2What is citizenship? • What is ‘citizenship’? • Citizenship, Identity, Nationality• Formal and legal concepts of citizenship• Historical and cultural understandings of citizenship• Modern concepts and practices of citizenship• The relation of a citizen to the local environment, the region, the state and to Europe: theinteraction of European, active and democratic citizenship• Widening concentric circles: European Citizenship• Citizenship and identity: European citizenship• Integrating European citizenship into youth work and formal education activities• Is there a ‘good citizen’?
3What is citizenship?Citizenship is more about responsibilities than rights: difference between duties and rights;State controls your rights, we are the rights, human rights (what was not given, cannot betaken away), first responsibilities, then can ask for rights;Citizenship is related so much with the education.Citizenship is not on the passport it about the feelings.It is about living together, saying your opinion, listening to other, compromising andputting to action.European citizenship – participation in social and political life. It’s also about rights.
4How do young, active citizens live their lives? It was attempted to (1) describe how are young European citizens living their lives (busy,overloaded with school, family, friends commitments and other involvements, notinterested in political life of the country, more self-oriented and individualistic, spent partof life in the virtual sphere) and to (2) analyze what influence and has led to this (changesin family and society, growing competition and pressure to be successful, growth ofindividualism and materialism in out societies, school curriculum not preparing for the reallife.
5What is the purpose of young people’s formal and non-formal education? Summarized: Give knowledge, be space to acquire and practise your skills, be example to develop attitude. Challenge lays in the fact that we don't anymore know what kind of educational children/people need.
6How can powerful formal and non-formal education generate young, active citizens? By giving knowledge, creating safe learning environment and being a place to learn and toexercise ones citizenship, by giving examples and support, by giving guiding andinspiration. School plays very important role since it is both learning institution and modelof society in itself. Here we learn how to live together. Non- formal education providesspaces for initiatives and exercise of citizenship through action, here we put out knowledgeinto practise and learn a lot of social skills plus we learn and "train” our attitudes.
7Citizenship: a metaphor Citizenship was introduced as a multidimensional concept having 4 dimensions. To show importance of each dimension the metaphor of chair was used, since it explains best about the need of balance between each “leg” to create a balance and harmonious“citizenship”.
9Citizenship: the 4 dimensions Political dimensionSocial dimensionCultural dimensionEconomic dimension
10Citizenship: political dimension The political dimension of citizenship refers to political rights and responsibilities vis à vis the political system
11Citizenship: social dimension The social dimension of citizenship refers to the behaviour between individuals in a society and requires some measure of loyalty and solidarity
12Citizenship: cultural dimension The cultural dimension of citizenship refers to the consciousness of a common cultural heritage –in the interrelated diversity-
13Citizenship: cultural dimension The economic dimension of citizenship refers to the relationship between an individual and the labour- and consumer- market.It implies the right to work and to a minimum subsistence level
16The most important elements.. Personal identity and sense of belonging;Learning about citizenship with young people;Approach towards citizenship, education and citizenship education;Chance to share the knowledge and practises with other practitioners in the field;Reflection on my own identity and its links to others;Planning educational activities about citizenship;Different definitions and approaches which put citizenship in broader philosophical context;Educational theories and approaches;Active participation of young people;
17The most important elements.. Mixture of learning methods was really good;Being part of diverse learning group;Values shared / knowledge gained / experience skilled;“Do It Yourself” – chance to employ previous and new KSA into practise;Working in groups proved to be efficient way to exchange ideas, opinions etc;Citizens Café;Education for Citizenship;Linking formal and non-formal education;Being able to explore and practise my own citizenship;
18Attitude towards European Citizenship I am even more motivated to go on with my work promoting active citizenship and I am eager to put it on European level;Motivated to work to give others an opportunity to be active citizens;Sometimes word “Europe”, “European” is an obstacle for work due to prejudices in some countries;I still find this term confusing and would rather use “active” or “democratic” citizenship;More positive about it;It gained dimensions of diversity and democracy;Proved once again that European citizenship is not only legal and economical concept. Behind it stands set of values which we respect and doesn't really matter which term we use to describe it;
19Attitude towards European Citizenship I felt European before but now got motivation to share this feeling with others;Completed my knowledge and will be able to look at the subject not only from perspective (context) of my country;Feel more attached to the issue in my personal and professional life;Attitude hasn’t changed but it opened my mind to some new aspects;
20In which fields you would still like to improve your knowledge and skills concerning European Citizenship?Need to learn and master English language;Improve cooperation on the international level;Get used to different structures of European youth work;Increase /develop professional vocabulary in English/French;Historic analysis;Skills to do social analysis of the context I am working/living in;Improve knowledge about citizenship education in the formal and non-formalEducation settings;Active participation;Would like to learn more about Eastern European countries (Russia, Azerbaijan,Georgia, Moldova);
21Legal foundations o the citizenship; In which fields you would still like to improve your knowledge and skills concerning European Citizenship?Legal foundations o the citizenship;More concrete skills and more practise;Will continue to work on my knowledge, skills and attitudes;Would like to find innovative ways ED education (FE/NFE), not only lessons and exchanges;Funding possibilities for citizenship education;European dimension of identity;Have to work on my confidence and communication skills;European Citizenship historic development;More about EU citizenship;Would like to improve own training skills;
22INPUT ON CITIZENSHIP AND EUROPEAN CITIZENSHIPS Citizenship is a multidimensional, non-economic concept.Components:• cultural (language, symbols, artistic creation, etc)• civil (liberties of individuals)• political (democratic system)• social (basic provisions, standard of life)• economical dimensions
23Citizenship as a legal status can be based on: Residence, territory;NationalityPlace of birthMarriageBloodLanguageReligion…
24There are few more dimensions to add to this legal status: “Sense of belonging” is very important;Active citizenship – active social role which you take when you have this feeling of belonging.This way you can practize your rights and responsibilities
25Citizenship is a status and role: • a juridical and political status, a civic contract between the State and individual. • a social role and needs a civic literacy and certain competencies to effectively exercise the citizen status.
26Citizenship is a process of interactions • between individuals • between individuals and social groups • between individuals and society • between social groups • between the national cultures
27Belonging to a community: Community can be chosen as one of identitiesIt can be disassociated from sense of belonging to “territory” in favour of belonging to“Community” since no longer we so strongly bound to one particular territory and community.
28Citizenship is context-related It can have a simultaneously diverse content depending on the political community it refers to - wecan be:– Local (encouragement to be active on local level)– National– EU– European– World (these later two are voluntary chosen or chosen not to practise them)
29The difference between the European citizenship and the citizenship of the European Union • European citizenship is a concept of citizenship as citizen-citizen relation, based on human rights and responsibilities of people. Citizenship which can be defined ‘European’ supports the process of construction of a new Europe. • The citizenship of the European Union is clearly different category (see the Constitution of the European Union). Similarly constructed as the concept of national citizenship
30State-citizen political relation includes: • Set of rights and liberties that State/European Union grants its citizens • Legal rules • Ensures access to public life and participation in politics • Strongly connected to nationality and territory (certified by passports)
31European citizenship as citizen-citizen relation • is not abstract and static status, can be lived • can be chosen as one of the identities of an individual • makes the civil society and the achievements of the ‘civil’ democracy more important • practice of a moral code, a code that has concern for the rights and interests of others • the rights of individuals are limited by the similar rights of other individuals • dissociates citizenship from belonging to a particular territory (country)
32European citizenship in youth work • Is not completely new dimension of youth training • working with European Citizenship should not be limited to the promotion of awareness • youth work should also provide a space where young people and youth workers can experience and practise the European citizenship as active social role.
33European Citizenship: EC is always under construction and is based on identity (voluntary chosen)It is Citizen – citizen relationshipCivil society play very active role in EC phenomenonLegal basis – human rights convention (NB. Has no link to particular country and Citizen - Staterelationship)
34PDF papers about EU identity European identity: construct, fact and fictionThe meaning of nationality and European Identity among Youths from different Nations«EU Enlargement, EU Identity, Culture and National Identity in the Eastern Regions»BUILDING THE EU IDENTITY
35EU citizenship and Turkey: pdf EU Identity Needs Help from TurkeyUNITY IN DIVERSITY? THE CHALLENGE OF DIVERSITY FOR THE EUROPEAN POLITICAL IDENTITY AND DEMOCRATIC GOVERNANCE: TURKISH MEMBERSHIP AS THE ULTIMATE TEST CASE - Sanem Baykal*
36Other inputs about citizenship Citizenship and active citizenshipEU identityIdentity-politics in the European UnionThe EU Identity crisesEuropean values and identityTurkey in the EU - What the public thinks
37Other inputs about citizenship European Islam: challenges for public policy and societyThe future of Islam in the European UnionFuture prospects for Turkey’s economy
38EU and TurkeyThe prospect of a possible EU membership of Turkey as well as issues relating to globalization and immigration have further added to the identity debates. Surveys show that EU citizens continue to identify first of all with their own country.
39EurobarometerAccording to a Eurobarometer survey , at the end of 2004 only 47 % of EU citizens saw themselves as citizens of both their country and Europe, 41 % as citizens of their country only. 86 % of the interviewees felt pride in their country, while 68 % were proud of being European.
40Issues Europe of culture or "family of nations" Europe of citizens or "constitutional patriotism" Europe as space of encounters
41A CHARTA OF EUROPEAN IDENTITY Europe is a community of destinyEurope is above all a community of valuesEurope is a community of lifeEurope is an economic and social communityEurope is a community of responsibilityTowards an European Identity
42Eurobarometer: questions National Identity - European Identity - World IdentityDo you ever think of yourself not only as (nationality) citizen, but also as a citizen of Europe? Does this happen often, sometimes or never?Do you ever think of yourself as not only (nationality), but also European? Does this happen often, sometimes or never?
43Eurobarometer: questions And do you ever think of yourself as citizen of the world? Does this happen often, sometimes or never?In the near future do you see yourself as ... ?- (NATIONALITY) only - firstly (NATIONALITY) and then European- firstly European and then (NATIONALITY) - European only- As (NATIONALITY) as European (SPONTANEOUS)
44Others Hopes of a European patriotism 'Europe' seen from outside Idea of 'Europe‘Pan-EuropeanismPopular cultureEuropean symbols
45ESDS International Case Study Title: When do people feel European? European identity, EU attitudes, and questionnaire designAuthor: Robert JohnsInstitution: University of StrathclydeDate: January May 2008Subject area(s): PoliticsRelevance to other area(s): Psychology, research methodsProject type: Academic research
46ESDS: ObjectivesWhen European identity questions are located immediately after EU questions, there will be a stronger correlation between European identity and support for the EU.The location of European identity questions with respect to EU questions will influence the relative levels of European identity across different EU states.When European identity questions are located immediately after EU questions, there will be a lower overall level of European identity.When European identity questions are located away from EU questions, European identity will be common even among anti-EU respondents
47ESDS: MethodologyThe project required the ordering, downloading and statistical analysis of a large number of Eurobarometer datasets. Those analyses were relatively straightforward: it was a case of comparing levels of European identity across surveys and across countries, and correlating European identity with attitudes to the EU.
48ESDS: ResultsThe results carry implications for survey designers, reinforcing the importance of question order, and warning Euro barometer methodologists that they cannot expect to measure pure European identity if – as has become the norm – those questions immediately follow a long battery of questions about the European Union. More broadly, these findings are relevant to a wider study of the extreme right in Europe. There is increasing evidence that extreme-right parties are actively encouraging a sense of European identity among their supporters and target audiences, in order to add a cultural veneer to their anti-immigrant discourse (and their opposition to Turkish membership of the EU). These findings suggest that, far from being narrow nationalists, extreme right sympathizers are willing to express a positive European identity, provided that – as in extreme right discourse – this is presented as distinct from pro-EU sentiment