Presentation on theme: "Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports for All Students"— Presentation transcript:
1 Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports for All Students Nijmegen, NetherlandsGeorge SugaiUniversity of ConnecticutCenter on Positive Behavioral Interventions & SupportsCenter on Behavioral Education & Research17 September 2013Thank you for your KIND INTRODUCTION and OPPORTUNITY to PRESENT at your conferenceI am a SPECIAL EDUCATOR by training, and I have spent most of my career attempting to IMPROVE EDUCATIONAL OUTCOMES FOR STUDENTS WITH EMOTIONAL AND BEHAVIORAL DISORDERS, or who are RISK OF BDToday, I’d like to SHARE SOME of our WORK from the last 20 years.
2 PURPOSEDescribe features & examples of positive behavioral interventions & supportsToday, I’d like to share some INFORMATION about PBIS and what we call MTSS or MULTITIERED SYSTEMS OF SUPPORTI’ll try to provideRATIONALE,SOME FEATURESOUTCOME DATAEXAMPLESRationalePBIS FeaturesPBIS DataExample
3 Why PBIS? This is my FIRST VISIT to japan, Some similarities and MANY DIFFERENCES between the AMERICAN and JAPANESE CULTURES.However, I’d like to describe WHY PBIS has become an IMPORTANT FRAMEWORK for SUPPORTING andEDUCATING STUDENTS with BEHAVIOR DISORDERS OR PROBLEMS inU.S. SCHOOLS.
4 PBIS is about…. Improving classroom & school climate Decreasing reactive managementMaximizing academic achievementImproving support for students w/ EBDIntegrating academic & behavior initiativesThe work we do is about putting EFFECTIVE PRACTICES IN PLACE ACCURATELY and for LONG PERIODS OF TIME.In particular, we emphasize these areas
5 Positive predictable school-wide climate Surgeon General’s Report on Youth Violence (2001)Coordinated Social Emotional & Learning (Greenberg et al., 2003)Center for Study & Prevention of Violence (2006)White House Conference on School Violence (2006)Preventing Violent BehaviorPositive predictable school-wide climateHigh rates academic & social successFormal social skills instructionPositive active supervision & reinforcementPositive adult role modelsMulti-component, multi-year school-family-community effortA REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE on EFFECTIVE PRACTICES to reduce VIOLENT BEHAVIOR indicates that the best way to PREVENT the DEVELOPMENT and OCCURRENCE OF PROBLEM BEHAVIOR is to EMPHASIZE THESE PRACTICES.
6 Establish positive school climate Maximizing academic success Kandinsky College Malderburchtstraat Nijmegen 17 Sep 2013HOW?Establish positive school climateMaximizing academic successTeaching important social skillsRecognizing good behaviorModeling good behaviorCommunicating positivelyA REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE on EFFECTIVE PRACTICES to reduce VIOLENT BEHAVIOR indicates that the best way to PREVENT the DEVELOPMENT and OCCURRENCE OF PROBLEM BEHAVIOR is to EMPHASIZE THESE PRACTICES.
7 Kandinsky College Malderburchtstraat Nijmegen 17 Sep 2013 What contributes to a negative school climate?What does positive school climate look like?How could you contribute to positive school climate?
8 Kandinsky College Malderburchtstraat Nijmegen 17 Sep 2013 What can you do?Join PBIS teamDo behaviors that contribute to positive school climateCatch others contributing to a positive school climateDiscuss climate with teachers & administrators
9 Behavior Analytic Approach Biology is importantBehavior is learnedBehavior & environment are functional relatedBehavior is lawful, therefore understandable & can be influencedAdjust environment to influence & teach behaviorMy work is based on THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK called BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS,And it serves as the FOUNDATION FOR OUR PBIS THEORY OF ACTION.We emphasize the above points in our work
10 Prevention Logic for All Redesign of teaching environments…not studentsDecrease development of new problem behaviorsPrevent worsening & reduce intensity of existing problem behaviorsEliminate triggers & maintainers of problem behaviorsAdd triggers & maintainers of prosocial behaviorTeach, monitor, & acknowledge prosocial behaviorPrevention ObjectivesPrevention ActionsThis same THEORY OF ACTION OR APPLICATION OF BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS can be use to describe PREVENTION.We focus on REDESIGING OUR TEACHING ENVIRONMENTS so that we can reduce INCIDENCE AND PREVALENCE RATES byEngaging in ACTIONS that affect the occurrence OF PROBLEM AND ACCEPTABLE BEHAVIORS.Antecedents & ConsequencesBehaviorINCIDENCEPREVALENCEBiglan, 1995; Mayer, 1995; Walker et al., 1996
11 Who are we? This is my FIRST VISIT to japan, Some similarities and MANY DIFFERENCES between the AMERICAN and JAPANESE CULTURES.However, I’d like to describe WHY PBIS has become an IMPORTANT FRAMEWORK for SUPPORTING andEDUCATING STUDENTS with BEHAVIOR DISORDERS OR PROBLEMS inU.S. SCHOOLS.
12 LEARNING HISTORY is CULTURE is Collection of experiences Shaped by place, people, & timeIf important, predicts future behaviorCULTURE isGroup of individualsVerbal & overt behaviorShared learning historyDifferentiates one group from anotherPredicts future behavior
13 Your learning history & culture shapes How you act.How you react.How you are perceived.What you are likely to do.Your learning history & culture shapes
14 What could happen if you I don’t know your or other learning history? Misinterpret communication or behaviorReact inappropriatelyDevelop stereotypeSay/do something hurtfulOffend family or cultureOther
15 1. Individual Learning History & Context 5. 4. 3. 2. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Indicate 10 key life events/influences (you, students, parents, staff, etc.)Summarize in 4 descriptors.Describe how learning history affects how you describe & act on what you experience.________________Your Name184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.4.1.
16 Culturally Equitable Academic & Social Behavior Expectations Vincent, Randall, Cartledge, Tobin, & Swain-Bradway 2011; Sugai, O’Keeffe, & Fallon, 2012abCulturally Equitable Academic & Social Behavior ExpectationsOUTCOMESCulturally Valid Information for DecisionsCulturally Knowledgeable TeachersSYSTEMSDATACULTURE is one our major considerations, and CULTURAL INFLUENCE is reflected in high attention towardCULTURAL EQUITY of expectationsCULTURAL VALIDITY of dataCULTURAL RELEVANCE of practicesCULTURAL KNOWLEDGE of implementersPRACTICESCulturally Relevant & Effective Instruction
17 What is PBIS? So given that THEORY OF ACTION BACKGROUND OR APPROACH, Let’s look at PBIS
18 PBIS (aka SWPBS) is for enhancing adoption & implementation of of evidence-based interventions to achieve& behaviorally important outcomes forstudentsFrameworkContinuumAcademicallyWe emphasize that IS NOT A CURRICULUM OR AN INTERVENTIONInstead it is FRAMEWORKDesigned to enable ADOPTION AND IMPLEMENTATION of aCONTINUUM OF EVIDENCE-BASED INTERVENTIONS that are proven as EFFECTIVE IN MAXIMIZING IMPORTANT ACADEMIC AND BEHAVIOR OUTCOMESFOR ALL STUDENTS, especially STUDENTS WITH CHALLENGESAll
19 PBIS IMPLEMENTATION W/ FIDELITY CONTINUUM OF EVIDENCE-BASED CONTINUOUS INTERVENTIONSCONTENT EXPERTISE & FLUENCYTEAM-BASEDIMPLEMENTATIONCONTINUOUSPROGRESS MONITORINGUNIVERSAL SCREENINGDATA-BASEDDECISION MAKING & PROBLEM SOLVINGPBISThese CHARACTERISTICS or ELEMENTS guide how PBIS is implemented
20 ALL SOME FEW Tertiary Prevention: Specialized CONTINUUM OF IndividualizedSystems for Students with High-Risk BehaviorCONTINUUM OFSCHOOL-WIDEINSTRUCTIONAL &POSITIVE BEHAVIORSUPPORTFEW~5%Secondary Prevention:Specialized GroupSystems for Students with At-Risk Behavior~15%SOMEPrimary Prevention:School-/Classroom-Wide Systems forAll Students,Staff, & SettingsWe use the PUBLIC HEALTH 3-TIERED PREVENTION LOGIC in our behavior support framework.TIER 1 for HEALTHY BEHAIVOR.TIER 2 PRACTICES for INDIVIDUALS who do NOT benefit from TIER 1 supports.AND TIER 3 for students who require MOST SPECIALIZED SUPPORTSALL~80% of StudentsAll: Baker, 2005 JPBI; Eber, 2012
21 Continuum of Support for ALL UniversalTargetedIntensiveFewSomeIn recent years, we emphasized the CONTINUUM is not an orderly three tiers, and that CONTENTS can VARY by SCHOOL, STUDENT, etc.So, a BLENDED CONTINUUM replaced the 3-Tiered picture.AllDec 7, 2007
22 Label behavior…not people UniversalTargetedIntensiveContinuum of Support“Theora”MathScienceWritingSpanishComprehensionSoc skillsDecodingThis representation of a continuum gives us the opportunity to emphasize HOW INDIVIDUAL STUDENTS can have DIFFERENT LEARNING AREAS REQUIRING DIFFERENT LEVELS OF EDUCATIONAL SUPPORTTechnologySoc StudiesBasketballLabel behavior…not peopleDec 7, 2007
23 Continuum of Support for ALL: “Molcom”UniversalTargetedIntensiveAnger man.Prob Sol.TechnologyInd. playAdult rel.Attend.Self-assessIn this example, student with EMOTIONAL AND BEHAVIORAL DISRODERS has TWO areas requiring VERY SPECIALIZED SUPPORTS,But, he also has MANY AREAS OF STRENGTH, and areas requiring LESS SPECIALIZED or MORE NORMALIZED SUPPORTS.HomeworkCoop playPeer interacLabel behavior…not peopleDec 7, 2007
24 Continuum of Support for ALL: “________”UniversalTargetedIntensive_______________________________________________________________________In this example, student with EMOTIONAL AND BEHAVIORAL DISRODERS has TWO areas requiring VERY SPECIALIZED SUPPORTS,But, he also has MANY AREAS OF STRENGTH, and areas requiring LESS SPECIALIZED or MORE NORMALIZED SUPPORTS._____________________________Dec 7, 2007
25 ESTABLISHING CONTINUUM of SWPBS HomeworkESTABLISHING CONTINUUM of SWPBSTERTIARY PREVENTIONFunction-based supportWraparoundPerson-centered planningTERTIARY PREVENTIONSECONDARY PREVENTIONCheck in/outTargeted social skills instructionPeer-based supportsSocial skills clubSECONDARY PREVENTIONThis TIERED LOGIC can be illustrated by a schools that has ALIGNED its BEHAVIOR SUPPORT INTERVENTIONS OR PRACTICES BY THREE GENERAL TIERSTIER 1 PRACTICES ARE FOR ALL STUDENTS ACROSS ALL SCHOOL SETTINGSTIER 2 PRACTICES ARE FOR STUDENTS WHO REQUIRE SUPPLEMENTAL SPECIALIZED (SMALL GROUP) SUPPORTSTIER 3 PRACTICES ARE HIGHLY SPECIALIZED AND INTENSIVE FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENTS.It is important to notice that these practices areSMALL IN NUMBERCONCEPTUALLY ALIGNEDAND WOULD HAVE DATA RULES FOR MOVEMENT UP AND DOWN THE CONTINUUMPRIMARY PREVENTIONTeach SW expectationsProactive SW disciplinePositive reinforcementEffective instructionParent engagementPRIMARY PREVENTION
26 Responsiveness to Intervention Academic SystemsBehavioral SystemsIntensive, Individual InterventionsIndividual StudentsAssessment-basedHigh IntensityIntensive, Individual InterventionsIndividual StudentsAssessment-basedIntense, durable procedures1-5%1-5%Targeted Group InterventionsSome students (at-risk)High efficiencyRapid response5-10%5-10%Targeted Group InterventionsSome students (at-risk)High efficiencyRapid responseUniversal InterventionsAll studentsPreventive, proactiveIN 1996, we conceptualized this logic as TWO EQUIVALENT TRIANGLES80-90%Universal InterventionsAll settings, all studentsPreventive, proactive80-90%Circa 1996
27 Academic-Behavior Connection Algozzine, B., Wang, C., & Violette, A. S. (2011). Reexamining the relationship between academic achievement and social behavior. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 13, Burke, M. D., Hagan-Burke, S., & Sugai, G. (2003). The efficacy of function-based interventions for students with learning disabilities who exhibit escape-maintained problem behavior: Preliminary results from a single case study. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 26, McIntosh, K., Chard, D. J., Boland, J. B., & Horner, R. H. (2006). Demonstration of combined efforts in school-wide academic and behavioral systems and incidence of reading and behavior challenges in early elementary grades. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 8, McIntosh, K., Horner, R. H., Chard, D. J., Dickey, C. R., and Braun, D. H. (2008). Reading skills and function of problem behavior in typical school settings. Journal of Special Education, 42, Nelson, J. R., Johnson, A., & Marchand-Martella, N. (1996). Effects of direct instruction, cooperative learning, and independent learning practices on the classroom behavior of students with behavioral disorders: A comparative analysis. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 4, Wang, C., & Algozzine, B. (2011). Rethinking the relationship between reading and behavior in early elementary school. Journal of Educational Research, 104,A SAMPLE of that RESEARCH IS ILLUSTRATED is here.
28 PBIS ImplementationIMPLEMENTATION OF PBIS is driven by the THEORY OF ACTION AND OPERATIONAL FEATURES OF PBIS
29 Supporting Social Competence & Academic AchievementOUTCOMESSupportingDecisionMakingSupportingStaff BehaviorDATASYSTEMSTo focus the implementation process, PBIS emphasizesUSE OF DATA for GUIDING ALL DECISIONS related to EXPECTED OUTCOMES, PRACTICES, AND IMPLEMENTATION SUPPORT SYSTEMSSELECTION OF EVIDENCE BASED PRACTICES that are ALIGNED WITH DESIRED OUTCOMESOUTCOMES that are important to the STUDENTS AND FAMILY AND SCHOOL COMMUNITIESAnd SYSTEMS that enable educators to IMPLEMENT with the HIGHEST DEGREE OF INTEGRITYPRACTICESSupportingStudent Behavior
30 Culturally Equitable Academic & Social Behavior Expectations Vincent, Randall, Cartledge, Tobin, & Swain-Bradway 2011; Sugai, O’Keeffe, & Fallon, 2012abCulturally Equitable Academic & Social Behavior ExpectationsOUTCOMESCulturally Valid Information for DecisionsCulturally Knowledgeable TeachersSYSTEMSDATACULTURE is one our major considerations, and CULTURAL INFLUENCE is reflected in high attention towardCULTURAL EQUITY of expectationsCULTURAL VALIDITY of dataCULTURAL RELEVANCE of practicesCULTURAL KNOWLEDGE of implementersPRACTICESCulturally Relevant & Effective Instruction
31 GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS: “Getting Started” TeamGENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS: “Getting Started”AgreementsData-basedAction PlanPBIS IMPLEMENTATION is centralized around SCHOOL AND DISTRICT TEAMS thatEmphasize STAFF AND STUDENT AGREEMENTSAnd drive their IMPLEMENTATION BY LOCAL INFORMATION OR DATAEvaluationImplementation
32 Process Team Agreements Make plan Is it working? Do it Kandinsky College Malderburchtstraat Nijmegen 17 Sep 2013TeamProcessAgreementsMake planPBIS IMPLEMENTATION is centralized around SCHOOL AND DISTRICT TEAMS thatEmphasize STAFF AND STUDENT AGREEMENTSAnd drive their IMPLEMENTATION BY LOCAL INFORMATION OR DATAIs it working?Do it
33 School-wide Classroom Family Non-classroom Student SWPBS Practices Smallest #Evidence-basedBiggest, durable effectPBIS organizes its practices into there 5 general areasAnd emphasizesSMALLEST NUMBER OFEVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICESTHAT HAVE THE BIGGEST AND MOST DURABLE EFFECTS OR OUTCOMESStudent
34 EVIDENCE- BASED INTERVENTION PRACTICES SCHOOL-WIDE1. Leadership teamBehavior purpose statementSet of positive expectations & behaviorsProcedures for teaching SW & classroom-wide expected behaviorContinuum of procedures for encouraging expected behaviorContinuum of procedures for discouraging rule violationsProcedures for on-going data-based monitoring & evaluationEVIDENCE- BASED INTERVENTION PRACTICESCLASSROOMAll school-wideMaximum structure & predictability in routines & environmentPositively stated expectations posted, taught, reviewed, prompted, & supervised.Maximum engagement through high rates of opportunities to respond, delivery of evidence- based instructional curriculum & practicesContinuum of strategies to acknowledge displays of appropriate behavior.Continuum of strategies for responding to inappropriate behavior.INDIVIDUAL STUDENTBehavioral competence at school & district levelsFunction-based behavior support planningTeam- & data-based decision makingComprehensive person-centered planning & wraparound processesTargeted social skills & self-management instructionIndividualized instructional & curricular accommodationsNONCLASSROOMPositive expectations & routines taught & encouragedActive supervision by all staff (Scan, move, interact)Precorrections & remindersPositive reinforcementFAMILY ENGAGEMENTContinuum of positive behavior support for all familiesFrequent, regular positive contacts, communications, & acknowledgementsFormal & active participation & involvement as equal partnerAccess to system of integrated school & community resourcesAt the PBIS.ORG WEBSITE, you can review HOW and WHAT we’ve identified for each of the 5 areas.Those details are less important than the logic ofSMALL EST NUMBEREVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICESWITH THE BIGGEST AND MOST DURABLE EFFECTS
35 School-Wide PBS (Tier 1) Leadership team Behavior purpose statementSet of positive expectations & behaviorsProcedures for teaching SW & classroom-wide expected behaviorContinuum of procedures for encouraging expected behaviorContinuum of procedures for discouraging rule violationsProcedures for on-going data-based monitoring & evaluationFor TIER 1, which is SCHOOL-WIDE,These 6 PRACTICE ELEMENTS are emphasized.
36 58 2. NATURAL CONTEXT 1. SOCIAL SKILL 3. BEHAVIOR EXAMPLES Teaching MatrixSETTINGAll SettingsHallwaysPlaygroundsCafeteriaLibrary/Computer LabAssemblyBusRespect OurselvesBe on task.Give your best effort.Be prepared.Walk.Have a plan.Eat all your food.Select healthy foods.Study, read, compute.Sit in one spot.Watch for your stop.Respect OthersBe kind.Hands/feet to self.Help/share with others.Use normal voice volume.Walk to right.Play safe.Include others.Share equipment.Practice good table mannersWhisper.Return books.Listen/watch.Use appropriate applause.Use a quiet voice.Stay in your seat.Respect PropertyRecycle.Clean up after self.Pick up litter.Maintain physical space.Use equipment properly.Put litter in garbage can.Replace trays & utensils.Clean up eating area.Push in chairs.Treat books carefully.Pick up.Treat chairs appropriately.Wipe your feet.Sit appropriately.2. NATURAL CONTEXT1. SOCIAL SKILLExpectations3. BEHAVIOR EXAMPLES
38 RCT & Group Design PBIS Studies MayBradshaw, C.P., Koth, C. W., Thornton, L. A., & Leaf, P. J. (2009). Altering school climate through school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a group-randomized effectiveness trial. Prevention Science, 10(2),Bradshaw, C. P., Koth, C. W., Bevans, K. B., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P. J. (2008). The impact of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4),Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, Bradshaw, C. P., Reinke, W. M., Brown, L. D., Bevans, K. B., & Leaf, P. J. (2008). Implementation of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: Observations from a randomized trial. Education & Treatment of Children, 31, 1-26.Bradshaw, C. P., Waasdorp, T. E. & Leaf, P. J. (2012). Effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on child behavior problems. Pediatrics, 130(5),Horner, R., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A., & Esperanza, J., (2009). A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11,Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptionality, 42(8), 1-14.Waasdorp, T. E., Bradshaw, C. P., & Leaf, P. J. (2012). The impact of School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) on bullying and peer rejection: A randomized controlled effectiveness trial. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 116(2),Here’s a sample of the evidence-base for supporting the PBIS implementation, especially, T1.
39 Reduced major disciplinary infractions Improvement in aggressive behavior, concentration, prosocial behavior, & emotional regulationImprovements in academic achievementEnhanced perception of organizational health & safetyReductions in teacher reported bullying behavior & peer rejectionImproved school climateIn general, it is possible to say that high fidelity implementation of PBIS can be associated with these outcomes
41 Detrich, Keyworth, & States (2007). J. Evid.-based Prac. in Sch. Startw/What WorksFocus on FidelityResearchers have the obligation to demonstrate WHAT WORKS and WHENPractitioners have the obligation to demonstrate that IT IS WORKING and HOW TO IMPLEMENT WITH FIDELITYDetrich, Keyworth, & States (2007). J. Evid.-based Prac. in Sch.
42 SWPBS Implementation Blueprint In our PBIS work, we operate from an IMPLEMENTATION FRAMEWORK that emphasizesIMPLEMENTATION SUPPORT or DRIVERS (rectangles)LEADERSHIP TEAMDEMONSTRATIONSINSTITUTIONAL SUPPORTS
43 Cultural/Context Considerations Basic“Logic”SYSTEMSDATAStart w/ effective, efficient, & relevant, doableMaximumStudentOutcomesPRACTICESImplementationFidelityPutting the everything together, we get this picture…Training+CoachingEvaluationImprove “Fit”Prepare & support implementation
44 Effective Organizations GOAL to create safe, respectful, effective, & relevant social culture where successful teaching & learning are possible & problem behaviors are preventedCommon LanguagePBISSWPBSCommon ExperienceCommon Vision/ValuesQualityLeadership