Content Language Grammar Phonology Syntax Semantics Language development: 4 stages Production of language Language acquisition: 2 approaches to language development Conclusion
Language The communication of information through symbols arranged according to systematic rules.
Grammar The system of rules that determine how our thoughts can be expressed.
Major components of language: Phonology Syntax Semantics
Phonology It is the study of the smallest basic units of speech, called phonemes, that affect meaning, and of the way we use those sounds to form words produce meaning. Example: Fat Fate
Syntax Ways in which words and phrases can be combined to form sentences. Example: “John kidnapped the boy” “John, the kidnapped boy” “The boy kidnapped John”
Semantics The rules governing the meaning of words and sentences. Example: “The truck hit Laura” “Laura was hit by truck”
Language development Babble: meaningless speechlike sounds made by children from around the age of 3 months through 1 year.
Production of language By age 1 After the age of 1 year By age 3 By age 5
Production of language (2) By age 1 By the time children are approximately 1 year old, they stop producing sound that are not in the language to which they have been exposed. It is the short step to the production of actual words.
After the age of 1 year, children begin to learn more complicated forms of language. Production of language (3) After the age of 1 year
Production of language (4) Age by 3 Children learn to make plurals by adding s to nouns and to form the past tense by adding –ed to verbs.
Production of language By age 5 Children have acquired the basic rules of language. They do not attain a full vocabulary and the ability to comprehend and use subtle grammatical rules until later.
Language acquisition Learning-theory Innate processes (Nativist Approach)
Learning theory approach (to language development) The theory suggesting that language acquisition follows the principles of reinforcement and conditioning.
Nativist approach (to language development) The theory that a genetically determined, innate mechanism directs language development.
Conclusion To use of language is an important cognitive ability, one that is not only indispensable for people to communicate with one another, but also closely tied to the very way in which people think about and understand the world.
Language is a tool built for use by humans, just as is a pair of scissors. Scissors take the manipulating abilities of human hands and use them to produce a skill that normally could not be done by a human being: namely cutting a fairly straight line through a piece of paper.