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World War II Chapter 26. Road to War Section 1 The Rise of Dictators Dictator – a leader who takes control by force Dictator – a leader who takes control.

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Presentation on theme: "World War II Chapter 26. Road to War Section 1 The Rise of Dictators Dictator – a leader who takes control by force Dictator – a leader who takes control."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War II Chapter 26

2 Road to War Section 1

3 The Rise of Dictators Dictator – a leader who takes control by force Dictator – a leader who takes control by force 1.Adolf Hitler – Germany – Nazi Party – Anti-Semitism – hatred of the Jewish race – Ended democracy – totalitarian rule 2.Benito Mussolini – Italy – Fascism – extreme nationalism and racism 3.Joseph Stalin – Soviet Union (Communism) 4.Japan – military led govt invaded China

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5 American Neutrality US wanted nothing to do w/ world conflict US wanted nothing to do w/ world conflict Neutrality Acts – no sale of weapons to nations at war Neutrality Acts – no sale of weapons to nations at war

6 Germany on the Move Munich Conference – no more German expansion (Britain, France Germany) Munich Conference – no more German expansion (Britain, France Germany) Soviet-German Non-Aggressive Pact Soviet-German Non-Aggressive Pact Putting force near the Rhineland, Austria and Czechoslovakia Putting force near the Rhineland, Austria and Czechoslovakia

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13 War Begins Section 2

14 Germany Invades: Poland Blitzkrieg – lightning war (quick strike) Blitzkrieg – lightning war (quick strike) September 1, 1939 September 1, 1939 Germany & Sov. Un. split Poland 50/50 Germany & Sov. Un. split Poland 50/50 Britain and France declare war Britain and France declare war Little they could doLittle they could do Soviets attack: Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, and Finland Soviets attack: Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, and Finland

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16 The War Expands Maginot Line – fortified line between Belgium and Switzerland Maginot Line – fortified line between Belgium and Switzerland Major dividing line in the westMajor dividing line in the west Hitler attacked: Denmark, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium Hitler attacked: Denmark, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium Axis Powers formed (Germany, Italy, later on Japan Axis Powers formed (Germany, Italy, later on Japan June 14, 1940 – blitz and capture Paris June 14, 1940 – blitz and capture Paris

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18 Maginot Line. Paris

19 On your MAP: Countries Countries CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakia AustriaAustria SwitzerlandSwitzerland SwedenSweden HungaryHungary Cities Cities LondonLondon WarsawWarsaw RomeRome MoscowMoscow BerlinBerlin Bodies of Water Bodies of Water Mediterranean Sea Black Sea English Channel North Sea Baltic Sea Adriatic Sea Atlantic Ocean

20 The Battle of Britain German Air Attacks on London German Air Attacks on London Many civilian deathsMany civilian deaths Britain never gave up Britain never gave up Nazis never gained control Nazis never gained control Germans gave up Germans gave up

21 We shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be. We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender. - Winston Churchill Battle of Britain

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25 Maginot Line. Paris 1.Blitzkrieg in Poland 2.Blitz in Paris 3.Battle of Britain

26 Germany Turns East Frustrated by not winning Britain Hitler attacks the Soviet Union Frustrated by not winning Britain Hitler attacks the Soviet Union June 1941June 1941 This broke a non-aggressive pact that the two countries hadThis broke a non-aggressive pact that the two countries had

27 Election of 1940 FDR runs and wins a 3 rd Term FDR runs and wins a 3 rd Term 1 st time ever1 st time ever Your boys are not going to be sent into any foreign wars. Your boys are not going to be sent into any foreign wars.

28 US Begins Involvement 1. Lend-Lease – supplying arms to other countries 2. Atlantic Charter End Nazi Tyranny End Nazi Tyranny Disarmament and freedom for the whole world Disarmament and freedom for the whole world

29 Pearl Harbor Dec. 7, 1941 – 7:55 am – Hawaii Dec. 7, 1941 – 7:55 am – Hawaii Japanese sneak attack Japanese sneak attack 8 battleships, 3 cruisers, 4 other ships 8 battleships, 3 cruisers, 4 other ships 2,400 killed 2,400 killed … a date that will live in infamy. - Franklin D. Roosevelt

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34 US Declares War Dec. 7, 1941 US declares war on Japan Dec. 7, 1941 US declares war on Japan 3 days later Axis Powers declare war on US 3 days later Axis Powers declare war on US Congress approves war on Axis Powers Congress approves war on Axis Powers

35 On the Home Front Section 3

36 Raising the Army Selective Service Act – Draft Selective Service Act – Draft 15,000,000 joined military 15,000,000 joined military 350,000 women350,000 women Mobilization – preparations for war Mobilization – preparations for war

37 Financing the War $320 billion $320 billion Income Tax & war bonds Income Tax & war bonds

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39 Factories Traded consumer goods for war goods Traded consumer goods for war goods 70,000 ships70,000 ships 100,000 tanks and airplanes100,000 tanks and airplanes Millions of gunsMillions of guns Very efficient Very efficient Pro sperity returns to US Pro sperity returns to US

40 Sacrifices Families separated Families separated Goods rationed: consumers can only buy a limited amount Goods rationed: consumers can only buy a limited amount

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42 Women in the War Activity: what do you think the role of a women was prior to 1940? Military Military Worked in factories Worked in factories Rosie the RiveterRosie the Riveter Lost jobs after the war Lost jobs after the war Opinions changed about women Opinions changed about women

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46 African Americans 700,000 served in military 700,000 served in military Tuskegee Airmen Tuskegee Airmen Equal Rights movement in factories Equal Rights movement in factories Migration north – racial tensions Migration north – racial tensions You say were fightin for democracy, then why dont democracy include me? - Langston Hughes

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48 Native Americans Code talkers – Navajo language Code talkers – Navajo language Ira Hayes raises flag at Iwo Jima Ira Hayes raises flag at Iwo Jima

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50 Hispanic Americans 500,000 served 500,000 served 17 Mexicans awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor 17 Mexicans awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor

51 Japanese Americans National fear of internal attack National fear of internal attack Internment camps Internment camps 100,000 from the west coast100,000 from the west coast 3 years3 years

52 ACTIVITY Compare how America reacted to WWII to how we are reacting to our current war. How are they the same and how are they different? Why do you think this is so?

53 War in Europe and Africa Section 4

54 Hitler Expands Almost all of Europe Almost all of Europe Much of N. Africa Much of N. Africa America goes to war in Europe before Japan America goes to war in Europe before Japan Bigger threatBigger threat

55 Allied Forces United States United States Great Britain Great Britain France France Poland Poland Australia Australia New Zealand New Zealand India India Newfoundland Newfoundland South Africa South Africa Canada Canada Norway Norway Denmark Denmark Belgium Belgium Luxembourg Luxembourg Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia Brazil Brazil Ethiopia Ethiopia Iraq Iraq Bolivia Bolivia Columbia Columbia Liberia Liberia Peru Peru Lebanon Lebanon Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Argentina Argentina Chile Chile Greece Greece Yugoslavia Yugoslavia Soviet Union*** Soviet Union*** Mongolia Mongolia Panama Panama Samoa Samoa Guam Guam Puerto Rico Puerto Rico Dominican Republic Dominican Republic El Salvador El Salvador Haiti Haiti Honduras Honduras Nicaragua Nicaragua China China Mexico Mexico Guatemala Guatemala Cuba Cuba Italy*** Italy*** Romania Romania Bulgaria Bulgaria San Marino San Marino Albania Albania Ecuador Ecuador Paraguay Paraguay Uruguay Uruguay Venezuela Venezuela Turkey Turkey

56 The Eastern Front Leningrad – 900 day siege – military blockade Leningrad – 900 day siege – military blockade Supplies ran low (cats/dogs)Supplies ran low (cats/dogs) Thousands Died – NEVER GAVE UPThousands Died – NEVER GAVE UP Moscow – Soviet capital Moscow – Soviet capital Bad weatherBad weather Germany reaches the middle of the city but never takes control - retreatGermany reaches the middle of the city but never takes control - retreat

57 The Eastern Front Stalingrad – oil rich city in the south Stalingrad – oil rich city in the south Street by street/house by houseStreet by street/house by house Won by GermanyWon by Germany Soviets reclaim within a few monthsSoviets reclaim within a few months Heavy losses on both sides Heavy losses on both sides

58 Maginot Line. Paris 1.Blitzkrieg in Poland 2.Blitz in Paris 3.Battle of Britain 4.Battle of Leningrad 5.Battle of Moscow 6.Battle of Stalingrad

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60 Air Attacks Over Germany Summer 1942 – British/USA bombings over Germany Summer 1942 – British/USA bombings over Germany Factories/Cities Factories/Cities Massive destructionMassive destruction Didnt phase German military Didnt phase German military

61 North African Campaign General Erwin Rommel (German) General Erwin Rommel (German) Desert FoxDesert Fox Gen. Eisenhower & Gen. Patton Gen. Eisenhower & Gen. Patton Nov to May 1943 Nov to May 1943 Hitler driven from Africa Hitler driven from Africa ACTIVITY: describe the conditions of the desert. What problems would occur in fighting a war in the desert.

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63 Invasion of Italy Summer 1943 Summer 1943 Italians easily beaten, Hitler continued to fight Italians easily beaten, Hitler continued to fight Germany held for 4 monthsGermany held for 4 months Allies liberated Rome in June 1944 Allies liberated Rome in June 1944

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66 D-Day Operation Overload Operation Overload Gen. Dwight D. EisenhowerGen. Dwight D. Eisenhower French coast of Normandy French coast of Normandy Over 1 million Allied troops Over 1 million Allied troops After storming the beach, Allies pushed forward and liberated Paris After storming the beach, Allies pushed forward and liberated Paris Aug. 15, 1944Aug. 15, 1944

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72 D-Day Statistics 150,000 troops landed on the beach on June 6 th 150,000 troops landed on the beach on June 6 th Over a million followedOver a million followed Around 10,000 Allies dead on June 6th Around 10,000 Allies dead on June 6th 9,000 Germans dead of June 6 th 9,000 Germans dead of June 6 th 425,000 total Normandy 425,000 total Normandy 566,648 tons of supplies 566,648 tons of supplies 171,532 vehicles 171,532 vehicles

73 Battle of the Buldge Stand the Rhine River Stand the Rhine River COLD!!!COLD!!! Dec. 16, 1944 – surprise attack Dec. 16, 1944 – surprise attack Germany drives deep into Allied lines Germany drives deep into Allied lines Allies overcome force Allies overcome force Last major German offensive Last major German offensive 75,000 dead75,000 dead

74 Final Stages in Europe FDR dies in Feb FDR dies in Feb Harry Truman takes overHarry Truman takes over Hitlers suicide – April 30, 1945 Hitlers suicide – April 30, 1945 V-E Day – Victory in Europe V-E Day – Victory in Europe May 7, 1945May 7, 1945 German SurrenderGerman Surrender

75 War in the Pacific Section 5

76 The Pacific Front On Dec. 7, 1941 (Pearl Harbor Day) Japan also bombed American air fields in: On Dec. 7, 1941 (Pearl Harbor Day) Japan also bombed American air fields in: PhilippinesPhilippines WakeWake GuamGuam Gen. Douglas MacArthur – retreat to Bataan Peninsula in the Philippines Gen. Douglas MacArthur – retreat to Bataan Peninsula in the Philippines

77 The Philippines Allied Bataan forced to surrender Allied Bataan forced to surrender 76,000 taken prisoner76,000 taken prisoner Bataan Death March Bataan Death March 60 miles60 miles Killed if they couldnt walkKilled if they couldnt walk 22,000 killed22,000 killed I shall return – Gen. MacArthur I shall return – Gen. MacArthur

78 Island Hopping Island Hopping – attacking and capturing key islands Island Hopping – attacking and capturing key islands Quick Strike – James Doolittle Quick Strike – James Doolittle Tokyo – moral victoryTokyo – moral victory Battle of the Coral Sea Battle of the Coral Sea Strategic victory – no advancement to AustraliaStrategic victory – no advancement to Australia Midway Midway Guadal Canal – most vicious battle Guadal Canal – most vicious battle Battle of Leyte Gulf Battle of Leyte Gulf Philippines – MacArthurs revengePhilippines – MacArthurs revenge

79 Advance to Japan Iwo Jima, Okinawa Iwo Jima, Okinawa Allied pounding of Japans mainland Allied pounding of Japans mainland Kamikazes – suicide pilots Kamikazes – suicide pilots Desperation, planes full of explosivesDesperation, planes full of explosives Sunk many battle shipsSunk many battle ships

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84 On Your Map Countries Countries JapanJapan ChinaChina KoreaKorea AustraliaAustralia PhilippinesPhilippines New GuineaNew Guinea IndonesiaIndonesia Bodies of Water Bodies of Water Pacific OceanPacific Ocean Indian OceanIndian Ocean Coral SeaCoral Sea Cities, States, or Islands Cities, States, or Islands Hawaii Guam Midway Wake Tokyo Okinawa Beijing Hong Kong Hiroshima Nagasaki

85 Atomic Bomb Albert Einstein Albert Einstein Manhattan Project – a program to develop new extremely powerful weapons Manhattan Project – a program to develop new extremely powerful weapons Potsdam Declaration Potsdam Declaration Surrender or UTTER DESTRUCTIONSurrender or UTTER DESTRUCTION

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93 Final Stages of War August 6, Hiroshima August 6, Hiroshima Enola Gay – Little BoyEnola Gay – Little Boy 70,000 dead70,000 dead 3 days later – Nagasaki 3 days later – Nagasaki Fat ManFat Man 40,000 dead40,000 dead Thousands more would die from radiation Thousands more would die from radiation

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97 ACTIVITY In Pairs In Pairs Did the United States need to drop the A-bomb? Explain.Did the United States need to drop the A-bomb? Explain. What are the pros and cons to using this kind of weapon?What are the pros and cons to using this kind of weapon? What would be an alternative to dropping the A-bomb in this situation?What would be an alternative to dropping the A-bomb in this situation?

98 THE END August 15, 1945 – V-J Day August 15, 1945 – V-J Day Victory over JapanVictory over Japan September 2, 1945 – Japan signs a surrender September 2, 1945 – Japan signs a surrender

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100 War Trials Nazi/Japanese leaders on trial for crimes against humanity Nazi/Japanese leaders on trial for crimes against humanity 31 executed, hundreds put in prison 31 executed, hundreds put in prison

101 Cost of the War Total Dead – over 40 million (some sources say as many as 70 million) Total Dead – over 40 million (some sources say as many as 70 million) ½ from the Soviet Union½ from the Soviet Union 322,000 Americans died, 800,000 injured 322,000 Americans died, 800,000 injured 11 million dead in Holocaust 11 million dead in Holocaust Over 6 million of them were JewsOver 6 million of them were Jews US Cost – $288,000,000,000 US Cost – $288,000,000,000 Today this would be 4 trillionToday this would be 4 trillion


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