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The position of Roma/Sinti in Italy with special view to the selected area of Friuli-Venezia-Giulia Italy Prof. Ezio Benedetti International Institute.

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Presentation on theme: "The position of Roma/Sinti in Italy with special view to the selected area of Friuli-Venezia-Giulia Italy Prof. Ezio Benedetti International Institute."— Presentation transcript:

1 The position of Roma/Sinti in Italy with special view to the selected area of Friuli-Venezia-Giulia Italy Prof. Ezio Benedetti International Institute for High Legal and Economic Studies for Development (IGES), Gorizia, Italy REDUPRE CONCLUDING WORKSHOP May 2013 Maribor, Slovenia

2 ROMA AND SINTI PEOPLE IN ITALY: HISTORICAL, ANTHROPOLOGICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL FRAMEWORK FOUR MIGRATION WAVES FROM XV TO XX CENTURY (Central Europe, Balkans, Istria) ROMA – SINTI – TRAVELLERS MORE THAN 60 DIFFERENT GROUPS ROMANES AS A COMMON LANGUAGE – ROMA IN ITALY (different estimations, no census) NO DATA – NO PROGRESS (LESS THAN 0,3% OF THE TOTAL POPULATION) ITALIAN AND NON-ITALIAN ROMA (many stateless from former YU, unsolved problem) BIGGEST COMMUNITIES IN LOMBARDIA, LAZIO, CAMPANIA, ABRUZZO, MOLISE, CALABRIA IN FRIULI VENEZIA GIULIA ABOUT ROMA/SINTI ( LESS THAN 0,15% OF THE TOTAL POPULATION) biggest community: UDINE (500) SINTI ARE ABOUT AND ROMA

3 THE PROTECTION OF MINORITIES IN ITALY AND THE LEGAL SITUATION OF ROMA AND SINTI IN ITALY AND IN FVG ITALY RATIFIED ALL THE MAJOR INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS ON PROTECTION OF MINORITIES (CoE, UN, OSCE, EU) CONSTITUTIONALLY STATED EQUALITY BETWEEN ALL CITIZENS AND FOREIGNERS (ART. 3 cost.) RECOGNIZES RIGHTS AND PROTECTION TO LINGUISTIC MINORITIES (ART. 6 COST. AND LAW 482/1999) ROMA/SINTI ARE NOT RECOGNIZED AS MINORITY WITHIN THE ITALIAN LEGAL SYSTEM THERE ARE 11 REGIONAL LAWS ON ROMA, MOST OF THEM JUST DEALING WITH THE CAMPS (ghettoization)

4 THE PROTECTION OF MINORITIES IN ITALY AND THE LEGAL SITUATION OF ROMA AND SINTI IN ITALY AND IN FVG ITALY /2 REGION FRIULI VENEZIA GIULIA ADOPTED A VERY ADVANCED LAW (NO. 11/1988) WHICH DEALS ALSO WITH SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DIMENSION (vocational training, ESF, schooling, social housing) SINCE 2007 TILL 2011 JUST “emergency decrees”: ROMA ARE JUST A PROBLEM OF PUBLIC SECURITY!! MEDIA+GOVERNMENT=HATRED SPEECH (all Roma are criminals=all Roma are Romanians=all Romanians are criminals) ITALY ADOPTED A COMPREHENSIVE STRATEGY ON ROMA ISSUES JUST IN 2012 (NATIONAL STRATEGY ON INCLUSION OF ROMA based on Communication of the EC no. 173/2011) LACK OF A NATIONAL PLAN (government, local authorities, SCO’s, Roma associations) NO RECOGNITION NO PROGRESS THE APPROACH IS STILL BASED ON “PROBLEM SOLVING” RATHER THAN “INCLUSION POLICIES”

5 THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC SITUATION OF ROMA/SINTI COMMUNITIES IN ITALY AND FRIULI VENEZIA GIULIA HOUSING: CAMPS (700 camps, 80% Roma), GHETTOIZATION, NO SOCIAL HOUSING (just 10% live in flats or houses) EDUCATION: NO SCHOOLING (35%), SCHOOL DROP-OUT (55%), NO VOCATIONAL TRAINING (90%) EMPLOYMENT: HIGH UNEMPLOYMENT RATES (more than 60%), low incomes and low salaries, INVENTED JOBS AND SCARCE SOCIAL SECURITY HEALTH AND SOCIAL SERVICES: no involvement, mutual distrust, welfare approach

6 THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC SITUATION OF ROMA/SINTI COMMUNITIES IN ITALY AND FRIULI VENEZIA GIULIA-2 PARTICIPATION: no associative life (the ones dealing with Roma issues are mainly led by Italians), no political parties, auto-exclusion and social exclusion two faces of the same coin CRIMINALITY AND DEVIANCE (more than 10% of prison population are Roma, poverty fosters small criminality and begging) INCREASING SOCIAL STRATIFICATION (a few rich Roma, especially Italians, great majority in camps and some groups in total exclusion living in waste dumps and under bridges)

7 DISCRIMINATION AND INTEGRATION OF ROMA AND SINTI COMMUNITIES IN ITALY Highly discriminated in jobs, schooling, police, public administration (Caritas collected something as cases of direct/indirect discrimination just in 2010) VOLUNTEERS AND NON PROFIT ASSOCIATIONS HAVE A GREAT ROLE IN FIGHTING DISCRIMINATION AND DEALING WITH ROMA/SINTI COMMUNITIES (more than 200 associations involving more than people) THE PROBLEM IS THAT THERE IS SCARCE COORDINATION AND NO KNOWLEDGE OF ASSOCIATIONS OPERATING AT A LOCAL LEVEL (isolation)

8 DISCRIMINATION AND INTEGRATION OF ROMA AND SINTI COMMUNITIES IN ITALY -2 THE MAIN PREJUDICES, STEREOTYPES AND DISCRIMINATORY BEHAVIORS ARE BASED ON SCARCE KNOWLEDGE: ROMA ARE NOMADS THIEVES BEGGARS DIRTY AND LAZY THEY DESERVE THIS WAY OF LIFE, THEY DO NOT WANT TO INTEGRATE NO KNOWLEDGE-NO PROGRES stereotypes and discrimination are fostered by the media (more than articles against or highly discriminatory against Roma just in : cases of Naples, Livorno etc.) and by hatred political speech (two majors of big cities – Verona and Treviso - have been condemned by national court for violation of Law no. 205/1993 againsfascist/nazis and racist behaviors IN FVG MORE THAN DOCUMENTED CASES OF DISCRIMINATION, POLICE VIOLENCE AND EXTREME POVERTY in the period

9 CONCLUSIONS AND SOME HOPE LEGAL RECOGNITION NATIONAL ACTION PLAN to enforce national strategy PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN LOCAL AUTHORITIES, CENTRAL GOVERNMENT, NO PROFIT ASSOCIATIONS, ROMA TO INDIVIDUATE COMPTENCES AND SHARE PROGRAMMES FUNDS FOR SCHOOLING AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING (ESF) EDUCATION AND RECIPROCAL KNOWLEDGE ARE THE keys (inclusion thprugh culture, music, art, traditional handcrafts and works.. CAMPS ARE THE REAL PROBLEM (exclusion) CAMPAIGNS THROUGH MEDIA AND INVOLVEMENT OF POLITICS AND INSTITUTIONS


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