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Objective II: Set 1. Which would most likely cause the liquid in Tube A to rise? F Starch concentrations being equal on each side of the membrane G Water.

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Presentation on theme: "Objective II: Set 1. Which would most likely cause the liquid in Tube A to rise? F Starch concentrations being equal on each side of the membrane G Water."— Presentation transcript:

1 Objective II: Set 1

2 Which would most likely cause the liquid in Tube A to rise? F Starch concentrations being equal on each side of the membrane G Water passing from a region of lower starch concentration to one of higher starch concentration H Water and starch volumes being the same J Solute in the tubes changing from a higher temperature to a lower temperature B.4B – Investigate and identify cellular processes including homeostasis, permeability, energy production, transportation of molecules, disposal of wastes, function of cellular parts, and synthesis of new molecules.

3 Energy conversion within an animal cell would be severely limited by removal of the cells A mitochondria B chloroplasts C plastids D lysosomes B.4B – Investigate and identify cellular processes including homeostasis, permeability, energy production, transportation of molecules, disposal of wastes, function of cellular parts, and synthesis of new molecules.

4 Food provides the human body with all of the following except F calories G amino acid H hydrochloric acid J lipids B.4B – Investigate and identify cellular processes including homeostasis, permeability, energy production, transportation of molecules, disposal of wastes, function of cellular parts, and synthesis of new molecules.

5 Which of these is a function of the cell membrane in all cells? A Producing cellular nutrients B Preserving cellular wastes C Neutralizing chemicals D Maintaining homeostasis B.4B – Investigate and identify cellular processes including homeostasis, permeability, energy production, transportation of molecules, disposal of wastes, function of cellular parts, and synthesis of new molecules.

6 The diagram shows different parts of a human sperm cell. Which part of the cell is most likely specialized for mobility? A Q B R C S D T B.4B – Investigate and identify cellular processes including homeostasis, permeability, energy production, transportation of molecules, disposal of wastes, function of cellular parts, and synthesis of new molecules.

7 B.6A – Describe components of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and illustrate how information for specifying traits of an organism is carried in the DNA. DNA molecules separate into single strands, which are then used to construct two identical strands of DNA. This process ensures that the A cytoplasm is in equilibrium B mitochondria are genetically identical to the chloroplasts C parent cells use little ATP D daughter cells are genetically identical to the parent cells

8 3 AATCGC 5 Which of the following nucleotide base sequences complements the section of DNA modeled above? F 5 UTCGCA 3 G 5 TTAGCG 3 H 5 GCGATT 3 J 5 TTUCGC 3 B.6A – Describe components of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and illustrate how information for specifying traits of an organism is carried in the DNA.

9 The information in the box identifies some of the organs of the kitten. Which of the following is identical for every cell in each of the four organs? A Amount of ATP B Function of cell C Size of cells D Genes in DNA B.6A – Describe components of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and illustrate how information for specifying traits of an organism is carried in the DNA.

10 B.6C – Identify and illustrate how changes in DNA cause mutations [and evaluate the significance of these changes]. Ultraviolet radiation can cause mutations in the DNA of skin cells that have been overexposed to the sun. This mutated DNA has no effect on future offspring because F changes in skin cell DNA are homozygous recessive G mutations must occur within the RNA codons H offspring reject parental skin cells J only changes to gamete DNA can be inherited

11 The diagram represents the chromosomes of a person with a genetic disorder caused by nondisjunction, in which the chromosomes fail to separate properly. Which chromosome set displays nondisjunction? F 2 G 8 H 21 J 23 B.6C – Identify and illustrate how changes in DNA cause mutations [and evaluate the significance of these changes].

12 The chain above represents three codons. Which of the following changes would be expected in the amino acid chain if the mutation shown above occurred? F The amino acid sequence would be shorter than expected. G The identity of one amino acid would change. H The amino acid sequence would remain unchanged. J The identities of more than one amino acid would change. B.6C – Identify and illustrate how changes in DNA cause mutations [and evaluate the significance of these changes].

13 This illustration is an example of a normal DNA sequence. Which of the following represents a single base change in the sequence? B.6C – Identify and illustrate how changes in DNA cause mutations [and evaluate the significance of these changes].

14 The diagram shows three generations of cells produced by a single cell through mitosis. In the process,a single mutation occurred at the point indicated. The mutation caused changes within a dominant allele. How many of the 15 cells contain the mutation? Record and bubble in your answer on the answer document. B.6C – Identify and illustrate how changes in DNA cause mutations [and evaluate the significance of these changes]. 7

15 B.6D – Compare genetic variations observed in plants and animals. What trait will most likely be observed in all offspring of the above set of parents? A Green feathers B Yellow feathers C Long beak D Short beak

16 Dogs (Canis familiaris) are most closely related genetically to which of the following organisms? A African hunting dog (Lycaon pictus) B Gray wolf (Canis lupus) C Grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) D Domestic cat (Felis catus) B.6D – Compare genetic variations observed in plants and animals.

17 A pea plant with the genotype TtWW is crossed with a pea plant with the genotype ttWw. How many different genotypes can be expressed in the offspring? F 1 G 2 H 3 J 4 B.6D – Compare genetic variations observed in plants and animals.

18 According to the table, which of the following phenotypes would probably occur in all the offspring from the parents shown above? F Solid gray fur G Striped gray fur H Green eyes J Blue eyes B.6D – Compare genetic variations observed in plants and animals.

19 If a plant that is homozygous tall and wrinkled is crossed with a short, wrinkled plant, which percentage of genotypes would most likely be found in the first- generation offspring? F 50% TTss, 50% ttSS G 100% TtSs H 100% Ttss J 50% TtSS, 50% ttSS B.6D – Compare genetic variations observed in plants and animals.

20 Male sea lions can be twice the size of female sea lions. Which best explains the difference in size between male and female sea lions? A Orcas and sharks prey on sea lions. B Male and female sea lions hunt on land and at sea. C Sea lions hold their breath while diving. D Males compete with one another for females. B.6D – Compare genetic variations observed in plants and animals.

21 A laboratory investigation included examining prepared slides of pond water. Single-celled organisms with a nucleus and either cilia or flagella were visible. These organisms probably belong to the kingdom F Animalia G Fungi H Plantae J Protista B.8C – Identify characteristics of kingdoms including monerans, protists, fungi, plants and animals.

22 Multicellular eukaryotes that are usually mobile and obtain food from other organisms probably belong to the kingdom A Plantae B Fungi C Animalia D Protista B.8C – Identify characteristics of kingdoms including monerans, protists, fungi, plants and animals.

23 Powerful Plankton The U.S. Naval Research Laboratory has created an experimental marine fuel cell that could produce enough electricity to power ocean-monitoring devices. This fuel cell runs on seawater and sediment, with the help of plankton. Some plankton on the surface of ocean sediments use dissolved oxygen to break down organic matter, releasing energy; this is an aerobic process. The plankton in the deeper sediments break down organic matter without using oxygen; this is an anaerobic process. These two processes create a difference in voltage between the surface of the sediment and the sediment farther down in the seabed. The voltage difference can be used to produce electricity-up to 5.0 x10 – 2 watts of power. Energy supplied by this type of fuel cell can be obtained as long as there is organic matter in the sediment. Some zooplankton belong to the kingdom Protista. Members of this kingdom are characterized as A having segmented bodies with jointed appendages B containing one or more eukaryotic cells C laying eggs with a leathery protective shell D having a four-chambered heart B.8C – Identify characteristics of kingdoms including monerans, protists, fungi, plants and animals.

24 The cell above most likely belongs to an organism of the kingdom F Animalia G Plantae H Fungi J Eubacteria B.8C – Identify characteristics of kingdoms including monerans, protists, fungi, plants and animals.

25 Knowledge of which of these is most important in classifying this new organism into a kingdom? F The color of light absorbed by the organism G The type of radiation emitted H The use of photosynthesis J The color of the organism B.8C – Identify characteristics of kingdoms including monerans, protists, fungi, plants and animals.

26 Which is a characteristic of members of the plant kingdom that distinguishes them from members of the animal kingdom? A Storage of energy in chemical bonds B Exchange of H 2 O with the environment C Use of mRNA during protein production D Use of chlorophyll for solar-energy transformation B.8C – Identify characteristics of kingdoms including monerans, protists, fungi, plants and animals.

27 B.10A – Interpret the functions of systems in organisms including circulatory, digestive, nervous, endocrine, reproductive, integumentary, skeletal, respiratory, muscular, excretory, and immune. Which structure in the upper arm is responsible for raising the lower arm? A 1 B 2 C 3 D 4

28 The medulla, part of the brain stem, reacts quickly to increased levels of CO 2 in the blood and stimulates a response from the A excretory system B immune system C respiratory system D integumentary system B.10A – Interpret the functions of systems in organisms including circulatory, digestive, nervous, endocrine, reproductive, integumentary, skeletal, respiratory, muscular, excretory, and immune.

29 Which system is responsible for producing enzymes that aid in breaking down substances to be absorbed for the bodys growth and repair? F Digestive system G Reproductive system H Respiratory system J Skeletal system B.10A – Interpret the functions of systems in organisms including circulatory, digestive, nervous, endocrine, reproductive, integumentary, skeletal, respiratory, muscular, excretory, and immune.

30 Which of the following is directly caused by muscle action? F Regeneration of nerves G Healing of wounds H Release of hormones J Extension of limbs B.10A – Interpret the functions of systems in organisms including circulatory, digestive, nervous, endocrine, reproductive, integumentary, skeletal, respiratory, muscular, excretory, and immune.

31 Which system of the body would be directly affected if a large number of T cells were attacked by a virus? A Cardiovascular system B Immune system C Endocrine system D Respiratory system B.10A – Interpret the functions of systems in organisms including circulatory, digestive, nervous, endocrine, reproductive, integumentary, skeletal, respiratory, muscular, excretory, and immune.

32 In the diagram above, one cell creates and releases chemicals that travel to a second cell and quickly induce that cell into action. This diagram represents part of the A endocrine system B skeletal system C muscular system D nervous system B.10A – Interpret the functions of systems in organisms including circulatory, digestive, nervous, endocrine, reproductive, integumentary, skeletal, respiratory, muscular, excretory, and immune.

33 Hemoglobin carries oxygen to body cells. Which body system contains hemoglobin? A Circulatory system B Respiratory system C Endocrine system D Nervous system B.10A – Interpret the functions of systems in organisms including circulatory, digestive, nervous, endocrine, reproductive, integumentary, skeletal, respiratory, muscular, excretory, and immune.

34 Pelicans prevent serious wing damage by entering the water in the manner shown above. Which two organ systems in the pelican work together the most to accomplish this maneuver? A Circulatory and nervous systems B Nervous and muscular systems C Muscular and digestive systems D Digestive and circulatory systems B.10A – Interpret the functions of systems in organisms including circulatory, digestive, nervous, endocrine, reproductive, integumentary, skeletal, respiratory, muscular, excretory, and immune.

35 Objective II: Set 2

36 B.4B – Investigate and identify cellular processes including homeostasis, permeability, energy production, transportation of molecules, disposal of wastes, function of cellular parts, and synthesis of new molecules. When a sea urchin egg is removed from the ocean and placed in freshwater, the egg swells and bursts. Which of these causes water to enter the egg? F Coagulation G Sodium pump H Active transport J Osmosis

37 B.4B – Investigate and identify cellular processes including homeostasis, permeability, energy production, transportation of molecules, disposal of wastes, function of cellular parts, and synthesis of new molecules. Why are photosynthesis and cellular respiration often considered opposites? F Photosynthesis produces twice as many ATP molecules as cellular respiration does. G Water is released during photosynthesis and consumed during cellular respiration. H Photosynthesis occurs during the day, and cellular respiration occurs at night. J Oxygen is produced during photosynthesis and used during cellular respiration.

38 B.4B – Investigate and identify cellular processes including homeostasis, permeability, energy production, transportation of molecules, disposal of wastes, function of cellular parts, and synthesis of new molecules. Which molecule provides most of the energy used to drive chemical reactions in cells? F DNA G RNA H ATP J ADP

39 B.4B – Investigate and identify cellular processes including homeostasis, permeability, energy production, transportation of molecules, disposal of wastes, function of cellular parts, and synthesis of new molecules. Cholera-causing bacteria have a single flagellum that allows these bacteria to A move B reproduce C excrete water D produce sugar

40 B.4B – Investigate and identify cellular processes including homeostasis, permeability, energy production, transportation of molecules, disposal of wastes, function of cellular parts, and synthesis of new molecules. The box contains some facts about kidneys and dialysis. Which of the following best explains why dialysis works? F Dialysis reduces the size of proteins. G Proteins are dissolved by urine. H Dialysis filters proteins from solution. J Proteins transport membrane fragments.

41 B.4B – Investigate and identify cellular processes including homeostasis, permeability, energy production, transportation of molecules, disposal of wastes, function of cellular parts, and synthesis of new molecules. What process is shown in the figure? A Cellular ingestion B Pseudopod formation C Cell wall digestion D Binary fission

42 B.4B – Investigate and identify cellular processes including homeostasis, permeability, energy production, transportation of molecules, disposal of wastes, function of cellular parts, and synthesis of new molecules. Which of these best explains why a freshwater aquarium would be a dangerous habitat for saltwater fish? A The tissues of the saltwater fish would absorb too much acid. B The organs of the saltwater fish would produce too much protein. C The organ systems of the saltwater fish would consume too much energy. D The cells of the saltwater fish would gain too much water.

43 B.4B – Investigate and identify cellular processes including homeostasis, permeability, energy production, transportation of molecules, disposal of wastes, function of cellular parts, and synthesis of new molecules. Which of these is a characteristic of body cells that require large amounts of energy? A They have a large number of mitochondria. B They have a supplementary Y chromosome. C They have a two-layer membrane. D They have a storage area for albumin proteins.

44 B.4B – Investigate and identify cellular processes including homeostasis, permeability, energy production, transportation of molecules, disposal of wastes, function of cellular parts, and synthesis of new molecules. Saltwater fish remove extra salt from their body by active transport through the gills. What is the result of this activity? A The salt becomes more chemically active. B Water balance is maintained in the blood. C The rate of energy production is decreased. D The cell membrane becomes less permeable to water.

45 B.6A – Describe components of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and illustrate how information for specifying traits of an organism is carried in the DNA. In DNA, which of the following determines the traits of an organism? F Amount of adenine G Number of sugars H Sequence of nitrogen bases J Strength of hydrogen bonds

46 B.6A – Describe components of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and illustrate how information for specifying traits of an organism is carried in the DNA. All of the following are found in a DNA molecule except A carbon dioxide B deoxyribose C nitrogen D phosphate

47 B.6A – Describe components of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and illustrate how information for specifying traits of an organism is carried in the DNA. Which of the following best describes the question this set of procedures was designed to answer? A Can a substance from dead bacteria transform living bacteria? B Can R bacterial cells survive heating? C Can dead bacterial cells confer immunity to a living host? D Can bacterial cells be isolated from a healthy host?

48 B.6A – Describe components of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and illustrate how information for specifying traits of an organism is carried in the DNA. Coat color in mice varies greatly, ranging from black to grizzly gray, black-and-white, spotted, or white. The nucleus from a body cell of a grizzly-gray mouse is fused with an egg from a black mouse from which the nucleus has been removed. The egg begins to divide and is then transplanted into a female white mouse. What will be the most likely coat color of the offspring? F Black G Black with white spots H Grizzly gray J White

49 B.6A – Describe components of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and illustrate how information for specifying traits of an organism is carried in the DNA. Which molecule is most responsible for determining an organisms eye color, body structure, and cellular enzyme production? A Complex starch B Fatty acid C Carbohydrate D Deoxyribonucleic acid

50 B.6A – Describe components of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and illustrate how information for specifying traits of an organism is carried in the DNA. In all plant and animal cells, the nucleus contains long molecules of DNA. Which of the following best describes the function of DNA? F DNA provides the shape and structure of the nucleus. G DNA packages materials for transport through the nucleus. H DNA carries materials into and out of the nucleus. J DNA contains the blueprint for producing the whole organism.

51 B.6A – Describe components of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and illustrate how information for specifying traits of an organism is carried in the DNA. Erwin Chargaff studied the DNA of organisms within a single species. Chargaff discovered that the amount of adenine is about equal to the amount of thymine. Which of these explains why the ratio of adenine to thymine is nearly 1:1? A Adenine and thymine pair with each other. B Adenine binds with phosphates, while thymine binds with nitrates. C Adenine and thymine are identical in chemical composition. D Adenine bases contain a form of thymine.

52 B.6A – Describe components of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and illustrate how information for specifying traits of an organism is carried in the DNA. What do the results of this investigation indicate? F This trait is determined by the Y chromosome. G Red-eyed flies always produce red-eyed offspring. H White-eyed flies have many phenotypes for eye color. J This trait is carried only on the X chromosome.

53 If a cat has 38 chromosomes in each of its body cells, how many chromosomes will be in each daughter cell after mitosis? F 11 G 19 H 38 J 76 B.6B – Explain replication, transcription, and translation using models of DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA).

54 If the template of a strand of DNA is 5' AGATGCATC 3', the complementary strand will be F 3' TCTACGTAG 5 G 5' CTACGTAGA 3' H 3' AGATGCATC 5' J 5' AGACGTCTA 3' B.6B – Explain replication, transcription, and translation using models of DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA).

55 Which of these represents the DNA segment from which this section of mRNA was transcribed? A ACTAAG B TCUTTG C GAAUCU D UCCTGA B.6B – Explain replication, transcription, and translation using models of DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA).

56 DNA passes information to RNA during the process of F transcription G active transport H regeneration J osmosis B.6B – Explain replication, transcription, and translation using models of DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA).

57 The diagram above shows how an mRNA molecule is synthesized. What would be the most likely result if a bacterial infection stopped the production of the RNA polymerase? F A protein could not be manufactured. G A lysosome would digest the cell. H Osmosis would not occur in the cell. J Dehydration could be prevented in the cytoplasm B.6B – Explain replication, transcription, and translation using models of DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA).

58 Which of the following must occur before DNA replication can take place? A Translation of DNA into amino acids B Separation of the DNA molecule into codons C Transformation of DNA into RNA D Separation of the DNA double helix

59 B.6C – Identify and illustrate how changes in DNA cause mutations [and evaluate the significance of these changes]. Mutations in DNA molecules can occur when F replication of DNA is exact G a DNA enzyme attaches to an RNA codon H RNA codons are replaced by DNA nucleotides J a change occurs in DNA nucleotide bases

60 B.6C – Identify and illustrate how changes in DNA cause mutations [and evaluate the significance of these changes]. The diagram above shows chromosomes in a cell undergoing cell division. If one of the chromosomes breaks during this process, which of the following will most likely happen? A Mutation B Selection C Duplication D Segregation

61 B.6C – Identify and illustrate how changes in DNA cause mutations [and evaluate the significance of these changes]. The assembly of a messenger RNA strand that normally begins with UAC has been changed so that the newly assembled messenger RNA strand begins with UAG. Which of the following will most likely occur? A The protein will be missing the first amino acid. B The amino acids that make up the protein will all be different. C The mRNA will become attached to a ribosome. D The production of the protein will be stopped.

62 B.6C – Identify and illustrate how changes in DNA cause mutations [and evaluate the significance of these changes]. Which of the following is a change that could be passed on to an organisms offspring? F Damage to the DNA of gamete cells G Damage to skin cells from exposure to sunlight H Damage to DNA in the cytoplasm of cheek cells J Damage to hair pigment cells with permanent dyes

63 B.6C – Identify and illustrate how changes in DNA cause mutations [and evaluate the significance of these changes]. Which of these best explains how mutation can be beneficial to an organism? A Phenotypic change may create an advantage over other organisms. B Recombined genetic material improves genotype stability. C Mitosis becomes a favored means of reproduction. D Deoxyribose sugars develop into additional nucleotides.

64 B.6C – Identify and illustrate how changes in DNA cause mutations [and evaluate the significance of these changes]. Sickle-cell anemia is a disorder resulting from a mutation that leads to the production of an abnormal protein. Which component of the DNA molecule provides instructions for the production of the protein? A The phosphate groups B The sugar molecules C The sequence of nitrogen bases D The bonds that hold the sugars to the bases

65 B.6C – Identify and illustrate how changes in DNA cause mutations [and evaluate the significance of these changes]. A deletion of a DNA base from a gene affects an organism by F causing future gametes to have additional chromosomes G changing the sequence of amino acids in a protein H causing chromosome fragments to form long chains J changing the structure of ribose sugar in nucleic acids

66 B.6C – Identify and illustrate how changes in DNA cause mutations [and evaluate the significance of these changes]. If one nucleotide is omitted or accidentally repeated in the process of DNA duplication, which of the following is most likely to occur? F Gene deletion G Gene mutation H Gene insertion J Gene segregation techniques

67 B.8C – Identify characteristics of kingdoms including monerans, protists, fungi, plants and animals. The bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, is most closely related to the F spotted chorus frog, Pseudacris clarki G Asian flying frog, Polypedates leucomystax H northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens J African bullfrog, Pyxicephalus adspersus

68 B.8C – Identify characteristics of kingdoms including monerans, protists, fungi, plants and animals. Which of these classifications is most specific? A Family B Genus C Phylum D Order

69 B.8C – Identify characteristics of kingdoms including monerans, protists, fungi, plants and animals. The kingdom Animalia includes all of these except A jellyfish B sponges C amoebas D roundworms

70 B.8C – Identify characteristics of kingdoms including monerans, protists, fungi, plants and animals. This organism most likely is a member of which kingdom? F Eubacteria G Protista H Animalia J Plantae

71 B.8C – Identify characteristics of kingdoms including monerans, protists, fungi, plants and animals. Which kingdom does this organism belong to? A Fungi B Archaebacteria C Plantae D Animalia

72 B.10A – Interpret the functions of systems in organisms including circulatory, digestive, nervous, endocrine, reproductive, integumentary, skeletal, respiratory, muscular, excretory, and immune. A portion of the human excretory system is represented in the diagram. The order in which urine flows through the system is F urethra bladder ureter kidney G ureter kidney bladder urethra H kidney ureter bladder urethra J bladder urethra kidney ureter

73 B.10A – Interpret the functions of systems in organisms including circulatory, digestive, nervous, endocrine, reproductive, integumentary, skeletal, respiratory, muscular, excretory, and immune. The diagram illustrates the parts of this flower. Which of these parts are not directly involved in sexual reproduction? A Stigma and style B Sepal and pedicel C Anther and filament D Receptacle and ovary

74 B.10A – Interpret the functions of systems in organisms including circulatory, digestive, nervous, endocrine, reproductive, integumentary, skeletal, respiratory, muscular, excretory, and immune. Which body system is directly responsible for delivering nutrients to cells throughout the body? A Circulatory system B Integumentary system C Endocrine system D Respiratory system

75 B.10A – Interpret the functions of systems in organisms including circulatory, digestive, nervous, endocrine, reproductive, integumentary, skeletal, respiratory, muscular, excretory, and immune. Red marrow is the principal tissue that produces red blood cells in humans. In which body system is red marrow found? F Integumentary system G Respiratory system H Nervous system J Skeletal system

76 B.10A – Interpret the functions of systems in organisms including circulatory, digestive, nervous, endocrine, reproductive, integumentary, skeletal, respiratory, muscular, excretory, and immune. The diagram represents a human arm. Which structure is most responsible for moving the arm to a straighter position? A Tendons of origin B Biceps C Radius D Triceps

77 B.10A – Interpret the functions of systems in organisms including circulatory, digestive, nervous, endocrine, reproductive, integumentary, skeletal, respiratory, muscular, excretory, and immune. According to this information, some organs of the gastrointestinal tract A fit in more than one organ system B perform only one function at a time C supply the body with platelets D produce soluble vitamins

78 B.10B – Compare the interrelationships of organ systems to each other and the body as a whole. Nutrients from digested food move from the digestive system directly into the A circulatory system B integumentary system C excretory system D endocrine system

79 B.10B – Compare the interrelationships of organ systems to each other and the body as a whole. When a person is frightened by a wild animal, some organ systems immediately become active, while others are suppressed. Which of these systems is likely to be suppressed? F Muscular system G Respiratory system H Endocrine system J Digestive system

80 B.10B – Compare the interrelationships of organ systems to each other and the body as a whole. How is the circulatory system related to the digestive system? F The brain stem controls the heart rate. G Blood carries nutrients to body cells. H Stomach muscles contract and expand. J The pharynx is a passageway for air and food.

81 B.10B – Compare the interrelationships of organ systems to each other and the body as a whole. How is the excretory system most likely to respond when an animal is thirsty? F By relaxing the smooth muscles G By retaining body fluids H By absorbing heat from lymph glands J By releasing hormones

82 B.10B – Compare the interrelationships of organ systems to each other and the body as a whole. Because chewing begins the breakdown of food before it is swallowed, digestion starts in the mouth and throat. Which of the following systems aids most in this early stage of digestion? A Immune system B Excretory system C Muscular system D Respiratory system


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