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ARAB-ISRAELI WARS Part II WAR & PEACE. CONFLICTS CONTINUE 1957-19661957-1966 –Border skirmishes –Palestinian guerrilla attacks –Israeli retaliatory raids.

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Presentation on theme: "ARAB-ISRAELI WARS Part II WAR & PEACE. CONFLICTS CONTINUE 1957-19661957-1966 –Border skirmishes –Palestinian guerrilla attacks –Israeli retaliatory raids."— Presentation transcript:

1 ARAB-ISRAELI WARS Part II WAR & PEACE

2 CONFLICTS CONTINUE –Border skirmishes –Palestinian guerrilla attacks –Israeli retaliatory raids

3 ROAD TO 3 RD A-I War Syria-Egypt defense pact (1966)Syria-Egypt defense pact (1966) –Israel mobilized troops on Syrian border: 4/67 Nasser to U.N. Withdraw troops!: 5/67Nasser to U.N. Withdraw troops!: 5/67 –Buffer between E & I in the Sinai Pen. –Replaced w/E. troops Israel mobilized troops opposite E. troopsIsrael mobilized troops opposite E. troops

4 Closer to 3 rd War: Nasser closed Gulf of Aqaba to Israeli shipping: 5/67Nasser closed Gulf of Aqaba to Israeli shipping: 5/67 Jordan made defensive pact w/Egypt 5/67Jordan made defensive pact w/Egypt 5/67 –Put Jordans troops under Egypts command

5 3rd ARAB-ISRAELI WAR Or Six-Day WarOr Six-Day War Or 67 WarOr 67 War Began June 6, 1967Began June 6, 1967 –Israel: preemptive air strike on Egypt: within 3 days: Destroyed Es air forceDestroyed Es air force Captured Sinai & reached Suez CanalCaptured Sinai & reached Suez Canal (Half the war was over!)(Half the war was over!)

6 RESULTS: ISRAEL GAINED 1. Golan Heights1. Golan Heights from Syria from Syria (brown on map) (brown on map) (Syrian hills over- looking Israel) (Syrian hills over- looking Israel)

7 ISRAEL GAINED: 2. West Bank of the Jordan River –From Jordan –Included Old City of Jerusalem (large yellow area on map)

8 ISRAEL GAINED: 3. Sinai Peninsula from Egypt 4. Gaza Strip from Egypt

9 RESULTS OF 3 RD WAR: {War deaths:{War deaths: –11,500 Egyptians: mostly in Sinai –2,000 Jordanians –700 Syrians –778 Israelis} Arab Refugees: 300,000Arab Refugees: 300,000

10 U.N. RESOLUTION 242 Called for Israeli withdrawal from Occupied TerritoriesCalled for Israeli withdrawal from Occupied Territories And establishment of peaceAnd establishment of peace Israel refused: Arabs untrustworthy; I. military needed in Disputed Terr. until A-I relations improved.Israel refused: Arabs untrustworthy; I. military needed in Disputed Terr. until A-I relations improved.

11 ISRAELI SETTLEMENTS: In West Bank, Gaza Strip, SinaiIn West Bank, Gaza Strip, Sinai –Increased Jewish immigration Many poor; new immigrants desired landMany poor; new immigrants desired land Extra land = Disputed TerritoryExtra land = Disputed Territory –Settlements encouraged & protected by Israeli government Made returning land to Arab states difficult, if not impossible!Made returning land to Arab states difficult, if not impossible!

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13 FOURTH ARAB-ISRAELI WAR Or TheYom Kippur WarOr TheYom Kippur War –(by Israelis) Or The Ramadan WarOr The Ramadan War –(by Arabs) Or The 1973 WarOr The 1973 War (Six Day War, part 2 – Why?)(Six Day War, part 2 – Why?)

14 Why did Egypt attack? Embarrassed by previous lossesEmbarrassed by previous losses E. Pres. Anwar Sadat wanted Sinai Pen. back from IsraelE. Pres. Anwar Sadat wanted Sinai Pen. back from Israel –US Sec. of State Henry Kissinger rejected request to mediate –Israel settlements: prevent return? War seemed the only optionWar seemed the only option

15 THE LARGEST WAR In modern times in the MEIn modern times in the ME October 6, 1973:October 6, 1973: –Egypt attacked Israel in Sinai; Israel pushed back across Suez C.Israel pushed back across Suez C. –Syria attacked I. thru Golan Hts. Israel fought & retook Golan Hts.Israel fought & retook Golan Hts.

16 SUPERPOWERS ON THE BRINK U.S. airlifted weapons to IsraelU.S. airlifted weapons to Israel USSR: weapons to Egypt & SyriaUSSR: weapons to Egypt & Syria USSR mobilized airborne divisionsUSSR mobilized airborne divisions US raised Def-Con. to 3US raised Def-Con. to 3 –Prepared to help Israel –If USSR helped Egypt (Iraq & 8 other Arab nations sent troops)(Iraq & 8 other Arab nations sent troops) U.N. Security Council Resolution 340:U.N. Security Council Resolution 340: –Established cease-fire

17 RESULTS OF YOM KIPPUR WAR { 9,000 Egyptians died{ 9,000 Egyptians died 3,500 Syrians died3,500 Syrians died 2,552 Israelis died}2,552 Israelis died} Israel driven to bargainingIsrael driven to bargaining –5 years later (1978) Israel withdrew from Sinai –Israeli settlements dismantled

18 RABAT SUMMIT (10/74) Of Arab LeagueOf Arab League Declared the PLO the only legitimate representative of the Palestinian peopleDeclared the PLO the only legitimate representative of the Palestinian people –More difficult for Israeli-Jordanian peace treaty re: the West Bank –Israeli unwilling to negotiate with a terrorist organization (PLO)

19 PLO at U.N. Yasser Arafat, head of PLO, speaks at General Assembly debate on Palestine, 11/13/74Yasser Arafat, head of PLO, speaks at General Assembly debate on Palestine, 11/13/74 U.N.G.A. recognizes Palestinians right to sovereigntyU.N.G.A. recognizes Palestinians right to sovereignty –Grants PLO observer status

20 RESOLUTION 3379 U.N. General AssemblyU.N. General Assembly Zionism = racismZionism = racism November, 1975November, 1975

21 CAMP DAVID ACCORD Pres. J. Carter, Pres. A. Sadat, PM Menachem Begin negotiated treaty*:Pres. J. Carter, Pres. A. Sadat, PM Menachem Begin negotiated treaty*: –Peace treaty –Egypt officially recognized Israel (1 st Arab state to do so) –Sinai returned to Egypt –Security zones established in Sinai –West Bank & Gaza to gain autonomy (5 yr.) –Further talks on future of Occupied Terr. *Enemies compromised!*Enemies compromised!

22 ACCORD SIGNED: 3/26/79 Anwar Sadat (E), Jimmy Carter, Menachem Begin(I)

23 INTIFADA Palestinian despairPalestinian despair After a traffic accident,After a traffic accident, young Palestinians erupt young Palestinians erupt Against Israeli occupation. Israeli military hits back.

24 OSLO ACCORDS Israel agrees to an eventual Palestinian- governed area in West Bank and Gaza.Israel agrees to an eventual Palestinian- governed area in West Bank and Gaza.


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