5Driving forces on water resources Population growth: demands for more water and producing more waste water and pollutionUrbanization: migration from rural to urban areas which increases the current level of difficulty in water delivery and waste water treatmentEconomic growth: mainly in developing countries with large populations contributes to increased demand for economic activitiesGlobalization of trade: production is relocated to “labor-cheap” areas that takes place without consideration for water resourcesClimate variability: more intense floods and droughts increase vulnerability of peopleClimate change: increase uncertainty about water cycle regimes
6IWRM concept isan empirical concept which is built up from the on-the-ground experience of practitioners,a flexible approach to water management that can adapt to diverse national and local contexts,thusit is not a scientific theory that needs to be proved or disproved by scholars.and (but)it requires policy-makers to make judgments about which set of suggestions, reform measures, management tools and institutional arrangements are most appropriate in a particular cultural, social, political, economic and environmental context.
7GWP, TEC Background Paper No. 4: Integrated Water Resources Management IWRM definitionIWRM is a process which promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources, in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems.GWP, TEC Background Paper No. 4: Integrated Water Resources Management
8IWRM: What does it really mean? More coordinated development and management of:Land and waterSurface water and ground waterUpstream and downstream interestsDiscussion questions:Who should propose measures to protect against floods?Who should bear a cost to implement measures to mitigate floods?
9Key water resources management functions Water allocationPollution controlMonitoringFinancial managementFlood and drought managementInformation managementBasin planningStakeholder participationIWRM
10Three pillars of IWRMImplementing IWRM process is a question of getting the “three pillars” right:Moving towards enabling environment of appropriate policies, strategies and legislationPutting in place the institutional framework (through which policies can be implemented)Setting up the management instruments required by these institutions to do their job
11Areas of Change A. Enabling environment A1. Policies A2. Legislation A3. Financing & incentive structuresB. Institutional rolesB1. Creating an organization frameworksB2. Institutional capacity buildingC. Management instrumentsC1. Water resources assessmentC2. Plans for IWRMC3. Demand managementC4. Social change instrumentC5. Conflict resolutionC6. Regulatory instrumentsC7. Economic instrumentsC8. Information management
12CHANGES ARE MADE TO SEEK CHANGE AREASCHANGES ARE MADE TO SEEKEconomicEfficiencySocial EquityEnvironmentalSustainabilityTO REACHSUSTAINABILITY
13Managing competing uses Water for peopleWater forfoodWater for natureotherusesCross-sectoral integrationEnabling environmentInstitutionsManagementinstruments
14Integrating across levels and sectors FisheriesEnvironmentTourismIndustryFinanceAgricultureEnergyWaterNationalBasinLocal[1 click - “and scales.” + pyramid on your click]Scales aspect of IWRM is often forgotten. But it is necessary in order to:Put into practice the 2nd Dublin Principle: Water development and management should be based on a participatory approach, involving users, planners and policy-makers at all levels.Achieve more efficient use of limited water resourcesEnsure decision-making is taking place at the lowest appropriate level. And that decisions made at local and river-basin levels are in-line with, or at least do not conflict with, the achievement of broader national objectives, and in turn, that national objectives reflect local needs.In some countries means more decentralized decision-making. E.g. In Thailand, where IWRM approach used to improve the responsiveness of water management to local conditions and to resolve conflicts that had arisen during phase of centralized water management.In others, means bumping some types of decisions up to the river basin or national level – for example decisions on water allocation frameworks.
15IWRM PRINCIPLESFresh water is a finite and vulnerable resource, essential to sustain life, development and the environment.Water development and management should be based on a participatory approach, involving users, planners and policymakers at all levels.Women play a central part in the provision, management and safe-guarding of water.Water has an economic value in all its competing uses and should be recognized as an economic good as well as social good.Dublin, 1992
16IWRM PrinciplesFresh water is a finite and vulnerable resource, essential to sustain life, development and the environment.
18IWRM PrinciplesWater development and management should be based on a participatory approach, involving users, planners and policymakers at all levels.
19Difficult to ensure “active involvement” 50 decision200 workparticipationinformationpopulationHow to make it?
20Pitfalls in putting IWRM into practice Trying to establish management relations between too many variables risks getting mired in complexity at the expense of effectiveness.When putting IWRM into practice it’s important to think strategically about where and to what degree coordination and new management instruments are necessary.
21IWRM PrinciplesWomen play a central part in the provision, management and safe-guarding of water
22IWRM Principles Water is becoming scarcer and its value rising Source: The EconomistIWRM PrinciplesWater has an economic value in all its competing uses and should be recognized as an economic good as well as social goodWater is becoming scarcer and its value risingRecognition that costs should be borne by those who benefit
23Why IWRM? Globally accepted and makes good sense. Key element in national water policy.Incorporates social and environmental considerations directly into policy and decision making.Directly involves the stakeholders.Is a tool for optimizing investments under tight financing climate.
24…in order to understand better “integrated” approach… Multi sectorsVarious institutions involved“collective” decision makingComplex issues addressedOverriding interests solvedNational allocation of fundsTraditional approachOne sectorLimited institutions involvedDecision making at one sectorSpecific issues addressedSpecific interests solvedSectoral allocation of funds
25In order to understand better “integrated” approach Traditional approach:Hydrological/hydraulicWhat is expected yield of the catchment?EngineeringHow much water leaks from the system?How can leakage be reduced?ManagementWhat is the economic level of leakage?Integrated approach:How will new investment be agreed upon?How can local management structures balance competing uses?How will stakeholders negotiate water rights in different conditions of water availability (scarcity)?How will consumers respond to periodic water shortages or to increasing environmental concerns?
27IWRM is not a fixed prescription but an iterative process. This means that the specific form IWRM takes will vary from country to country and from region to region.It also means that IWRM is an inherently adaptive approach – one that can accommodate emerging challenges, constraints and changing social priorities.
28What tools from the IWRM arsenal are appropriate is highly context-specific. Although certain tools such as water pricing and river basin organisations have come to be seen as pillars of IWRM, they are not appropriate in every situation and many of the successful examples of IWRM in practice do not include either.
29The nature of IWRM: Lessons from IWRM in practice How water is developed and managed must reflect country priorities (including environmental standards) and governance approaches.Water management will not be successful if it is set up as a stand-alone system of governance and administration, separate to the rest of government.
30The nature of IWRM: Lessons from IWRM in practice IWRM includes both ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ components: the infrastructure needed to harness water for productive use and protect from droughts and floods and the institutions and management interventions needed to ensure its efficient use, safeguard the resource and the ecosystems that depend on it, and mediate between competing users and uses.
31Examples: IWRM is linked to key development issues How IWRM helpsExampleSecuring food productionAssists the efficient production of food crops in irrigated agricultureFAO round table (2003, Rome) agreed that all African countries should improve efficiency in irrigated agriculture for food production by adopting IWRM approachReducing health risksBetter management of water qualityUNECE Protocol on Water and Health (2007) requires to set health targets. Progress towards IWRM has been chosen as an indicator for improved water managementFreshwater and coastal waterIWRM recognizes freshwater and coastal zone as a continuumIntegrated Coastal Area and River Basin Management (ICARM) is endorsed by GWP as a basic concept for the GEF projects portfolio
32Key development issueHow IWRM helpsExampleMitigating disaster risksAssists disaster preparednessWMO adopted IFM approach within the framework of IWRM in 2000Planning transboundary cooperationAssists water management of shared basinsECOWAS adopted the West African Regional Action Plan for IWRM in The IWRM is a framework for transboundary Niger, Volta and Senegal riversAdapting to climate changeAssist appropriate planning of water use with better resilienceIPCC emphasizes IWRM approach that is based on the concepts of flexibility and adaptability
33Critical elements for successful IWRM approach Political will (at highest possible level)Knowledge (not science alone, but through multi-sector sources of information and expertise)Institutional arrangements (start with existing institutions, but (re)-define mandates clearly)Community involvement (it takes time to put it in place and it is a long-term, investment)Economic prosperity (difficult to manage without financial support; it is not only direct project funding; it is about mobilization of whole range of economic and financial incentives)
34Summary about IWRM: what we have learnt IWRM is linked to sustainable developmentIWRM is not a one-size-fits-all prescription and cannot be applied as a checklist of actionsIWRM is not a prescription but an iterative process and an adaptive approachIWRM implementation must reflect country prioritiesWater management will not be successful if it is set up as a stand-alone system of governanceIWRM includes both ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ components
35Lessons from IWRM in practice IWRM is a means not an end. None of the successful case studies analysed set out to achieve IWRM. Rather they set out to solve particular water-related problems or achieve development goals by looking at water holistically within larger physical and development contexts.EquitySustainabilityEfficiencyIWRM