Presentation on theme: "David Salisbury, President of GERG"— Presentation transcript:
1David Salisbury, President of GERG Adapting the Natural Gas Network for Hydrogen European Commission Hydrogen Seminar 26th April 2013David Salisbury, President of GERG
2The European Gas Research Group 52 years of collaborative R&D on natural gas topicsEffective gas industry network for R&D information exchange26 members from 14 countries - all active in R&DNew category – Friends of GERG for non-gas industry cooperationHigh quality research resourceAcademic NetworkSome Current priorities:Hydrogen/Power to GasRenewables integration and decarbonisationNetwork integrity and safetyLNG infrastructureNew end use technologies, CHP, mobilityInteroperabilityGERG isEC-funded ProjectsDEO • CONRAD • DIGBUILD • VOGUE • MICROMAP • PRESENSE • LABNET • GIGA • COMBO • NATURALHY • ORFEUS • INTEG-RISK • GASQUAL• LNG DENSITOMETER
3Hydrogen, fuel of the future? Our gas infrastructure was designed to transport and use hydrogen blends and did so for over 150 yearsHydrogen content up to 63%Since the introduction of natural gas, the network and applications have been developed for an assumed hydrogen concentration close to 0%.Towns gas is still produced for domestic use in cities such as Hong Kong and Singapore, using natural gas as a source!Towns gas produced from coal, 1815
4Europe needs wind and solar and other renewables to decarbonise its energy system, but: “The European grid is far from ready for new variable-energy sources such as wind and solar”Headline of article in the European Voice, 22nd September 2012The wind does not blow and the sun does not shine on demand4
5BackgroundIn 2011 Electricity Transporters paid wind generators tens of M€ not to generate.Without sufficient cost-effective and available energy storage, valuable renewable energy is being wastedThe cost of upgrading the electricity to incorporate planned renewables has been estimated at several €100bns.But the storage capacity is already there…5
6The German Energy system Mature natural gas grids carry much more energy than electricity grids, and extra capacity is already available.In the UK the gas network carries three times as much energy as the electricity grid, comparable with energy consumed by road transportEnd use of gas can be over 90% efficient with low transmission lossesConsumptionTWh/a610930Average powerGW70105Storage capacity0.04210Cal. operating rangeh0.62000ElectricityNatural gasThe German Energy systemSo why not use the gas grid? Its already there...
7The storage of energy as gas has huge potential Discharge time [h]CAES: Compressed Air Energy Storage (Druckluftspeicherkraftwerk)PHS: Pumped Hydro Storage (Pumpspeicherwerk)H2, SNG: Hydrogen, Synthetic Natural Gas (Underground storage includes the re- electrification in combined cycle power plant)Source: Research Center Jülich
8Wind Power production 2008-2010 volatileincreasingmore wind power than power network capacitymaximum power grid capacity
9Our Energy System is Changing... Increased integration of of renewable energies changes a demand driven energy system to a supply (or opportunity) driven systemThe existing electricity system (online balanced) is not currently capable of coping with those requirementsStorage is vital to achieve balance between demand and supply......and the high pressure gas system can provide thisThere are number of technical issues, and GERG has begun to address these...
10Power to Gas – Using existing gas infrastructure to transport renewable energy excess renewableelectricityElectrolyser(high efficiency)H2direct injection intogas grid (10-15% ?)gasapplicationsgas storageH2MethanationCH4injection intogas grid (unlimited)O2Re-use of CO2
11Benefits hydrogen or methane from surplus renewable electricity injected into the existing natural gas networkthe enormous capacity of existing infrastructure can be usedSeveral 100,000 km of existing pipelinesSeveral million m3 of underground storageAlmost 1000 TWh of energy transported annually as natural gasTwice as much as electricity10% hydrogen added to grid is about 30TWhA medium sized pipeline system of 100,000m3/ h at 10% H2 injection would require 400MW of electricity – equivalent to several wind farms.
12Challenges and Bottlenecks for hydrogen injection Potential for degradation of pipeline steelsModern gas turbines with pre-mixed burnersSteel tanks in NGVsThe existing appliance populationElectrolysisWhat are the limits?What needs to be done?What technology advances need to be supported?What are the economics for the competing routes?The GERG Power to Gas Research roadmap
13GERG Hydrogen Projects Hydrogen in the Natural Gas GridDomestic and commercial appliances and distribution gridsAdmissible Hydrogen Concentration in Natural gas systemsADomHydro (running)BHygridCSMARTSimDPower to Gas PlatformsProject of GERG PC DrunningE.ON ProjectNorth Sea Power to GasMediterranean Power to Gas(Establishing scenarios for priority investigation)(DNV KEMA)Establishing and analysing the level of existing knowledge32 GERG and non-GERG partnersReports in June 2013Part 1 :Basics, Theory and Lab investigationCooperation and Monitoring partnersof GERGDVGW/GWIERGE.ONPart 2: Injection of H2 Planning, Installation, operation of injection siteField tests up to 10%: compilation of appliances and components,measurementevaluationCoordination of programCommon publicationMediterraneanGL (UK)KIWAManaged.: KIWA,Managed.: E.ON
14Hydrogen in Pipelines Annual balance (Germany): 15% H2 in the natural gas transmission grid equals approx. 15 bcm.33 GW excess wind power over 2000 h/a would be necessary to generate this amount of energy.Local balance: Example alpha ventus:Conversion of the entire power production (60 MW at peak) would lead to a flow of H2 m³/hInjection into a large transmission pipeline (entry cap: 3.3 mcm) would create a 0.4% content of H2But - Injection into a distribution pipeline at low demand would be more of an issueSource: E.ON Ruhrgas
15GERG Admissable Concentrations of Hydrogen in Pipelines 2012-13: 32 members H2 constraints from manufactures (e.g. CNG tanks and gas turbines) being Investigated.2% limit on old CNG tanks, 10% for turbinesSome underground storage seems to be sensitive concerning H2 (R&D necessary)Further understanding of appliances under extreme conditionsProject is providing a gap analysis of current constraints on introduction of hydrogen into natural gas pipelinesFollows on from GERG NATURALHY projectA hydrogen methane mixture (up to 15% H2) meets all significant quality requirements for natural gas (technical code DVGW)Source: E.ON Ruhrgas
16Domhydro: project outline Project objective:to gather insight in performance, emissions and safety of domestic gas appliances when hydrogen is mixed in natural gasProject scope:new and existing domestic appliancesGAD appliancesdifferent H2 / natural gas mixturesreliable operation, emissions, efficiencyextreme practical conditions to be addresseddurability testsProject goal:to contribute to the preparation of future decisions concerning technical limits to the hydrogen content in natural gas
17HyGrid: Outline WP1:Theoretical and Lab support WP2: Field test Theoretical analysis and lab investigation of impact on combustion control solutionsClose cooperation with the GERG projects “Admissible hydrogen concentrations” and “Domhydro”WP2: Field testInstallation of the injection facility incl. control and measurement equipmentCompilation and measurement of installed appliancesIncremental increasing injection of hydrogen within the limits of DVGW G260 Observation and measurement of selected appliancesWP3: Field test “Gas Plus Lab”Field test in the experimental grid with new gas technologies in KarlsruheProject goal:To prove the feasibility of hydrogen injection up to 10% into an existing grid with mainly domestic customers
18Economic Considerations Electrolysis for H2 production is keyknown technology; flexibility to be optimised for greater economic viabilityto be placed at strategic locations in the gridmore affordable than electricity grid expansions - if existing infrastructure is usedITM Power’s Hfuel electrolyserEssential parameters:costs of electrolysercosts of electricitynumber of operating hoursbenefit through avoided power grid extensionCosts of making gas network hydrogen ready vs cost of methanation
19Summary and Conclusions Storage of intermittent renewables is becoming a major issue as the installed capacity increasesExisting natural gas infrastructure offers a high transport and storage capacity with few transmission lossesPower to hydrogen or methane and injection in the gas grid is attractive, where the local power grid capacity is insufficientHigh efficiencies are state of the art for gas useInteraction between gas grids and power grids will increase - SMART systemsSmart communication and control systems are mandatory to create smart gridsBusiness cases need to built on a scenario by scenario basisGERG is working with its members and other stakeholders to identify and address R&D issuesThe gas network is an enabler of a long term low carbon energy system and an ideal partner for renewables
20Thank You.For more information on GERG and the Power to Gas projects, please contact: