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World War II Chapter 26.

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Presentation on theme: "World War II Chapter 26."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War II Chapter 26

2 Road to War Section 1

3 The Rise of Dictators Dictator – a leader who takes control by force
Adolf Hitler – Germany Nazi Party Anti-Semitism – hatred of the Jewish race Ended democracy – totalitarian rule Benito Mussolini – Italy Fascism – extreme nationalism and racism Joseph Stalin – Soviet Union (Communism) Japan – military led gov’t invaded China Nazi (National Socialist German workers Party)

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5 American Neutrality US wanted nothing to do w/ world conflict
Neutrality Acts – no sale of weapons to nations at war

6 Germany on the Move Munich Conference – no more German expansion (Britain, France Germany) Soviet-German Non-Aggressive Pact Putting force near the Rhineland, Austria and Czechoslovakia

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8 Germany

9 Germany France

10 Great Britain Germany France

11 Great Britain Germany France Italy

12 Soviet Union Great Britain Germany France Italy

13 War Begins Section 2

14 Germany Invades: Poland
Blitzkrieg – lightning war (quick strike) September 1, 1939 Germany & Sov. Un. split Poland 50/50 Britain and France declare war Little they could do Soviets attack: Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, and Finland

15 Finland Estonia Soviet Union Latvia Lithuania Great Britain Poland Germany France Italy

16 The War Expands Maginot Line – fortified line between Belgium and Switzerland Major dividing line in the west Hitler attacked: Denmark, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium Axis Powers formed (Germany, Italy, later on Japan June 14, 1940 – blitz and capture Paris After attacking all of these Western European nations the Germans had backed their opposing troops all of the way to the English channel, England sent boats to come and retrieve the trapped soldiers

17 Finland Norway Estonia Soviet Union Netherlands Latvia Denmark Lithuania Great Britain Poland Germany Belgium France Italy

18 Finland Norway Estonia Soviet Union Netherlands Latvia Denmark
Lithuania Great Britain Poland Germany . Paris Maginot Line Belgium France Italy

19 On your MAP: Countries Cities Bodies of Water Czechoslovakia Austria
Switzerland Sweden Hungary Cities London Warsaw Rome Moscow Berlin Bodies of Water Mediterranean Sea Black Sea English Channel North Sea Baltic Sea Adriatic Sea Atlantic Ocean

20 The Battle of Britain German Air Attacks on London
Many civilian deaths Britain never gave up Nazis never gained control Germans gave up The non-win of this battle hurt Hitler’s ego – so he took his ball and went on to attack Russia

21 “We shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be
“We shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be. We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender.” - Winston Churchill Battle of Britain

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25 Finland Norway Estonia Soviet Union Netherlands Latvia Denmark
Blitzkrieg in Poland Blitz in Paris Battle of Britain Finland Norway Estonia Soviet Union Netherlands Latvia Denmark Lithuania Great Britain 1 Poland 3 Germany . Paris Maginot Line Belgium 2 France Italy

26 Germany Turns East Frustrated by not winning Britain Hitler attacks the Soviet Union June 1941 This broke a non-aggressive pact that the two countries had

27 Election of 1940 FDR runs and wins a 3rd Term
1st time ever “Your boys are not going to be sent into any foreign wars.”

28 US Begins Involvement Lend-Lease – supplying arms to other countries
Atlantic Charter End “Nazi Tyranny” Disarmament and freedom for the whole world

29 Pearl Harbor Dec. 7, 1941 – 7:55 am – Hawaii Japanese sneak attack
8 battleships, 3 cruisers, 4 other ships 2,400 killed “… a date that will live in infamy.” - Franklin D. Roosevelt

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34 US Declares War Dec. 7, 1941 US declares war on Japan
3 days later Axis Powers declare war on US Congress approves war on Axis Powers

35 On the Home Front Section 3

36 Raising the Army Selective Service Act – Draft
15,000,000 joined military 350,000 women Mobilization – preparations for war

37 Financing the War $320 billion Income Tax & war bonds

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39 Factories Traded consumer goods for war goods Very efficient
70,000 ships 100,000 tanks and airplanes Millions of guns Very efficient Prosperity returns to US

40 Sacrifices Families separated
Goods rationed: consumers can only buy a limited amount

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42 Women in the War Activity: what do you think the role of a women was prior to 1940? Military Worked in factories Rosie the Riveter Lost jobs after the war Opinions changed about women

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46 African Americans 700,000 served in military Tuskegee Airmen
Equal Rights movement in factories Migration north – racial tensions “You say we’re fightin’ for democracy, then why don’t democracy include me?” - Langston Hughes

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48 Native Americans Code talkers – Navajo language
Ira Hayes raises flag at Iwo Jima

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50 Hispanic Americans 500,000 served
17 Mexicans awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor

51 Japanese Americans National fear of internal attack Internment camps
100,000 from the west coast 3 years

52 ACTIVITY Compare how America reacted to WWII to how we are reacting to our current war. How are they the same and how are they different? Why do you think this is so?

53 War in Europe and Africa
Section 4

54 Hitler Expands Almost all of Europe Much of N. Africa
America goes to war in Europe before Japan Bigger threat

55 Allied Forces Over 40 million troops Over 50 countries Greece
Yugoslavia Soviet Union*** Mongolia Panama Samoa Guam Puerto Rico Dominican Republic El Salvador Haiti Honduras Nicaragua China Mexico Guatemala Cuba Italy*** Romania Bulgaria San Marino Albania Ecuador Paraguay Uruguay Venezuela Turkey United States Great Britain France Poland Australia New Zealand India Newfoundland South Africa Canada Norway Denmark Belgium Luxembourg Czechoslovakia Brazil Ethiopia Iraq Bolivia Columbia Liberia Peru Lebanon Saudi Arabia Argentina Chile Over 40 million troops Over 50 countries

56 The Eastern Front Leningrad – 900 day siege – military blockade
Supplies ran low (cats/dogs) Thousands Died – NEVER GAVE UP Moscow – Soviet capital Bad weather Germany reaches the middle of the city but never takes control - retreat

57 The Eastern Front Stalingrad – oil rich city in the south
Street by street/house by house Won by Germany Soviets reclaim within a few months Heavy losses on both sides

58 Finland Norway 4 Estonia 5 Netherlands Latvia Denmark Lithuania
Blitzkrieg in Poland Blitz in Paris Battle of Britain Battle of Leningrad Battle of Moscow Battle of Stalingrad Finland Norway 4 Estonia 5 Netherlands Latvia Denmark Lithuania Soviet Union Great Britain 1 Poland 3 Germany . Paris Maginot Line Belgium 2 6 France Italy

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60 Air Attacks Over Germany
Summer 1942 – British/USA bombings over Germany Factories/Cities Massive destruction Didn’t phase German military

61 North African Campaign
General Erwin Rommel (German) “Desert Fox Gen. Eisenhower & Gen. Patton Nov to May 1943 Hitler driven from Africa ACTIVITY: describe the conditions of the desert. What problems would occur in fighting a war in the desert.

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63 Invasion of Italy Summer 1943
Italians easily beaten, Hitler continued to fight Germany held for 4 months Allies liberated Rome in June 1944

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66 D-Day Operation Overload French coast of Normandy
Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower French coast of Normandy Over 1 million Allied troops After storming the beach, Allies pushed forward and liberated Paris Aug. 15, 1944

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72 D-Day Statistics 150,000 troops landed on the beach on June 6th
Over a million followed Around 10,000 Allies dead on June 6th 9,000 Germans dead of June 6th 425,000 total Normandy 566,648 tons of supplies 171,532 vehicles

73 Battle of the Buldge Stand off @ the Rhine River
COLD!!! Dec. 16, 1944 – surprise attack Germany drives deep into Allied lines Allies overcome force Last major German offensive 75,000 dead

74 Final Stages in Europe FDR dies in Feb. 1945
Harry Truman takes over Hitler’s suicide – April 30, 1945 V-E Day – Victory in Europe May 7, 1945 German Surrender

75 War in the Pacific Section 5

76 The Pacific Front On Dec. 7, 1941 (Pearl Harbor Day) Japan also bombed American air fields in: Philippines Wake Guam Gen. Douglas MacArthur – retreat to Bataan Peninsula in the Philippines

77 The Philippines Allied troops @ Bataan forced to surrender
76,000 taken prisoner Bataan Death March 60 miles Killed if they couldn’t walk 22,000 killed “I shall return” – Gen. MacArthur

78 Island Hopping Island Hopping – attacking and capturing key islands
Quick Strike – James Doolittle Tokyo – moral victory Battle of the Coral Sea Strategic victory – no advancement to Australia Midway Guadal Canal – most vicious battle Battle of Leyte Gulf Philippines – MacArthur’s revenge

79 Advance to Japan Iwo Jima, Okinawa Allied pounding of Japan’s mainland
Kamikazes – suicide pilots Desperation, planes full of explosives Sunk many battle ships

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84 On Your Map Countries Cities, States, or Islands Bodies of Water Japan
China Korea Australia Philippines New Guinea Indonesia Bodies of Water Pacific Ocean Indian Ocean Coral Sea Cities, States, or Islands Hawaii Guam Midway Wake Tokyo Okinawa Beijing Hong Kong Hiroshima Nagasaki

85 Atomic Bomb Albert Einstein
Manhattan Project – a program to develop new extremely powerful weapons Potsdam Declaration Surrender or “UTTER DESTRUCTION”

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92 Click on Link

93 Final Stages of War August 6, 1945 - Hiroshima 3 days later – Nagasaki
Enola Gay – Little Boy 70,000 dead 3 days later – Nagasaki Fat Man 40,000 dead Thousands more would die from radiation

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97 ACTIVITY In Pairs Did the United States need to drop the A-bomb? Explain. What are the pros and cons to using this kind of weapon? What would be an alternative to dropping the A-bomb in this situation?

98 THE END August 15, 1945 – “V-J Day”
Victory over Japan September 2, 1945 – Japan signs a surrender

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100 War Trials Nazi/Japanese leaders on trial for crimes against humanity
31 executed, hundreds put in prison

101 Cost of the War Total Dead – over 40 million (some sources say as many as 70 million) ½ from the Soviet Union 322,000 Americans died, 800,000 injured 11 million dead in Holocaust Over 6 million of them were Jews US Cost – $288,000,000,000 Today this would be 4 trillion


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