Presentation on theme: "The Bioalcohol Paradigm"— Presentation transcript:
1The Bioalcohol Paradigm Fuels of the FutureThe Bioalcohol Paradigmyeastethanolliquid fueladvanced biofuelsphytomassfermentationlignocellulosicfeedstockssynthetic biologymain topicsbranched-chainalcoholsbridge fuelsenergyCDC PHIL /James Gathanyoriginal slides by: Drew Sowersby (May 2011)_technical contributor for Advanced Biofuels USA
2Message to the readerThe following slide document has been created to inform a broad audience about the importance and likely dominance of bioalcohols in the transportation industry as the global transition from non-renewable fossil fuels to renewable advanced biofuels gains momentum. The information contained in these slides stands in support of the Advanced Biofuels USA mission.“The Mission of Advanced Biofuels USA is to promote public understanding, acceptance, and use of advanced biofuels by promoting research, development and improvement of advanced biofuels technologies, production, marketing and delivery; and by promoting the sustainable development, cultivation and processing of advanced biofuels crops, and agricultural and forestry residues and wastes.”These slides are for public consumption and can be duplicated, replicated, modified, adapted, distributed, transmitted, and/or shared as seen fit by the reader. Please credit sources accordingly. If you wish to modify this document, just add your name under mine on the first slide.Note: Some slides contain additional information in notes section below
3Energy: The Root of All Civilization 2. Why Bioalcohols? Concerted efforts from scientists, farmers, politicians, and grassroots organizations like Advanced Biofuels USA to understand and advocate for sustainability are ongoing. Most of us are seeking the promise of global security, the development of a sustainable workforce, and an endless supply of clean renewable energy.Converting biomass to biofuels for transportation fuel applications is currently one of the most active areas of investigative research in science and engineering. The following sections will offer an in-depth technical perspective of liquid fuels and demonstrate the overriding potential of bioalcohols to bridge transportation energy needs of modern society with the future of the human race.Energy: The Root of All Civilization2. Why Bioalcohols?Blending Bridges to Sustainability3. Leaping Barriers: Squeezing the Sun
4The root of all civilization Section 1Energy:The root of all civilizationThis section will connect energy to GDP and population size to illustrate the rise of human civilization and prosperity.
5In the beginning there was…..biofuels? 1 EJ = 1018 JThe post civil war exploitation of coal helped spawn the Industrial Age, while the subsequent incorporation of crude-oil and natural gas fossil resources helped spawn what has become a global economy. Is this pattern sustainable? Most believe the answer to this question is NO! Why?
6In this section the ongoing energy crisis can be visualized in a series of graphs depicting the startling connection between:Energy ConsumptionGDP per capita (prosperity)Population growthDebt (deficit spending)
8And the United States population has been growing dramatically And the United States population has been growing dramatically. Projections indicate that the US could have a population over 400 million by To sustain such a state given our free market culture would require much more energy or a breakthrough in energy conservation technology (smart grid).chart by :
9The fossil fuel dynasty has really just began, and yet it may already be more than half over.
10U.S. primary energy use by fuel (1980-2035) 1.0 × 1015 Btu40%1.0 × 1015 Btu equals a 1 quadrillion Btu (a quad). Most energy data is reported in Btu (British Thermal Units).U.S. Energy Information Administration (Washington, DC, June 2009)Projections: AEO2010 National Energy Modeling System
11Breakdown of the U.S. liquid fuel market less than 3% biofuels 35 quadrillion Btu’s (37 EJ) of liquid energy annually~ 95% of all liquids since 1958 have come from petroleum 163% of refined petroleum was delivered to market as motor gasoline for transportation2less than 3% biofuelsEnergy Information Administration, Annual Energy Review 2008, Petroleum Consumption: Transportation Sector, , U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.CO’Donnell, M. Master’s Thesis, University of Texas at Austin, 2009
12Global transportation energy consumption vs. GDP in 2006A more specific look at transportation vs. prosperity. Many questions arise from this graph. For example, can the US sustain population growth, energy consumption, increasing debt, and a strong GDP growth?
13World energy use approaches 500 quadrillion Btu’s, of which the US consumes approximately 1/5. graph from:
14Prosperity (GDP) correlates strongly with energy use Prosperity (GDP) correlates strongly with energy use. We know that China has benefited greatly from US prosperity, but most of its vast population doesn’t use much energy. Prosperity (GDP) correlates strongly with energy use. We know that China has benefited greatly from US prosperity, but most of its vast population doesn't use much energy. Liquid fuel energy for transportation is a key driver of energy expansion and China will need much more of it as they expand their transportation and industrial sectors. Knowing the technical difficulties we are currently experiencing, once again this pattern is visibly unsustainable and it also appears the US has much to lose.
16Energy and Economic Interconnectedness This diagram depicts the feedback loops between an economy that is dependent on an aging oil industry.Energy and EconomicInterconnectedness
17SummaryIt appears there exists a positive correlation between energy consumption, population growth rate, GDP, and the abstractions of expanding debt and monetary instability. So now what?We must now consider alternatives to the current trends of fossil fuel dependence and moves toward sustainability. The next section will discuss the biofuels option with an in-depth analysis of the bioalcohol paradigm.
18Blending Bridges to Sustainability Why Bioalcohols?Blending Bridges to SustainabilitySection 2
19What are biofuels? In contrast to fossil fuels, biofuels…. Biofuels are any biologically derived solid, liquid, or gas that stores energy used in combustion applications.In contrast to fossil fuels, biofuels….Are sustainable (1-100 yrs vs yrs)Can be carbon neutral or negativeHave a more diversified, distributed means of production4. Can be created as reagent grade molecules (pure)
21Commercially available Under investigation and development Alternative Transportation FuelsCommercially availableMethanolNatural GasPropaneBiodieselElectricityEthanolHydrogenUnder investigation and developmentBiobutanolFischer-Tropsch (FT) dieselGas to Liquids (GTL)Biogas Biomass to Liquids (BTL)Coal to Liquids (CTL)Hydrogenation-Derived Renewable Diesel (HDRD)P-Series (gasoline substitute)Source: The Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992
22adapted by: Drew Sowersby biofuelsconversionbiomassHistorical reminder of expansive energy consumption in the US ( ) and almost non-existent impact of biofuels. There is a very high mountain to climb for biofuels to replace fossil fuels. Before fossil fuels were available, humans relied almost 100% on biofuels (mostly wood for burning and feed for working animals such as horses, oxen, llamas, etc.) and human energy.adapted by: Drew Sowersby
23Source: U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Information Agency (EIA). Million Barrels per Daychart by:Source: U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Information Agency (EIA).
24Global biofuel supplies expected to increase dramatically less than 2% of totalliquid consumptionMillion barrels daymore than 90% of all carsuse sugarcane ethanolBP p.l.c., Statistical Review, BP Energy Outlook 2030, London, January 2011
25The evolution of biofuels is defined in terms of the carbon feedstock used for production 1st generation fuelscorn-starchsugar from cane and beetssoy for diesel2nd generation – multi-component celluloseswitchgrassmiscanthusagriculture and food processing residuespoplar trees3rd generation – high quality cellulosemicroalgaemacroalgae (seaweed)cyanobacteria4th generation - sun fuelscarbon dioxide + light + biocatalyst…CO2impact factor(medium to high lignin content)(low to no lignin)net 0
26Bioalcohols currently dominate commercially available biofuels biomasssugarfeedstocksfermentationproduct recoverymarket 1chemical Storagemarket 2market 3The BioalcoholParadigm
27Biomass to BiofuelsThe process of biofuels production begins with the sun. Several crops with different properties can be grown in various climates and harvested as a feedstock for biofuels production. An array of processing and engineering techniques are used to convert or extract the biomass and produce energy for electricity, heat, and transportation. Notice that cellulosic ethanol, a second generation advanced biofuel, along with biodiesel represent the baseline targets for implementation into the liquid fuel chain. It is implied that many jobs will be created at each of these steps….and all are sustainable.
28process generalization biomassbioalcoholsThis is a basic (although already extremely complex) process for creating 2nd generation biofuels from cellulosic biomass. Essentially, most bioalcohols are produced via a very similar pathway. In addition, a gasification process can be used instead of the pre-hydrolysis and hydrolyse steps before fermentation.
29Most cellulosic material, like woods and grasses, contains lignin Lignocelluloses represent the most abundant source of bioenergyGlucoseTreatment with cellulases and/or acids releases glucose monomers for fermentationRubin, E. Nature, 2008, 454,
30But lignocellulosic feedstocks are not easily converted to sugar substrate and can introduce over 100 inhibitors into fermentation batches1organic acidsphenolsaldehydesketonesCLASSES of inhibitorsLiu, Z. L.; Slininger, P. J.; Gorsich, Appl Biochem. Biotechnol., 2005, 124,
31So far, Saccharomyces cerevisiae have demonstrated the ability to perform with a lignocellulosic feedstock.insulinlactic acidcarotenoidsalcoholscarbon dioxidepolymer precursorsAdvantagesAre the most common microorganismsused for production of biofuels(primarily alcohols)Are eukaryoticHave simple nutrient requirementsAre prime targets for bioengineeringConvert glucose to ethanol withunusual efficiency (FERMENTATION)The yeast cell factory has been used by humans for over 8000 years to create a host of useful renewable products
32Higher alcohol synthesis Ehrlich PathwayGlucosePyruvateO2Glycolysis(regulated and irreversible steps)CO2 + H2O respirationFermentationamino acid synthesisCO2 + CH3CH2OHStandard fermentation in yeastHigher alcohol synthesis
34Fermentation as a complex adaptive system Nitrogen SourceGases (CO2 and O2)WaterExcess sugarIonic StrengthpHInhibitorsViscosityFluid MotionTemperatureBiocatalystHypothetical Interaction Map
35Isobutanol (2MP) is a viable platform moleculeconventional motorgasolineisobutanolGEVO, Inc.HighlightsHigh yield isobutanol yeast fermentation (105 g/L per batch)Conversion to hydrocarbonsCarbon emissions reduction of 85%Competes with oil at $65 a barrelsource: GEVO, Inc.
36C4-C5 Alcohol Platform ButylFuel, LLC Highlights Case Study: After logging 10,000 miles butanol….increased auto mileage by 9%reduced oxides of nitrogen by 37%reduced carbon monoxide to 0.01%reduced hydrocarbons by 95%first American company to commercialize butanolCase Study:“Production of Butyric Acid and Butanol from Biomass”Ramey D and Yang S-T, Phase II STTR Final Report for D.O.E. (2004)
37C4-C5 alcohols have advantages compared to ethanolhigher energy densitylower vapor pressurelower air/fuel ratioless corrosiveless hygroscopichigher gasoline blend ratios“drop-in” fuelcompatible with gasoline engines,existing storage facilities, anddistribution infrastructureHarvey, B. J.; Meylemans, H. A. J Chem Technol Biotechnol., 2011, 86, 2–9.Dürre, P. Biotechnol. J., 2007, 2,
38Selected bioalcohol and gasoline properties Fuel CnEnergy density(MJ/L)Boiling point (°C )Solubility in water at 20°C(g/L)Vapor pressure at 20°C (mm Hg)Gasoline4-123338-204negligableEthanol22178miscible592-methyl-1-propanol*4261089593-methyl-1-butanol528130302-methyl-1-butanol12836(at 30°C )3Butanols have 4 carbons per molecule and pentanols have 5.miscible = fully mixed or homogeneousCn = carbon atoms per moleculeMJ/L = mega joules per litermm/Hg = millimeters of mercury--information obtained from MSDSs, Sigma-Aldrich website, and NIST chemistry WebBook.* a.k.a. isobutanol ~ 1-butanol
39Liquid Fuel Energy Densities MJ/Lbutanol/pentanolsweet spot?C4 alcohols such as 1-butanol (or isobutanol) have a lower knock-index, and burn more efficiently and cleanly than gasoline. C5 pentanols such as 3-methyl-1-butanol have not been thoroughly tested for combustion properties but are expected to behave similarly to 1-butanol.MJ/kgSource:Scott dialAdapted by Drew Sowersby
40Right now fuel blends are showing up at pumps across the U.S. BRIDGE FUELSE10Up to 10% ethanol to replace MTBEE15 - E85contains 15% to 85% ethanolrequires post 2001 or Flexfuel engine technologyB20contains 20% biodiesel / 80% dieselmade commercially from soybeansHow long until we see C4 and C5 advanced alcohols at the pump?
42The Obstacle CourseIt would be irresponsible to assume that human energy needs will be fulfilled in a timely fashion. The transition to sustainable energy will likely be a long arduous process.Moore’s Curse and the Great Energy Delusion (The American Magazine, November 19, 2008)“There is one thing all energy transitions have in common: they are prolonged affairs that take decades to accomplish, and the greater the scale of prevailing uses and conversions the longer the substitutions will take. The second part of this statement seems to be a truism but it is ignored as often as the first part: otherwise we would not have all those unrealized predicted milestones for new energy sources.”- Vaclav Smil-Distinguished Professor at the University of Manitoba.
43Sheer size required for economic growth Geographic distribution Technical BarriersGOALSheer size required for economic growthGeographic distributionSTARTSupply continuityLow cropenergy densityKerr, R. Science, 2010, 329,
44The Bright Side The sun delivers about 1000 W/m2 of power to Earth’s surface.1000 Wh = 1 kWh = 3.6 mega Joules (MJ)peak sun hour = 1 kWhpeak sun hours per day based on geo location
45U.S. example? ≈ 5.20 × 1016 MJ/year ≈ 4.90 × 1019 Btu/year ≈ 4.00 peak sun hours avg./day11 peak sun hour = 3.6 MJ14.4 MJ/(m2)day × 365 days × 9.83 × 1012 m2≈ 5.20 × MJ/year1 MJ = Btu≈ 4.90 × 1019 Btu/yearU.S. example?US land areathis is roughly 500X the current amount of US energy usage1. Solar Radiation Data Manual for Flat-Plate and Concentrating CollectorsNational Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 2006
47“Using detailed land analysis, Illinois researchers have found that biofuel crops cultivated on available land could produce up to half of the world's current fuel consumption – without affecting food crops or pastureland. Adding LIHD (low input high density) crops grown on marginal grassland to the marginal cropland estimate from earlier scenarios nearly doubled the estimated land area to 1,107 million hectares globally, even after subtracting possible pasture land – an area that would produce 26 to 56 percent of the world's current liquid fuel consumption.” --Published in the journal Environmental Science and Technology, the study led by civil and environmental engineering professor Ximing Cai identified land around the globe available to produce grass crops for biofuels, with minimal impact on agriculture or the environment.
48What will the next transition be? Paradigm Shiftstandard fermentationtoadvanced fermentation2nd generationbiofuels1st generationNON-FOOD crops and waste/residuesFOOD cropsCO2 and the SUN
49Taking Us from the Present to the Future Many companies are engaged in making these transitions happen. See a list of more than 400 companies in the Resources section on the Advanced Biofuels USA web site: Find out more at