3Categories of Sound Waves Sound waves fall into three categories covering different ranges of frequencies.Audible sound wavesIn the range of human hearing (20 Hz – 20 kHz)Infrasonic wavesFrequencies below the audible range (< 20 Hz)Ultrasonic wavesFrequencies above the audible range (> 20 kHz)
4Applications of Ultrasonic Waves Widely used in medical applicationsDiagnostic tool AND treatmentUltrasound ImagingTransducer placed on mother’s abdomenEmits ultrasonic wavesReflected waves are picked up by transducer and converted into an electric signal that forms an imageUltrasound TreatmentUltrasonic waves used to break up kidney stones or promote healing in biological tissues.
5Speed of Sound Depends on the density of the air and its temperature. Value increases by m/s for every increase of 1oC.T = temperature in oC
6Sample Problem 1The temperature outside is 23oC. What is the speed of sound in air at this temperature? G: T = 23oC R: v = ? A: v = m/s + (0.606 m/s/oC) T S: v = m/s + (0.606 m/s/oC)(23oC) = 345 m/s S: The speed of sound in air at 23oC is 345 m/s
7Sample Problem 2If the speed of sound is measured to be 318 m/s, what is the current air temperature? G: v = 318 m/s R: T = ? A: v = m/s + (0.606 m/s/oC) T S: T = 𝒗 −𝟑𝟑𝟏.𝟒 𝒎/𝒔 𝟎.𝟔𝟎𝟔 𝒎 𝒔 /oC = 𝟑𝟏𝟖 𝒎 𝒔 −𝟑𝟑𝟏.𝟒 𝒎/𝒔 𝟎.𝟔𝟎𝟔 𝒎 𝒔 /oC = oC S: The temperature of the air is oC
9Mach NumberErnst Mach researched sound waves and devised a way to describe air speeds of objects in terms of the speed of sound.Ratio of airspeed to the local speed of soundNo units for MMach number is not fixed – depends on speed of sound in its vicinity
11Practice Problems Page 394 1. 0.73 2. 3.0 x 102 m/s = 1100 km/h m/s = 1.0 x 103 km/h
12Sound Intensity Loudness describes how humans perceive sound energy. Depends on a quantity called sound intensity.A sound wave is a longitudinal waveAmplitude of a longitudinal wave is a difference in pressurep= 𝐹 𝐴The larger the amplitude, the louder the sound that is perceived.The amount of sound energy being transferred per unit area is called sound intensityMeasured in W/m2
13Human Perceptions of Sound Intensity The threshold of human hearing ranges from about 1x10-12 W/m2 to about 1 W/m2Easier to use decibelsThe unit of sound level used to describe sound intensity level1/10 of a bel (B)The decibel commonly gives measurements on a scale of 0 to 100, sometimes exceeding 200Decibels refer to sound level, not intensity, so an order of magnitude is an increase of 10 decibels.
15Loudness and DistanceThe farther you are from a sound, the quieter it becomes.As the sound wave expands from the source, the total energy stays the same, but the area of air it acts on is greatly increased.Loudness drops off quickly, but audible levels persist for quite a distance
16Sound SafetyAny sound levels greater than 100 dB that persist for more than a few minutes will damage hearing.The louder a sound, the less time that can be spent near it without damaging hearing.
17SummaryAudible sound waves range from 20 Hz to 20 kHz. Infrasonic waves have frequencies below 20 Hz. Ultrasonic waves have frequencies above 20 kHz.We can apply our understanding of the properties of sound to technologies that benefit society.The speed of sound through the atmosphere, in metres per second, is given by the relationship v = m/s + (0.606 m/s/°C) T, where T is the temperature in degrees Celsius.Sound intensity is a measure of the energy flowing through the unit area due to a sound wave.Human hearing can detect a range of sound intensities over many magnitudes in intensity.Loudness levels are usually described on the decibel scale, which is more convenient than the range of values for sound intensity. Loudness levels are dependent on the distance from the source of the sound.Sound levels in industry and recreation must be kept to a reasonable level to avoid hearing damage.