Adding Two Numbers Many Types of Adders: Some examples: Bit Serial Adder Add time = n x f Add time = n x f Cascade Stages Ripple carry adder Ripple carry adder Add time = n x t PD Add time = n x t PD Carry Look Ahead Adder Generate carries in parallel Generate carries in parallel e.g., 4-bit AM2902. Can have “look ahead” of the “look ahead” units. e.g., 4-bit AM2902. Can have “look ahead” of the “look ahead” units.
Negative Numbers and Subtraction Several different codes for negative numbers 2's complement 2's complement 1's complement 1's complement signed magnitude signed magnitude others others For 2's complement, subtraction is implemented with the same hardware by negating the subtrahend. This is done by inverting each bit and adding one. The one can be added by setting the carry-in to the first stage equal to 1, saving an operation.
The combinational logic circuits we have been studying so far have no memory. The outputs always follow the inputs. There is a need for circuits with a memory, which behave differently depending upon their previous state. Sequential circuits use current input variables and previous input variables by storing the information and putting back into the circuit on the next clock (activation) cycle.
The Clock Paces the System In a positive logic system, the “action”happens when the clock is high, or positive. The low part of the clock cycle allows propagation between subcircuits, so their inputs are stable at the correct value when the clock next goes high.
Clock Pulse Definition Edges can also be referred to as leading and trailing. Positive Pulse Positive Edge Negative Edge Negative Pulse Positive Edge Negative Edge
A NOR Gate with a Lumped Delay This delay between input and output is at the basis of the functioning of an important memory element, the flip-flop.
Flip-Flops Flip-flops are the first stage in sequential logic design which incorporates memory (storage of previous states).
Types of Flip-Flops SR type Flip-flop or Set / Reset SR type Flip-flop or Set / Reset D type Flip-flop or Data / Delay D type Flip-flop or Data / Delay JK type Flip-flop JK type Flip-flop T type Flip-flop or Triggered /Toggle T type Flip-flop or Triggered /Toggle
The S-R (Set-Reset) Flip-Flop The S-R flip-flop is an active high (positive logic) device. The operation of an SR flip-flop is as follows: The Set input will make Q goto 1 The Reset input will make the output Q goto 0 i.e. reset the output. Both Set and Reset at logic 1 is not allowed as this is not a logical pair of inputs.
A Clocked S-R Flip-Flop The clock signal, CLK, turns on the inputs to the flip-flop.
The Clocked D (Data) Flip-Flop The clocked D flip-flop, sometimes called a latch, has a potential problem: If D changes while the clock is high, the output will also change. The Master-Slave flip-flop solves this problem: The operation of the D type flip-flop is as follows: Any input appearing (present state) at the input D, will be produced at the output Q in time T+1 (next state). The operation of the D type delays any input by exactly one clock cycle. Cascading several D type flip-flops together can produce delaying circuits
8 Bits D (Data) Flip-Flop One D type flip-flop can store one bit of information for one clock cycle. To have eight bits of information, simply arrange eight flip-flops in parallel with a common clock.
The Master-Slave Flip-Flop The rising edge of the clock clocks new data into the Master, while the slave holds previous data. The falling edge clocks the new Master data into the Slave.
Register Magnetic Core Memory Decoder (AND plane)
Semiconductor Memory Decoder (AND plane) OR plane
UT4090 RAM Module Dual-port 1152 bits per cell Four configurations 64 X 18 64 X 18 128 X 9 128 X 9 256 X 4 256 X 4 512 X 2 512 X 2 WA(8:0) WD(17:0) WE WCLK MODE(1:0) RE RCLK RA(8:0) RD(17:0) ASYNCRD