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THE SECOND WORLD WAR 1941-1945A277.3.22. GUIDING QUESTION To what extent did the Second World War bring about lasting change in the American society,

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Presentation on theme: "THE SECOND WORLD WAR 1941-1945A277.3.22. GUIDING QUESTION To what extent did the Second World War bring about lasting change in the American society,"— Presentation transcript:

1 THE SECOND WORLD WAR A

2 GUIDING QUESTION To what extent did the Second World War bring about lasting change in the American society, economy and government? To what extent did the Second World War bring about lasting change in the American society, economy and government?

3 WAR ON THE HOME FRONT

4 MOBILIZING THE ECONOMY 1.Industrial Production War Production Board ( later: Office of War Mobilization) War Production Board ( later: Office of War Mobilization) By 1944, war production double that of all Axis powers By 1944, war production double that of all Axis powers cost-plus basis cost-plus basis Results: Results: end of Depression; end of Depression; consolidation of U.S. industry consolidation of U.S. industry

5 Effects of War Spending

6 MOBILIZING THE ECONOMY 2.Rationing and Price Controls Office of Price Administration Office of Price Administration rationing rationing Anti-Inflation Act Anti-Inflation Act 3.Controlling Labor no-strike pledges Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act (War Labor Disputes Act) (1943) personal income union membership : major increase Ration Card Labor Union Membership,

7 MOBILIZING THE ECONOMY 4.Farmers – farm income doubled, as in World War I 5.Financing the War: $321 billion total! cost $100 billion for 1945 alone Income Tax (Revenue Act of 1942 – 94%!, everyone, withholding) Income Tax (Revenue Act of 1942 – 94%!, everyone, withholding) Liberty Bonds Liberty Bonds War Bond Military Expenditures and the National Debt,

8 MOBILIZING THE ECONOMY 6.Propaganda Office of War Information Office of War Information Result: largely avoided anti-German hysteria of WWI Result: largely avoided anti-German hysteria of WWI anti-Japanese hysteria on West Coast anti-Japanese hysteria on West Coast

9 MOBILIZING THE ECONOMY

10 Effects on Society

11 EFFECTS ON THE HOMEFRONT: IMPACT ON THE ECONOMY End of the Depression End of the Depression High employment High employment Farm crisis ended Farm crisis ended personal income personal income rationing rationing savings savings Union membership Union membership Corporate consolidation Corporate consolidation

12 EFFECTS ON THE HOMEFRONT: IMPACT ON SOCIETY: Demographic Shifts Urbanization Urbanization Migration to West, esp. California Migration to West, esp. California rapid industrialization of some western states (California) rapid industrialization of some western states (California) Henry J. Kaiser – Kaiser Steel Henry J. Kaiser – Kaiser Steel South –military posts and defense installations South –military posts and defense installations Population Shifts Wartime Army Camps, Naval Bases, and Airfields

13 EFFECTS ON THE HOMEFRONT: WOMEN, WORK AND FAMILY Armed Forces - 200K+ women; non-combat roles: clerical jobs in WACS and WAVES. Armed Forces - 200K+ women; non-combat roles: clerical jobs in WACS and WAVES. Work Force million women entered (57% increase) Work Force million women entered (57% increase) concentrated in government clerical jobs concentrated in government clerical jobs "Rosie the Riveter" "Rosie the Riveter" Families – 8-hour orphans, juvenile delinquency, crime Families – 8-hour orphans, juvenile delinquency, crime Surveys of time: real concern that families were negatively impacted by war Surveys of time: real concern that families were negatively impacted by war

14 IMPACT ON SOCIETY: Minorities & Rights Second Great Migration Second Great Migration Race riots - Detroit and New York (1943) Race riots - Detroit and New York (1943) Armed Forces: Million+ served; in segregated units Armed Forces: Million+ served; in segregated units Efforts to end discrimination: black unions, threatened marches (A. Philip Randolph on Washington 1942) - pressure on companies with govt contracts Efforts to end discrimination: black unions, threatened marches (A. Philip Randolph on Washington 1942) - pressure on companies with govt contracts FDRs response: FDRs response: Executive order prohibiting discrimination in defense plants Executive order prohibiting discrimination in defense plants Fair Employment Practices Commission to investigate discrimination Fair Employment Practices Commission to investigate discrimination Results: Significant decrease in number willing to accept status of second class citizens. Significant decrease in number willing to accept status of second class citizens. Repudiation of Nazi racism strengthened civil rights efforts Repudiation of Nazi racism strengthened civil rights efforts

15 Segregated Units

16 EFFECTS ON THE HOMEFRONT: IMPACT ON MINORITIES & CIVIL RIGHTS Braceros Braceros Zoot Suit Riots (Los Angeles 1943) Zoot Suit Riots (Los Angeles 1943) Native Americans Native Americans Washington, D.C. Soldier inspecting a couple of "zoot suits" at the Uline Arena during Woody Herman's Orchestra engagement there (Library of Congress)

17 EFFECTS ON THE HOMEFRONT: IMPACT ON MINORITIES & CIVIL RIGHTS Japanese Americans Japanese Americans Internment Internment Executive Order 8066 Executive Order 8066 Korematsu v. U.S. (1944) Korematsu v. U.S. (1944) In re Endo (1944) In re Endo (1944) Japanese American Internment Camps

18 Japanese- American Internment Japanese-American store Members of the Mochida family awaiting evacuation bus Crowd of onlookers on the first day of evacuation from the Japanese quarter in San Francisco Awaiting baggage inspection upon arrival at Assembly Center, Turlock, CA, May 2, 1942

19 Japanese- American Internment Newly arrived evacuees outside of mess hall at noon, Tanforan Assembly Center. San Bruno, CA, April 29, Newly arrived evacuees outside of mess hall at noon, Tanforan Assembly Center. San Bruno, CA, April 29, (National Archives and Records Administration) War Relocation authority center, Manzanar, California. July 3, 1942 The Hirano family, Colorado River Relocation Center, Poston, AZ

20 GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS: EXPANSION OF GOVERNMENT POWER New Deal programs - partially eliminated (Ex: WPA, CCC). New Deal programs - partially eliminated (Ex: WPA, CCC). Vast expansion of power for federal government Vast expansion of power for federal government Election of 1944 Election of 1944 FDR ran for unprecedented fourth term FDR ran for unprecedented fourth term Thomas E. Dewey (Rep Gov NY) – biggest issue: govt control over peoples lives Thomas E. Dewey (Rep Gov NY) – biggest issue: govt control over peoples lives Harry S Truman Harry S Truman Presidential Election of 1944 Employees in the Executive Branch, 1901–1995

21 WAR IN EUROPE

22

23 DEFEATING GERMANY Operation Torch (1942-May 1943) Operation Torch (1942-May 1943) Gen. George C. Marshall Gen. George C. Marshall Second front in France? Second front in France? Stalingrad (Dec 1942/Jan 1943) Stalingrad (Dec 1942/Jan 1943) Air War incendiary raids on Hamburg, Berlin and Dresden Invasion of Italy Mussolini

24 D-Day

25 Invasion of Normandy Eisenhower Meets with Paratroopers before D- Day D-DAY LANDING JUNE 6, 1944 After the Normandy Invasion

26 DEFEATING GERMANY Allied invasion of France Allied invasion of France Normandy - D-Day (June 6, 1944) Normandy - D-Day (June 6, 1944) Battle of the Bulge (late December 1944) Battle of the Bulge (late December 1944) Fall of Germany Berlin (June 2, 1945) Hitler suicide ( April 30) Surrender June 7, 1945 (V-E Day)

27 WAR IN THE PACIFIC

28 GUIDING QUESTION Why did the United States decide to use atomic bombs against Japan? Why did the United States decide to use atomic bombs against Japan? (strictly military measure to end the war? or diplomatic measure designed to intimidate the Soviet Union in the postwar era?)

29 WAR IN THE PACIFIC Philippines Philippines Bataan Death March Bataan Death March Battle of Coral Sea (May 7-8, 1942) Battle of Coral Sea (May 7-8, 1942) Midway (June 4-7, 1942) Midway (June 4-7, 1942) Island- hopping Island- hopping Gen Douglas MacArthur Admiral Chester Nimitz Solomon Islands – Guadalcanal

30 Island-Hopping in the Pacific American Troops Before Amphibious Landing US troops wading ashore Butaritari, November 1943 Attempting to Secure a Beachhead on Pacific Island Sprawled bodies on beach Tarawa

31 WAR IN THE PACIFIC Leyte Gulf (Oct 1944) Leyte Gulf (Oct 1944) kamikazes kamikazes Iwo Jima (Feb-March 1945) Iwo Jima (Feb-March 1945) Okinawa (April – June 1945) Okinawa (April – June 1945) Flag Raising on Iwo Jima

32 BEGINNING THE ATOMIC AGE FDR death (Warm Springs, GA, April 12, 1945) FDR death (Warm Springs, GA, April 12, 1945) Harry S Truman (President ) Harry S Truman (President ) Churchill, Roosevelt & Stalin at Yalta, Feb President Truman addressing Congress after Roosevelts death

33 BEGINNING THE ATOMIC AGE Manhattan Project (begun 1942) Manhattan Project (begun 1942) Alamagordo, NM, July 16, 1945 Alamagordo, NM, July 16, 1945 Unconditional surrender or face utter destruction Unconditional surrender or face utter destruction Hiroshima (August 6, 1945) Hiroshima (August 6, 1945) Nagasaki (August 9, 1945) Nagasaki (August 9, 1945) Japan surrender September 2, 1945 (V-J Day) Japan surrender September 2, 1945 (V-J Day) Atomic Bombs: Little Boy & Fat Man Col. Paul W. Tibbets, Jr., & the ENOLA GAY

34 Hiroshima After the Bomb Blast, August 6, 1945

35

36 Hiroshima after the atomic bomb, August 6, 1945

37 Nagasaki atomic bombing August 9, 1945

38 Aftermath of Nagasaki bombing

39 Arguments for use Japanese refused to surrender. It was estimated an invasion similar to D-Day was needed to bring the war to an end. Japanese refused to surrender. It was estimated an invasion similar to D-Day was needed to bring the war to an end. US officials estimated conquest of Japans empire would last an additional 18 months to 2 years. US officials estimated conquest of Japans empire would last an additional 18 months to 2 years. US officials estimated Allied casualties at 1/2 to 1 1/2 million, in addition to huge Japanese losses if there was an invasion of Japan. US officials estimated Allied casualties at 1/2 to 1 1/2 million, in addition to huge Japanese losses if there was an invasion of Japan. Japanese leadership was informed of the destructive power and nature of the bomb and offered a period to surrender but declined. Japanese leadership was informed of the destructive power and nature of the bomb and offered a period to surrender but declined. Arguments opposed Bombs were untested and their destruction unknown Bombs were untested and their destruction unknown Neither city was a major military target and the attacks would mainly kill Japanese civilians. Neither city was a major military target and the attacks would mainly kill Japanese civilians. Radiation poisoning, birth defects and contamination would have negative effects on the population. Radiation poisoning, birth defects and contamination would have negative effects on the population. Would set a precedent about using weapons of mass destruction in war Would set a precedent about using weapons of mass destruction in war

40 Surrender ceremonies on the USS Missouri

41 Japanese Surrender on the USS Missouri Sept 2, 1945

42 RESULTS OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR 300,000 dead, over 800K wounded 300,000 dead, over 800K wounded $320 billion cost $320 billion cost National debt rose from $50 Billion in 1941 to $250 billion by 1945 National debt rose from $50 Billion in 1941 to $250 billion by 1945 End of Depression End of Depression Joined United Nations Joined United Nations Only major power without significant physical damage Only major power without significant physical damage

43 7 Future American Presidents Views of the World Were Formed by Service in WWII

44 WWII Memorial, Washington, DC Dedicated on April 29, 2004

45 SOURCES Brinkley, American History: A Survey 10e Brinkley, American History: A Survey 10e America: Pathways to the Present (2003) America: Pathways to the Present (2003) National Archives and Records Administration National Archives and Records Administration Thomson Wadsworth US History Image Bank - Thomson Wadsworth US History Image Bank - Teaching Politics, Teaching Politics, American Journey Online American Journey Online Divine, America Past and Present Revd 7 th Ed. Divine, America Past and Present Revd 7 th Ed. Nash, The American People 6e; Nash, The American People 6e; Faragher, Out of Many 3e Faragher, Out of Many 3e Jones, Created Equal Jones, Created Equal Kennedy, American Pageant 13e Kennedy, American Pageant 13e Susan Pojer, Horace Greeley H.S., Chappaqua, NY Susan Pojer, Horace Greeley H.S., Chappaqua, NY Henretta, Americas History 5e, Henretta, Americas History 5e, Roark, American Promise 3e, Roark, American Promise 3e, (camouflage) (camouflage)

46 Franklin Roosevelt in wheelchair

47 Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill, Tehran, 1943


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