Presentation on theme: "Introduction to IWRM D. Thalmeinerova based upon GWP ToolBox resources."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction to IWRM D. Thalmeinerova based upon GWP ToolBox resources
Local, Regional, National, Fluvial, Global Ancient 1200 A.D. 1900 1990s Future Community Basic management of water quantity Sectoral management of water quantity and quality institutional fragmentation spatial fragmentation local co-ordination Integrated multifunctional use river basin as unit institutionalised cooperation Multi-level Comprehensive Governance
Before we start…. The basis of IWRM is that different uses of water are interdependent Integrated management means that all the different uses of water resources are considered together
Driving forces on water resources Population growth: demands for more water and producing more waste water and pollution Urbanization: migration from rural to urban areas which increases the current level of difficulty in water delivery and waste water treatment Economic growth: mainly in developing countries with large populations contributes to increased demand for economic activities Globalization of trade: production is relocated to “labor-cheap” areas that takes place without consideration for water resources Climate variability: more intense floods and droughts increase vulnerability of people Climate change: increase uncertainty about water cycle regimes
IWRM concept is an empirical concept which is built up from the on-the-ground experience of practitioners, a flexible approach to water management that can adapt to diverse national and local contexts, thus it is not a scientific theory that needs to be proved or disproved by scholars. and (but) it requires policy-makers to make judgments about which set of suggestions, reform measures, management tools and institutional arrangements are most appropriate in a particular cultural, social, political, economic and environmental context.
IWRM definition IWRM is a process which promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources, in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems. GWP, TEC Background Paper No. 4: Integrated Water Resources Management
IWRM: What does it really mean? More coordinated development and management of: –Land and water –Surface water and ground water –Upstream and downstream interests Discussion questions: Who should propose measures to protect against floods? Who should bear a cost to implement measures to mitigate floods?
Key water resources management functions Water allocation Pollution control Monitoring Financial management Flood and drought management Information management Basin planning Stakeholder participation IWRM
Three pillars of IWRM Implementing IWRM process is a question of getting the “three pillars” right: 1.Moving towards enabling environment of appropriate policies, strategies and legislation 2.Putting in place the institutional framework (through which policies can be implemented) 3.Setting up the management instruments required by these institutions to do their job
Areas of Change A. Enabling environment A1. Policies A2. Legislation A3. Financing & incentive structures B. Institutional roles B1. Creating an organization frameworks B2. Institutional capacity building C. Management instruments C1. Water resources assessment C2. Plans for IWRM C3. Demand management C4. Social change instrument C5. Conflict resolution C6. Regulatory instruments C7. Economic instruments C8. Information management
CHANGE AREAS Environmental Sustainability Economic Efficiency Social Equity CHANGES ARE MADE TO SEEK TO REACH SUSTAINABILITY
Managing competing uses Water for people Water for food Water for nature Water for other uses Cross-sectoral integration Enabling environment Institutions Management instruments
Integrating across levels and sectors National Basin Local Fisheries Envir onme nt Tourism Industry Finance Agriculture Energy Water
IWRM PRINCIPLES Fresh water is a finite and vulnerable resource, essential to sustain life, development and the environment. Water development and management should be based on a participatory approach, involving users, planners and policymakers at all levels. Women play a central part in the provision, management and safe- guarding of water. Water has an economic value in all its competing uses and should be recognized as an economic good as well as social good. Dublin, 1992
IWRM Principles Fresh water is a finite and vulnerable resource, essential to sustain life, development and the environment.
IWRM Principles Water development and management should be based on a participatory approach, involving users, planners and policymakers at all levels.
Difficult to ensure “active involvement” 50decision 200work 2 000participation 200 000information 2 500 000population How to make it?
Pitfalls in putting IWRM into practice Trying to establish management relations between too many variables risks getting mired in complexity at the expense of effectiveness. When putting IWRM into practice it’s important to think strategically about where and to what degree coordination and new management instruments are necessary.
IWRM Principles Women play a central part in the provision, management and safe- guarding of water
IWRM Principles Water has an economic value in all its competing uses and should be recognized as an economic good as well as social good –Water is becoming scarcer and its value rising –Recognition that costs should be borne by those who benefit Source: The Economist
Why IWRM? Globally accepted and makes good sense. Key element in national water policy. Incorporates social and environmental considerations directly into policy and decision making. Directly involves the stakeholders. Is a tool for optimizing investments under tight financing climate.
…in order to understand better “integrated” approach… Traditional approach –One sector –Limited institutions involved –Decision making at one sector –Specific issues addressed –Specific interests solved –Sectoral allocation of funds Integrated approach –Multi sectors –Various institutions involved –“collective” decision making –Complex issues addressed –Overriding interests solved –National allocation of funds
In order to understand better “integrated” approach Traditional approach: Hydrological/hydraulic –What is expected yield of the catchment? Engineering –How much water leaks from the system? –How can leakage be reduced? Management –What is the economic level of leakage? Integrated approach: How will new investment be agreed upon? How can local management structures balance competing uses? How will stakeholders negotiate water rights in different conditions of water availability (scarcity)? How will consumers respond to periodic water shortages or to increasing environmental concerns?
IWRM is not a fixed prescription but an iterative process. This means that the specific form IWRM takes will vary from country to country and from region to region. It also means that IWRM is an inherently adaptive approach – one that can accommodate emerging challenges, constraints and changing social priorities.
What tools from the IWRM arsenal are appropriate is highly context-specific. Although certain tools such as water pricing and river basin organisations have come to be seen as pillars of IWRM, they are not appropriate in every situation and many of the successful examples of IWRM in practice do not include either.
The nature of IWRM: Lessons from IWRM in practice How water is developed and managed must reflect country priorities (including environmental standards) and governance approaches. Water management will not be successful if it is set up as a stand-alone system of governance and administration, separate to the rest of government.
The nature of IWRM: Lessons from IWRM in practice IWRM includes both ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ components: the infrastructure needed to harness water for productive use and protect from droughts and floods and the institutions and management interventions needed to ensure its efficient use, safeguard the resource and the ecosystems that depend on it, and mediate between competing users and uses.
Examples: IWRM is linked to key development issues Key development issueHow IWRM helpsExample Securing food productionAssists the efficient production of food crops in irrigated agriculture FAO round table (2003, Rome) agreed that all African countries should improve efficiency in irrigated agriculture for food production by adopting IWRM approach Reducing health risksBetter management of water quality UNECE Protocol on Water and Health (2007) requires to set health targets. Progress towards IWRM has been chosen as an indicator for improved water management Freshwater and coastal waterIWRM recognizes freshwater and coastal zone as a continuum Integrated Coastal Area and River Basin Management (ICARM) is endorsed by GWP as a basic concept for the GEF projects portfolio
Key development issueHow IWRM helpsExample Mitigating disaster risksAssists disaster preparedness WMO adopted IFM approach within the framework of IWRM in 2000 Planning transboundary cooperation Assists water management of shared basins ECOWAS adopted the West African Regional Action Plan for IWRM in 2000. The IWRM is a framework for transboundary Niger, Volta and Senegal rivers Adapting to climate changeAssist appropriate planning of water use with better resilience IPCC emphasizes IWRM approach that is based on the concepts of flexibility and adaptability
Critical elements for successful IWRM approach Political will (at highest possible level) Knowledge (not science alone, but through multi-sector sources of information and expertise) Institutional arrangements (start with existing institutions, but (re)-define mandates clearly) Community involvement (it takes time to put it in place and it is a long-term, investment) Economic prosperity (difficult to manage without financial support; it is not only direct project funding; it is about mobilization of whole range of economic and financial incentives)
Summary about IWRM: what we have learnt IWRM is linked to sustainable development IWRM is not a one-size-fits-all prescription and cannot be applied as a checklist of actions IWRM is not a prescription but an iterative process and an adaptive approach IWRM implementation must reflect country priorities Water management will not be successful if it is set up as a stand-alone system of governance IWRM includes both ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ components
Lessons from IWRM in practice IWRM is a means not an end. None of the successful case studies analysed set out to achieve IWRM. Rather they set out to solve particular water-related problems or achieve development goals by looking at water holistically within larger physical and development contexts. IWRM Equity Sustainability Efficiency