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2012 Global II Final Exam Study Guide. Imperialism.

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Presentation on theme: "2012 Global II Final Exam Study Guide. Imperialism."— Presentation transcript:

1 2012 Global II Final Exam Study Guide

2 Imperialism

3 Which argument was used to support the U.S. acquisition of overseas possessions in the late 1800s? New markets for industrial products Raw Materials

4 What is one important conclusion that can be drawn about the media as a result of the U.S. experience in the Spanish American War? The media has a powerful influence in the shaping of public opinion

5 The main reason the U.S. developed the Open Door Policy… To ensure access to trade w/ China

6 Involvement in the Spanish American War, the acquisitions of Hawaii, and introduction of the Open Door Policy in China were actions taken by the U.S. Govt to… To obtain new sources of raw materials & markets for industrial goods

7 What U.S. foregin policy was directly related to the rise of big business in the late 1800s? Imperialism

8 What connection was made between imperialism & the American frontier? Imperialism would offer the U.S. a new frontier to pursue

9 William Randolph Hearst said, You furnish the pictures, Ill furnish the war. What is this practice known as? Yellow journalism

10 Alfred T. Mahan argued to protect its overseas trade interests & newly acquired territories the U.S. must build up its.. Navy

11 Why did American business leaders favor expansion? It offered new markets and valuable resources It solved the economic problem of overproduction

12 What was John Hay referring to when he spoke of a Splendid Little War? The Spanish-American War It was short Not many casualties

13 The first action of the Spanish American War took place in…. Puerto Rico

14 What did the U.S. gain as a result of the peace treaty with Spain? Philippines, Guam, Puerto Rico

15 Which U.S. policy is most closely associated with the annexation of Hawaii and the Philippines? Imperialism

16 The U.S. became an imperialist nation with interest in the Caribbean, Central American, the far East, and the South Pacific following what war? Spanish American War

17 Who did many Americans blame the explosion of the U.S.S. Maine on? Spain (Spaniards)

18 What best characterizes how countries like Cuba felt about being controlled by a foreign power like Spain? Countries that are controlled by a foreign power typically resist or rebel b/c they want to control their own affairs

19 What was the leading cause of death in the Spanish-American War? Jungle disease…especially yellow fever

20 How did Chinese nationalists react to the spheres of influence that were carving up China? Staged the Boxer Rebellion Foreigners Chinese Christians

21 What allowed the U.S. to continue its intervention in Cuba after it had gained independence from Spain? Platt Amendment

22 Why did the U.S. not grant independence to the Philippines after the Spanish had been defeated? President McKinley believed the Filipinos were unfit to govern themselves

23 Anti-imperialists in the U.S. objected to… The costs of expansion

24 To support their position, anti-imperialists argued… Imperialism rejected the American ideal of Liberty for all

25 What does the phrase, the Constitution must follow the flag mean? Constitutional rights given to US citizens should be given to people in any place the U.S. governs

26 What did the cruise of the Great White Fleet demonstrate to the rest of the world? The U.S. had a newer and stronger navy…and were a force to be dealt with

27 What arguments did American imperialists use to show it would be a positive thing for the country? Provide industry w/ new markets & materials Provide naval bases Spreading the blessings of Western culture to backwards people

28 The De Lome letter had what effect on U.S.- Spanish relations? It made them much worse!

29 What was an immediate result of Matthew Perrys visit to Japan in 1853? The opening of trade b/t Japan and the West

30 How were the results of the Opium Wars & Matthew Perrys visit to Japan similar? They both opened Asian trade to Western countries

31 What did open door policy mean? All nations were equally free to trade in China

32 What was the goal of the Boxers in China? Drive out, kill if necessary, all foreigners in China

33 The slogan of the ______ was destroy the foreigner! Boxers Society of Righteous & Harmonious Fists

34 Why were Western powers interested in China in the 19 th century? Rich in natural resources, but more importantly MILLIONS of new consumers! Oil Mineral resources – tin, coal, other metals

35 An increased need for raw materials and new markets for manufactured goods led various European nations to pursue the foreign policy of… Imperialism

36 In the past, European nations have conquered other lands, made them into colonies, and controlled their economies. This statement describes a situation resulting from The industrialization of European nation & the need for raw materials to fuel that industry

37 During the 18 th & 19 th centuries, increased contact b/t Europeans and the continents of Asia and Africa resulted in… Exploitation of the land and people for its resources & their labor/role as a consumer

38 What connection can be made b/t industrial expansion & European imperialism? Industrialization led to an increase in imperialist activity b/c those countried needed raw materials for production.

39 What were the only free states remaining in Africa by 1914? Liberia & Ethiopia

40 The type of government where local rulers were allowed to maintain their positions of authority and status in a new colonial setting is called? Indirect rule

41 What did the Berlin Conference establish? European imperial powers carved up Africa amongst themselves to avoid war NO Africans were present!

42 If a colony was run by_______, local elites were removed from power and replaced with a new set of officials from the mother country. Direct rule

43 What was the gap between theory and practice in colonial policy? Westerners preached democracy, equality, and political freedom but did not apply these values in the colonies under their control

44 All of the following powers had colonies in West Africa by 1900: Great Britain France Germany

45 After the opening of the Suez Canal in Egypt in 1869, Great Britain… Took an active interest in Egypt Saw the Canal as their lifeline to India

46 After its defeat in Ethiopia in 1896, Italy… Seized Tripoli

47 What is an example of the U.S. enforcing the Monroe Doctrine? U.S. acted as arbitrator in a border dispute between British Guiana and Venezuela

48 What was the only independent nation remaining in SE Asia during the age of imperialism? Thailand

49 Why was the Open Door Policy important to the United States? It gave the U.S. access to millions of consumers in China

50 Moving West & Populism

51 Who owned much of the western land near prime transportation routes? Railroad companies

52 Who sold land to western settlers (3)? State governments Railroad companies Land speculators

53 What were the Exodusters trying to escape from? Racial violence & oppression

54 What was a MAJOR incentive in the settling of the West? Legal ownership of private property

55 What happened to many Native American nations as American settlers moved West? Forced onto reservations Weakened Destroyed

56 Many white reformers believed Native American tribes should do what? Be civilized and adopt white culture

57 Why did farmers favor inflation? The products they were selling would cost more (increase crop prices)

58 Why did bankers support deflation? The value of the money they were lending would increase

59 Why did William Jennings Bryan lose the election of 1896? He could not win the support of the Eastern industrial workers

60 What items were included in the Populist platform? Progressive income tax Unlimited minting of silver coins (free silver) Increase the $$ supply causing inflation Govt control of communication & transportation industries

61 What did the Morrill Land Grant Act & the Homestead Act have in common? They provided ways for settlers to acquire Western lands

62 Why did Western farmers want free silver It would cause inflation, which would increase crop prices

63 What did the Interstate Commerce Act accomplish? Regulated railroad rates & practices Making rates proportional to distance traveled

64 Why did most Exodusters move to the American West? To escape racial violence & oppression

65 Why did white settlers believe they had a greater right to Western lands than the Native American tribes who already inhabited the West? American settlers would use the land more productively Mining, farming, ranching, building, etc.

66 What was a a major complaint of farmers in the late 1800s? High tariffs on manufactured goods

67 Farmers Alliances called for… Free silver – putting more money in circulation

68 In the 1880s, American Presidents most often protected the interests of… Business & industry

69 Why would a country place a tariff on foreign products? To protect its own industries from foreign competition

70 In terms of tariffs, farmers generally favored… Lower!

71 Who delivered the Cross of Gold speech? Populist candidate William Jennings Bryan

72 How did deflation effect farmers? Lowered the price on the crops they were selling

73 The political organization that brought widespread attention to the plight of the farmer in the 1880s & 1890s was known as? Populist, or Peoples Party

74 Both the Interstate Commerce Act & the Sherman Anti Trust Act did what to big business? Limited their power, or regulated them.

75 A main goal of the Grange movement of the s was to Force railroads to regulate rates, and by regulate they really mean lower.

76 The Populist movement was most interested in improving conditions for? Farmers, westerners, miners

77 *Free and unlimited coinage of silver dollars *Government ownership of railroads *Graduated (progressive) income tax Which political party proposed these reforms in its platform? Populist Party, 1892

78 The Interstate Commerce Act was passed to… Regulate railroad rates for shipping and eliminate special privileges for certain customers

79 Reforms pushed by the Populists included… Government ownership of transportation systems

80 The Progressive Era of Reform

81 A main purpose of President T.R. trust busting policies was… To maintain competition in business

82 Since 1913, the U.S. banking system, interest rates, and amount of money in circulation have been controlled by? The Federal Reserve System

83 Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, & Robert LaFollette are all considered progressives because? Worked to limit the power of big business

84 A major goal of reformers during the Progressive Era was to? Reform/correct the abuses of big business

85 Initiative, referendum, recall, and direct primaries were all intended to… Increase political participation by citizens

86 Which event of the early 1900s is evidence that Upton Sinclairs novel The Jungle had an important impact on the United States? Passage of legislation requiring federal inspection of meat Pure Food & Drug Act Meat Inspection Act

87 Both the Sherman & Clayton Anti- Trust Acts were passed in an effort to? To ensure fair competition in American business

88 Jane Addams and Lincoln Steffens were best known for attempting to help which group? Urban poor (industrial working class)

89 In terms of government regulations, how did the Progressive movement have an impact on American life? Increased govt regulation of business & involvement in citizens lives

90 How would you describe President Theodore Roosevelts views on conservation? Wilderness areas and their natural resources should be protected for the public good & future generations

91 Reformers of the Progressive Era sought to reduce corruption in government by adopting a constitutional amendment that provided for? 17 th amendment – Direct election of senators

92 Muckrakers contributed to the rise of Progressivism in the early years of the 2oth century by? Exposed widespread corruption in American business & government

93 Which long awaited goal of the womens rights movement was achieved during the Progressive Era? The right to vote! 19 th Amendment

94 What problem arising from U.S. industrialization did progressive reformers want the government to address? The use of child labor

95 Why did progressive reformers want the federal govt to regulate business? Restore/maintain competition in the marketplace by eliminating trusts & monopolies

96 Progressive reformers after 1900 sought federal legislation to regulate working conditions and to set a minimum age for child labor. The need for this legislation was prompted by… Industrialists using child labor to keep production costs down & to keep factories running 24 hours a day

97 The progressive movement focused mainly on the problem of… Urban residents The industrial working class

98 These statements about Progressivism is accurate… It was a political response to industrialization Differed from populism b/c it focused on urban residents rather than farmers Progressives wanted to preserve capitalism

99 What did the tragedy at the Triangle Co. lead to? Building codes requiring fire escapes you could actually get to, sprinklers, fire drills, etc.

100 Voters can dismiss an elected official through… recall

101 Theodore Roosevelt tried to win the Republican nomination from Taft in the 1912 election b/c he believed Taft… Had failed to live up to his Progressive ideals

102 Which candidate for president in 1912 advocated the most far reaching changes for American society? Theodore Roosevelt – Bull Moose

103 What was a major factor in Woodrow Wilson winning the presidency in 1912? The Republican vote was split b/t Taft and Roosevelt allowing Wilson to win.

104 Progressives in Congress, unlike Taft, favored what in regards to tariffs? High tariffs

105 Why did Theodore Roosevelt form the Bull Moose party? He failed to win the Republican nomination for president

106 To limit the power of monopolies, President Wilson helped secure the passage of Clayton Anti Trust Act

107 How did the U.S. Constitution change as a result of the ratification of the 19 th Amendment? Women were given the right to vote

108 As a measure to prevent bank failures, President Wilson helped create… Federal Reserve System – The Fed

109 What group of Americans did Progressive reforms neglect? African Americans

110 The movement for more efficient government gave rise to reform mayors, city commissioners, and… City managers

111 In the election of 1912, what was the nickname of the Progressive Party? Bull Moose Party

112 One of the most important functions of the Federal Trade Commission was to? Regulate businesses to ensure fair trade for all American companies

113 What is the job of the Fed? Control the money supply so the economy runs smoothly

114 Which amendment allows the Federal Government to collect an income tax? 16 th amendment

115 Genocide

116 How many people died in the 100 days of the Rwandan genocide? Close to 1 million (800,000)

117 Who are the Armenians? The Christian minority living within the Ottoman Empire

118 Who are the nazis? Political party in Germany, anti-Semitic (hated Jews)

119 What did the Khmer Rouge do to city dwellers as they were being forced to evacuate urban areas? Took all of their possessions

120 Who controlled Yugoslavia after 1945? Marshall Tito

121 Under Belgian rule, what privileges did Tutsis have that Hutus did not? Government jobs Education Preferential treatment

122 What country (modern name) did the Armenian genocide take place in? Turkey

123 What is anti-Semitism? Hatred and discrimination towards Jews

124 How did the Khmer Rouge govt work to prevent individualism? Made everyone dress the same Took their possessions Taking bad elements into the jungle to be killed

125 Who was responsible for the largest massacres in Rwanda? Interhamwe – groups of machete wielding Hutus who terrorized Tutsis in their homes

126 How many Armenians had been exterminated by the Young Turks by 1923? 1.5 million

127 What is the purpose of a concentration camp? Put political opponents and other groups of undesirable people to work under harsh conditions (forced labor)

128 How much of the Cambodian population was sick, hungry, or both under the Khmer Rouge? One-third

129 How was Yugoslavia able to stay unified from 1945 until Titos death in 1980? Titos federal system and iron fisted rule

130 What technology was used to encourage massacres in Rwanda? Radio – Hutu Power Radio

131 What caused tensions b/t the Armenians & Turks of the Ottoman Empire? The Armenians were asking for political representation

132 What is the purpose of a death camp? Mass murder

133 How many people died in the killing fields of Cambodia? 2 million (nearly)

134 By 1992, what were the only two republics that remained a part of Yugoslavia? Serbia, Montenegro

135 What tribe was responsible for the massacres in Rwanda? Hutu

136 Why were Armenians targeted for extermination? They were the Christian minority, and the Young Turks wanted to create an all Turkish (Muslim) state

137 What was Hitler & the Nazis final solution to the Jewish problem? To kill all of the European Jews

138 What was the Communist Party of Democratic Kampuchea commonly know as? Khmer Rouge

139 What happened at Srebrenica? U.N. troops abandoned 8,000 Muslim men & children to be massacred by the Serbian army

140 How did the Rwandan genocide finally stop? The Tutsi army, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) defeated Hutu extremists

141 What tribe was the target of acts of genocide in Rwanda? Tutsi

142 How many of the 2,000 women Gerda Weissman began the death march survived? Fewer than 150

143 What personal item was instrumental in saving Gerdas life on the march? Her ski boots

144 How many people lost their lives in the Bosnian Conflict? ~ 200,000

145 What was the fate of Yugoslavias former leader, Slobodan Milosevic? Charged w/ genocide and died in jail in 2006

146 Who was the leader of the Khmer Rouge? Pol Pot

147 What did a great majority of deaths during the Cambodian genocide result from? Starvation and disease

148 What happened on Kristallnacht? Night of broken glass Nazis destroyed Jewish stores, homes, synagogues, & shipped 1000s off to concentration camps

149 Oppression Harsh or cruel treatment of people over a prolonged period of time

150 Discrimination Unfair treatment of a group of people based on preconceived notions about that group

151 Genocide The planned, systematic targeting of a group of people to be eliminated because of the group they belong to

152 Ethnic Cleansing To forcibly remove an ethnic group from an area to make that land available for settlement by another ethnic group

153 International Community The interaction of all states in the world

154 State Sovereignty The absolute authority of a country to govern itself free from outside interference

155 Nationalism Love for and devotion to ones nation

156 Auto-Genocide Committing acts of genocide against your own people, ex. Cambodia

157 Somalia Syndrome The reluctance of the U.S. to get involved in humanitarian issues, especially in Africa

158 The Russian Revolution

159 In what three ways was Russia unprepared for WWI? No competent military leaders Weak industry Poorly armed military

160 What does autocratic mean? Ruling with unlimited authority

161 What terms is defined as representative councils of workers & soldiers? Soviets

162 Who was Rasputin? A peasant from Siberia who gained the favor or the Romanovs because of his ability to treat their sons hemophilia

163 How did WWI contribute to the start of the Russian Revolution? The Tsarina being left at home to make all of the decisions while the Tsar led the troops Military suffered heavy losses in combat Combination of military defeats and a struggling economy left Russians angry at the Tsar

164 What caused the working women of Petrograd to march in protest? Alexandras rationing of bread, which led to them standing in long lines for it AFTER working a 12 hour shift in the factories

165 What happened to the Romanov family after the revolution? They were executed in the cellar of a temporary home in Ekaterinburg

166 Who were the Bolsheviks? Socialist party within the soviets who advocated violent revolution Led by Lenin

167 Why did Lenin sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk? To keep the Bolsheviks promise to the Russian people of ending their involvement in WWI

168 How did the heir to the Russian throne, Alexi Romanov, contribute to the growing unhappiness of the Russian people towards his father, the Tsar? His hemophilia created a need for Rasputins presence in the Romanovs inner circle

169 What decision made by the Provisional Government left their power open to ridicule & questioning? Continue Russias involvement in WWI

170 What promises did the Bolsheviks make to the Russian people? End their involvement in WWI Redistribute land to the peasants Turn over government power to the soviets

171 What was the White Army? Name given to the coalition of anti- communists forces during the Russian Civil War

172 Why were the Communists able to emerge victorious in the Civil War? The communists were rigidly disciplined The communists had a clear vision of what their goal was Anti-communist forces did not trust eachother

173 How would you describe the relationship b/t WWI and the Russian Revolution? WWI created conditions within Russia that helped trigger revolution

174 What was the purpose of the Communist secret police, the Cheka? To terrorize all opponents and enemies of the Communist government

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