largely avoided anti-German hysteria of WWI anti-Japanese hysteria on West Coast Wadsworth.com (Ride Alone); Pojer (“Of Course”)

9 MOBILIZING THE ECONOMY
Wadsworth.com (boot); Wadsworth.com (“Loose Talk”)

10 Effects on Society

11 EFFECTS ON THE HOMEFRONT: IMPACT ON THE ECONOMY
End of the Depression High employment Farm crisis ended personal income rationing savings Union membership Corporate consolidation

12 EFFECTS ON THE HOMEFRONT: IMPACT ON SOCIETY: Demographic Shifts
Urbanization Migration to West, esp. California rapid industrialization of some western states (California) Henry J. Kaiser – Kaiser Steel South –military posts and defense installations Population Shifts A Nation on the Move, ; American migration during the 1940s was the largest on record to that time. The farm population dropped dramatically as men, women, and children moved to war-production areas and to army and navy bases, particular on the West Coast. Well over 30 million Americans migrated during the war. Many returned to their rural homes after the war, but 12 million migrants stayed in their new locations. Notice the population increases on the West Coast, as well as in the Southwest and Florida. American Pageant 13e Wartime Bases: Faragher, Out of Many, 3rd Ed.; Wartime Army Camps, Naval Bases, and Airfields

13 EFFECTS ON THE HOMEFRONT: WOMEN, WORK AND FAMILY
Armed Forces - 200K+ women; non-combat roles: clerical jobs in WACS and WAVES. Work Force million women entered (57% increase) concentrated in government clerical jobs "Rosie the Riveter" Families – “8-hour orphans”, juvenile delinquency, crime Surveys of time: real concern that families were negatively impacted by war Pojer (womans place, woman working) “WE Can Do It” - Description: We Can Do it. Color poster by J. Howard Miller.Credit: National Archives and Records Administration

14 IMPACT ON SOCIETY: Minorities & Rights
Second Great Migration Race riots - Detroit and New York (1943) Armed Forces: Million+ served; in segregated units Efforts to end discrimination: black unions, threatened marches (A. Philip Randolph on Washington 1942) - pressure on companies with gov’t contracts FDR’s response: Executive order prohibiting discrimination in defense plants Fair Employment Practices Commission to investigate discrimination Results: Significant decrease in number willing to accept status of second class citizens. Repudiation of Nazi racism strengthened civil rights efforts Brinkley 11th Ed.

15 Segregated Units Pojer

16 EFFECTS ON THE HOMEFRONT: IMPACT ON MINORITIES & CIVIL RIGHTS
Braceros Zoot Suit Riots (Los Angeles 1943) Native Americans Brinkley 10e Washington, D.C. Soldier inspecting a couple of "zoot suits" at the Uline Arena during Woody Herman's Orchestra engagement there (Library of Congress)

17 EFFECTS ON THE HOMEFRONT: IMPACT ON MINORITIES & CIVIL RIGHTS
Japanese Americans Internment Executive Order 8066 Korematsu v. U.S. (1944) In re Endo (1944) Divine America Past and Present Revised 7th Ed. Japanese American Internment Camps

18 Japanese-American Internment
Japanese-American store Members of the Mochida family awaiting evacuation bus Japanese-American Internment Description: "Following evacuation orders, this store was closed. The owner, a University of California graduate of Japanese descent, placed the "I AM AN AMERICAN" sign on the store front the after Peral Harbor." Oakland, CA, April Dorothea Lange. Credit: National Archives and Records Administration "Members of the Mochida family awaiting evacuation bus. Identification tags were used to aid in keeping a family unit intact during all phases of evacuation. Mochida operated a nursery and five greenhouses on a two-acre site in Eden Township." In 1942 Executive Order 9066 ordered the removal of 110,000 civilians of Japanese descent, including 71,000 American citizens, from the western United States, placing them in internment camps. By Dorothea Lange, Hayward, California, May 8, 1942 National Archives and Records Administration, Records of the War Relocation Authority (210-GC-153) "A crowd of onlookers on the first day of evacuation from the Japanese quarter in San Francisco, who themselves will be evacuated within three days." By Dorothea Lange, San Francisco, California, April National Archives and Records Administration, Records of the War Relocation Authority Description: "These young evacuees of Japanese ancestry are awaiting their turn for baggage inspection upon arrival at this Assembly Center." Turlock, CA, May 2, Dorothea Lange. Awaiting baggage inspection upon arrival at Assembly Center, Turlock, CA, May 2, 1942 Crowd of onlookers on the first day of evacuation from the Japanese quarter in San Francisco

19 Japanese-American Internment
War Relocation authority center, Manzanar, California. July 3, 1942 Newly arrived evacuees outside of mess hall at noon, Tanforan Assembly Center. San Bruno, CA, April 29, (National Archives and Records Administration) Description: This assembly center has been open for two days. Only one mess hall was operating today. Photograph shows line-up of newly arrived evacuees outside of this mess hall at noon. Tanforan Assembly Center. San Bruno, CA, April 29, Dorothea Lange. Description: The Hirano family, left to right: George, Hisa, and Yasbei. Colorado River Relocation Center, Poston, AZ. Keywords: World War II, internment Credit: National Archives and Records Admini Keywords: World War II, internment Credit: National Archives and Records Administration Description: "Dust storm at this war Relocation authority center where evacuees of Japanese ancestry are spending the duration." Manzanar, California. July 3, Dorthea Lange. Keywords: World War II, internment Credit: National Archives and Records Administration Japanese-American Internment The Hirano family, Colorado River Relocation Center, Poston, AZ

20 GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS: EXPANSION OF GOVERNMENT POWER
New Deal programs - partially eliminated (Ex: WPA, CCC). Vast expansion of power for federal government Election of 1944 FDR ran for unprecedented fourth term Thomas E. Dewey (Rep Gov NY) – biggest issue: govt control over peoples’ lives Harry S Truman Employees in the Executive Branch, 1901–1995 Election Employees Executive Branch - Faragher, Out of Many, 3rd Ed.; Presidential Election of 1944

21 WAR IN EUROPE

22 Nash

23 DEFEATING GERMANY Operation Torch (1942-May 1943)
Gen. George C. Marshall Second front in France? Stalingrad (Dec 1942/Jan 1943) DEFEATING GERMANY Air War incendiary raids on Hamburg, Berlin and Dresden Invasion of Italy Mussolini Henretta, America’s History 5e from

24 D-Day Pathways

25 Invasion of Normandy After the Normandy Invasion
Eisenhower Meets with Paratroopers before D-Day D-DAY LANDING JUNE 6, 1944 After the Normandy Invasion Detail of map from Henretta, America’s History 5e from "Landing on the coast of France under heavy Nazi machine gun fire are these American soldiers, shown just as they left the ramp of a Coast Guard landing boat.“ by CphoM. Robert F. Sargent, June 6, 1944 NARA After Normandy - Wadsworth.com

26 DEFEATING GERMANY Allied invasion of France
Normandy - D-Day (June 6, 1944) Battle of the Bulge (late December 1944) DEFEATING GERMANY Fall of Germany Berlin (June 2, 1945) Hitler suicide (April 30) Surrender June 7, 1945 (V-E Day) Henretta, America’s History 5e from

27 WAR IN THE PACIFIC

28 GUIDING QUESTION Why did the United States decide to use atomic bombs against Japan? (strictly military measure to end the war? or diplomatic measure designed to intimidate the Soviet Union in the postwar era?) (from 1988 DBQ)

29 WAR IN THE PACIFIC Philippines Battle of Coral Sea (May 7-8, 1942)
Bataan Death March Battle of Coral Sea (May 7-8, 1942) Midway (June 4-7, 1942) Island-hopping Henretta, America’s History 5e from Gen Douglas MacArthur Admiral Chester Nimitz Solomon Islands – Guadalcanal

30 Island-Hopping in the Pacific
American Troops Before Amphibious Landing US troops wading ashore Butaritari, November 1943 Wadsworth.com (Troops before landing; Wading Ashore) Description: "Sprawled bodies on beach tarawa, testifying to ferocity of the stuggle for this stretch of sand." November 1943.Keywords: World War II Credit: National Archives and Records Administration Attempting to Secure a Beachhead on Pacific Island Sprawled bodies on beach Tarawa Island-Hopping in the Pacific

31 WAR IN THE PACIFIC Leyte Gulf (Oct 1944) kamikazes
Iwo Jima (Feb-March 1945) Okinawa (April – June 1945) Henretta, America’s History 5e from Flag Raising on Iwo Jima

32 BEGINNING THE ATOMIC AGE
FDR death (Warm Springs, GA, April 12, 1945) Harry S Truman (President ) Churchill, Roosevelt & Stalin at Yalta, Feb. 1945 President Truman addressing Congress after Roosevelt’s death

33 BEGINNING THE ATOMIC AGE
Manhattan Project (begun 1942) Alamagordo, NM, July 16, 1945 Unconditional surrender or face ”utter destruction” Hiroshima (August 6, 1945) Nagasaki (August 9, 1945) Japan surrender September 2, (V-J Day) Henretta, America’s History 5e from Bombs: Billett Col. Paul W. Tibbets, Jr., & the ENOLA GAY Atomic Bombs: “Little Boy” & “Fat Man”

34 Hiroshima After the Bomb Blast, August 6, 1945
Hiroshima After the Bomb Blast, August 6, 1945

35 Hiroshima After the Bomb Blast, August 6, 1945
Wadsworth.com Hiroshima After the Bomb Blast, August 6, 1945

36 Hiroshima after the atomic bomb, August 6, 1945
Hiroshima after the atomic bomb, August 6, 1945 (Wadsworth.com) Hiroshima after the atomic bomb, August 6, 1945

37 Nagasaki atomic bombing August 9, 1945
Wadsworth.com

38 Aftermath of Nagasaki bombing
Description: Roman Catholic Cathedral in background of hill, Nagasaki, ca Keywords: World War II Credit: National Archives and Records Administration Aftermath of Nagasaki bombing

39 ATOMIC BOMB Arguments for use
Japanese refused to surrender. It was estimated an invasion similar to D-Day was needed to bring the war to an end. US officials estimated conquest of Japan’s empire would last an additional 18 months to 2 years. US officials estimated Allied casualties at 1/2 to 1 1/2 million, in addition to huge Japanese losses if there was an invasion of Japan. Japanese leadership was informed of the destructive power and nature of the bomb and offered a period to surrender but declined. Arguments opposed Bombs were untested and their destruction unknown Neither city was a major military target and the attacks would mainly kill Japanese civilians. Radiation poisoning, birth defects and contamination would have negative effects on the population. Would set a precedent about using weapons of mass destruction in war Billett

40 Surrender ceremonies on the USS Missouri
Description: Gen. Douglas MacArthur signs as Supreme Allied Commander during formal surrender ceremonies on the USS MISSOURI in Tokyo Bay. Behing MacArthur are Lt. Gen. Jonathan Wainwright and Lt. Gen. A. E. Percival. September 2, Lt. C. F. Wheeler. Keywords: World War II Credit: National Archives and Records Administration Surrender ceremonies on the USS Missouri

41 Japanese Surrender on the USS Missouri Sept 2, 1945
Japanese Surrender Aboard the USS Missouri. United States Navy [american journey online] Japanese Surrender on the USS Missouri Sept 2, 1945

42 RESULTS OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR
300,000 dead, over 800K wounded $320 billion cost National debt rose from $50 Billion in 1941 to $250 billion by 1945 End of Depression Joined United Nations Only major power without significant physical damage

43 7 Future American Presidents Views of the World Were Formed by Service in WWII
Pojer

44 WWII Memorial, Washington, DC
Pojer Dedicated on April 29, 2004

45 SOURCES Brinkley, American History: A Survey 10e
America: Pathways to the Present (2003) National Archives and Records Administration Thomson Wadsworth US History Image Bank - Teaching Politics, American Journey Online Divine, America Past and Present Revd 7th Ed. Nash, The American People 6e; Faragher, Out of Many 3e Jones, Created Equal Kennedy, American Pageant 13e Susan Pojer, Horace Greeley H.S., Chappaqua, NY Henretta, America’s History 5e, Roark, American Promise 3e, (camouflage)

46 Franklin Roosevelt in wheelchair
Description: Franklin Roosevelt with Ruthie Bie and Fala at Hilltop Cottage in Hyde Park, Keywords: FDR, wheelchair Credit: Franklin D. Roosevelt Library.

47 Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill, Tehran, 1943
Description: Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill on portico of Russian Embassy in Teheran, during conference--Nov. 28 -Dec. 1, Keywords: Credit: Library of Congress


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