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ET: Einstein Telescope Michele Punturo INFN Perugia On behalf of the ET design study team 1ILIAS General meeting, Jaca Feb 2008.

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Presentation on theme: "ET: Einstein Telescope Michele Punturo INFN Perugia On behalf of the ET design study team 1ILIAS General meeting, Jaca Feb 2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 ET: Einstein Telescope Michele Punturo INFN Perugia On behalf of the ET design study team 1ILIAS General meeting, Jaca Feb 2008

2 Evolution of the current GW detectors Current Gravitational Wave interferometric detectors have a well defined evolution line in the next 5-7 years – LIGO just completed its S5 scientific run – Virgo completed in October 07 its first long scientific run in parallel with LIGO Both the detectors are in upgrade/commissioning mode to implement their 1.5 generation upgrade step (Virgo+, enhanced LIGO) – GEO is covering (“astrowatch” mode) the down time of LIGO and Virgo in collaboration with the resonant bar detectors … see G.Losurdo Talk 2ILIAS General meeting, Jaca Feb 2008

3 1 st generation GW detectors sensitivities ILIAS General meeting, Jaca Feb ESO – May 2, 2006 G.Losurdo – INFN Firenze h (Hz -1/2 ) Virgo LIGO Resonant antennas Hz GEO Core 10 Mpc BH-BH Merger 100 Mpc Pulsars h max – 1 yr integration BH-BH Inspiral, z = 0.4 BH-BH Inspiral, 100 Mpc QNM from BH Collisions, Msun, z=1 NS,  =10 -6, 10 kpc QNM from BH Collisions, Msun, 150 Mpc NS-NS Inspiral, 300 Mpc NS-NS Merger 100 Mpc 1 st generation detectors Credit: P.Rapagnani

4 ILIAS General meeting, Jaca Feb “1.5 generation” sensitivities Laser amplifier Higher finesse, lower mirror TN Monolithic FS suspensions

5 Advanced detectors Enhanced detectors are a step toward the realization of the 2 nd generation detectors (“advanced”) – Also GEO will participate to the network of enhanced detectors with an upgraded version, “specialized” in the high frequency regime thanks (mainly) to the signal recycling technology GEO HF – They are based on “small” changes of the current detectors with available technologies that anticipate the next step Advanced detectors will be online in the >2013 timeslot – They will be based on known technologies currently under preliminary engineering phase High power laser (~200W) and compliant optics Lower thermal noise mirrors (substrates and coatings) Lower thermal noise suspensions (FS monolithic suspensions) Better seismic isolation – Active filtering in LIGO – Focused improvements of the Virgo Super-Attenuator Signal recycling ILIAS General meeting, Jaca Feb 20085

6 Detection progresses Credit: Richard Powell, Beverly Berger. From LIGO presentation G NS-NS (1.4M S ): 13  15/50  120/170 Mpc NS-NS

7 3 rd generation detectors Second generation detectors: – Will permit the detection of Gravitational Waves (GW) – Will open the era of the GW astronomy – Will be the “core business” of the next decade in experimental GW research But can we look beyond? – Precision GW astronomy needs high SNR to determine the parameters of the astrophysical process – Interesting phenomena involves massive bodies that requires low frequency sensitivity in GW detectors – We need to think to 3 rd generation GW detectors ILIAS General meeting, Jaca Feb 20087

8 Objectives of a 3 rd generation GW detectors From detection and initial GW astronomy to precision GW astronomy Fundamental Physics: Test general relativity in the strongly non-linear regime – Initial and advanced detectors won’t have the sensitivity required to test strong field GR (too low SNR) Most tests are currently quoted in the context of LISA, but in a different frequency range – We need to have good enough SNR for rare BBH mergers which will enable strong-field test of GR Black hole physics: – What is the end state of a gravitational collapse? Astrophysics: Take a census of binary neutron stars in the high red-shift Universe – Adv VIRGO/LIGO might confirm BNS mergers, possibly provide links to  -ray bursts – 3 rd generation GW detectors could do much more: see different classes of sources (NS-NS, NS-BH) and contribute to resolve the enigma in the variety of  -ray bursts ILIAS General meeting, Jaca Feb 20088

9 How to arrive to an European 3 rd generation GW Observatory? Long preparatory path, already started: – ILIAS played a determinant role: ILIAS-GW-WP3 realized the correct environment where to discuss, at European level, the evolution of the current detectors and where to merge the efforts addressed to the proposition of a 3 rd generation GW observatory – It supported the meetings, the workshops and the preliminary studies – All the ET proposal writing meetings have been supported by WP3 – WP3 has been also the core of the new WG6 (GW) in the ASPERA road-mapping activity ILIAS-JRA3 (STREGA) partially supported R&D activities in thermal noise issues for 3 rd generation GW detectors – European Science Foundation supported an exploratory workshop (Perugia, Sept 2005) that has been a milestone in the definition of the strategy for the proposal of a new Observatory – FP7 Design Study has been the perfect environment where to synthesize our ideas in a proposal and compete with other excellent proposals ILIAS General meeting, Jaca Feb 20089

10 ET ET: Einstein Telescope – An European 3rd Generation Gravitational Wave Observatory Conceptual design study proposed at the May 2007 FP7 call – Capacities Research Infrastructures – Collaborative projects ILIAS General meeting, Jaca Feb

11 ET: Participants ILIAS General meeting, Jaca Feb Participant no.Participant organization nameCountry 1European Gravitational ObservatoryItaly-France 2Istituto Nazionale di Fisica NucleareItaly 3Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e.V., acting through Max- Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik Germany 4Centre National de la Recherche ScientifiqueFrance 5University of BirminghamUnited Kingdom 6University of GlasgowUnited Kingdom 7NIKHEFThe Netherlands 8Cardiff UniversityUnited Kingdom

12 ET: Status of the project The proposal passed the first selection and now we are in an advanced negotiation phase We agreed a budget reduction to 3M€ for 38Months of activity – Main costs: man power and travels Description of Work document accepted by the European Officer – We are submitting the signed documents to prepare the Grant Agreement – Consortium Agreement under final definition ILIAS General meeting, Jaca Feb

13 Project organization Project organization driven by the “Physics”: – 4 working groups are devoted to the major technical and scientific issues – Let see the main technical aspects: ILIAS General meeting, Jaca Feb Project Coordinator Scientific Coordinator WP1 coordinator: Infrastructures Task responsible WP2 coordinator: suspensions Task reponsible Task responsible WP3 coordinator: Topology Task responsible WP4 coordinator: Astrophysics Task responsible WP5: Management Secretary Executive board Governing Council Science Team Institutions Scientific community ET Project Information fluxes

14 3 main noise sources ILIAS General meeting, Jaca Feb Thermal Noise

15 3 main noise sources ILIAS General meeting, Jaca Feb nd generation 10km Thermal Noise Long interferometer arms Cryogenic optics Large beams, large optics Non-gaussian beams Improved coatings Thermal Noise Long interferometer arms Cryogenic optics Large beams, large optics Non-gaussian beams Improved coatings

16 Cryogenic Optics ILIAS General meeting, Jaca Feb Test masses and suspensions thermal noise reduces at low temperature: ~ T Thermoelastic noise of the mirror substrates and coatings decrease: ~ α T 2 – Thermal expansion rate  decreases at low temperature; Mechanical Q of some materials increases at low temperature Thermal lensing: – Thermal conductivity increases and consequently reduces thermal gradients on the coating; – Refraction index variation with temperature is very small at low temperature; 20K β = 9 × 10 −8, Fused 300K β ~ 10 −6 )

17 ILIAS “supported” or related activities ILIAS General meeting, Jaca Feb Silicon substrates R&D activities in many European Labs: Glasgow, INFN Florence & Perugia, Jena University, … Cryogenic Super attenuator R&D activities in INFN Rome & Pisa Coatings studies R&D activities in many European Labs: Glasgow, INFN Perugia, LMA-Lyon, MPG Hannover, …

18 3 main noise sources ILIAS General meeting, Jaca Feb km 10km, 20K Thermal Noise Long interferometer arms Cryogenic optics Large beams, large optics Non-gaussian beams Improved coatings Thermal Noise Long interferometer arms Cryogenic optics Large beams, large optics Non-gaussian beams Improved coatings

19 3 main noise sources ILIAS General meeting, Jaca Feb km, 20K 10km, 20K, 10cm Thermal Noise Long interferometer arms Cryogenic optics Large beams, large optics Non-gaussian beams Improved coatings Thermal Noise Long interferometer arms Cryogenic optics Large beams, large optics Non-gaussian beams Improved coatings

20 Non Gaussian Beams Thermal noise in a GW interferometric detector could be further reduced by using “flatter” beams: ILIAS General meeting, Jaca Feb

21 3 main noise sources ILIAS General meeting, Jaca Feb km, 20K, 10cm, non gauss 10km, 20K, 10cm Thermal Noise Long interferometer arms Cryogenic optics Large beams, large optics Non-gaussian beams Improved coatings Thermal Noise Long interferometer arms Cryogenic optics Large beams, large optics Non-gaussian beams Improved coatings

22 3 main noise sources ILIAS General meeting, Jaca Feb kW 3MW Shot Noise High laser power Shot Noise High laser power Squeezing Long interferometer arms Shot Noise High laser power (maybe 1550nm for silicon; less thermal 25K)

23 3 main noise sources ILIAS General meeting, Jaca Feb kW 3MW 3MW, 6dB 3MW, 6dB, 10km 3MW, 6dB, 10km, 3ifos Shot Noise High laser power Shot Noise High laser power Squeezing Shot Noise High laser power Squeezing Long interferometer arms Shot Noise High laser power Squeezing Long interferometer arms Multiple colocated interferometers

24 Co-located interferometers “Old” idea still under debate – Possible implementation: 3 detectors in a triangle configuration ILIAS General meeting, Jaca Feb Rüdiger, ‘85 Angular response of a standard ITF Angular response of the triangle configuration Credit: Cella, Vicerè Antenna Patterns:

25 3 main noise sources ILIAS General meeting, Jaca Feb Underground operation Homogeneous ‚soil‘ Seismic

26 Underground operations ILIAS General meeting, Jaca Feb LISM: 20 m Fabry-Perot interferometer, R&D for LCGT, moved from Mitaka (ground based) to Kamioka (underground) Seismic noise strongly reduced Credit: K.Kuroda 10 2 overall gain 10 3 at 4 Hz

27 Seismic Isolation Shortcut ILIAS General meeting, Jaca Feb Figure: M.Lorenzini Newtonian Noise!

28 Newtonian Noise credit: G.Cella ILIAS General meeting, Jaca Feb Surface waves give the main contribution to newtonian noise Credit: G.Cella Surface waves die exponentially with depth Compression waves Surface waves Credit: G. Cella NN reduction of 10 Hz with a 20 m radius cave Cave radius [m] Reduction factor (Compression waves not included) 10 6 overall reduction (far from surface) 10 2 less seismic noise x 10 4 geometrical reduction

29 3 main noise sources ILIAS General meeting, Jaca Feb st generation 2 nd generation 3 rd generation Newtonian noise Ground surface Underground

30 Conclusions The target of the four Working Groups in the ET project is to try to transform these (and many other) ideas in a coherent conceptual design It is an huge job for a restricted set of persons ET is an emerging facility for the whole Europe and we don’t want to limit the contribution to the founding team/institutions The proposal writers created in the project structure a special body that permits the exchange with a larger Scientific Community ILIAS General meeting, Jaca Feb Executive board Governing Council Science Team Institutions Scientific community ET Project The Science Team has been considered extremely important by the project referee and already promoted the interest of European and extra- European Scientists If you are interested, please, contact us

31 Comments ILIAS-N5 played a fundamental role in building-up the framework where ET project is born ILIAS-JRA3 partially supported the technological development needed to “think” to ET ET is a conceptual design, with any R&D support: – It needs a further support from the ILIAS (-next) community ILIAS General meeting, Jaca Feb

32 Conclusions: Planning ILIAS General meeting, Jaca Feb ´06´07´08´09´10´11´12´13´14´15´16´17´18´19´20´21´22 Virgo GEO LIGO LISA E.T. Virgo+ LIGO+ Advanced Virgo GEO HF Advanced LIGO DSPCP Construction Commissioning Hanford Livingston Launch Transfer data data You are here


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