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Making The Case For Corrections Education: A Review Of Policy Research

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1 Making The Case For Corrections Education: A Review Of Policy Research
Presented To The 2006 California Jail Programs Association Conference October 6, 2006 By Dr. K. Garth-James, Associate Professor & Director, Public Policy Service Administration Program Kentucky Wesleyan College, KY 42301 Consultant, KAGL & Affiliates PO Box * Elk Grove, CA

2 Purposes Review the trends nation-wide and in California that have an effect on crime choice. Explain crime theories as plausible reasons for committing crime. Examine the education (work training) services on ex-offenders released from corrections (jails) back into their neighborhoods. Examine the long-term prospects and outcomes of ex-offenders with education services during post-release. Identify what we (law makers, educators, corrections officials, sheriffs and probation) can learn from assessing policy research about education and ex-offender recidivism and reentry.

3 Note The results of this analysis do not suggest that education (and employment training) guarantee ex-offenders successful reintegration into their neighborhoods. Extant research indicates that other factors (alcohol and drug addiction, poor family support, mental and health issues) which lead to the ex-offenders failure, must also be addressed to lead to positive outcomes during post-release.

4 Background: Jane Doe’s Story
Jane Doe is from small town just 30 miles from an urban city. Jobs are scarce; and, low paying jobs are in the shoe factory. Father died in a war. Mother works several jobs to raise 4 kids. She and Jane don’t get along; “My mom always calls me slow and ugly,” says Jane. Jane is the second oldest, dropped out of school to work and help with family expenses. Jane moved to the urban city to “get a better job, more pay” and found prostitution, drugs and a hard life. She is now 20 years, in jail and trying to understand why. “What to do?” Jane meets a correctional counselor who encourages her to finish high school. She meets a correctional educator and…. The programs we offer to the inmates allow them to work on unresolved issues while they are incarcerated. The programs will also allow them to learn different ways to handle things and try to change their lives and criminal behaviors, rather than, " Just Serving Time". Martinsville City Jail, VA.

5 History Of Jails For those of you who think that the term sheriff originated in the American old west, think again. The office of the sheriff can be traced back to biblical times and the Book of Daniel in its account of  Nebuchadnezzar and Babylon. The modern county sheriffs departments origins date back to the 9th century England’s King Alfred the Great. IT is the oldest law enforcement office within the common-law system. In the United States, the office of sheriff is a direct continuation of its English predecessor,; its powers and duties almost the same as in England over nine centuries ago. For example, jail administration provides an important criminal justice function to maintain law and order and preserve “domestic tranquility” (Former Deputy Sheriff Boyd, Suffolk County, Mass., 2005) A sheriff is responsible to the citizens. There are the political pressures that sheriffs and deputies must confront. However, each locality is responsible for providing some funding to the sheriff so hat jails may be built and maintained, deputies hired and duties of the office carried out in a timely and efficient manner.

6 Theories of Crime: From Neighborhoods to Incarceration
Explain Why People Commit Crime. What are the theories? Social Disorganization and Conflict Theories Biological. People born or have genetic or neurological dysfunctions; biochemical imbalances. Rational. People reason that crime is more profitable than punishment if get caught. Chicago School. Social environment and behavior produces crime, social and cultural deviance theories and strain theory. Conflict Theory. Societal and political forces produce crime. Religion and crime (lack of morals); income and crime (lack of money). Does Poverty Cause Crime? “Poverty Does Not Cause Crime" by The John Howard Society of Alberta. Crime and Criminals. Tamara L. Roleff, Ed. Opposing Viewpoints® Series. Greenhaven Press, "Poverty Contributes to Gang-Related Crime" by Donna Hunzeker. Juvenile Crime. A.E. Sadler, Ed. Opposing Viewpoints® Series. Greenhaven Press, 1997. Does Incarceration control crime? Crimes are defined to meet the needs of those in control of society. People want to feel safe, and the criminals locked away. Explain what is the purpose of incarceration. Utilitarianism view of Jeremy Bent ham ( ) believed punishment has 4 goals: prevent crime, criminal commit lesser offense, dissuade criminal from committing crimes, and protect society.

7 Projected Trends In California
By 2025, 25 percent of the 48 million Californians will be foreign born (Latinos). Inland cities will grow by 30%; central valley towns will become 2nd largest region; and, urban cities ( LA) will experience unemployment, crime among adults with poor literacy (or no literacy) and work skills. California will be the 6th largest economy in the world. Will county sheriffs and jail administration be affected by demographic and economic changes? (Source: CDE presentation, CCAE, 2006) This map shows the projected change in population growth in CA from 2005 to The darkest areas are those projected to experience 35% or more new growth, the second darkest areas, 20 to 35% growth, and the lightest color less than 20% growth. As shown, 22 counties are projected to experience 35% or more new growth and density in the next 20 years. Many of the counties projected to experience the most growth are in areas of our state that are currently less populated and considered rural or rural suburban. What policies do we need to consider in addressing this projected future growth?

8 Projected Trends Jobs: Service Industry Vs. Manufacturing
Services Industries, the bars on the far left, show the greatest increase Trade Industries show a slight increase Employment in government jobs plateau, and jobs in Manufacturing, as well as the rest of the industries, on the decline What does this shift in employment demand mean to us in adult education? What does it mean to our economy? What connection to the crime? Strain Theory? This graph illustrates the projections of changes in employment by industry for the next 15 years. The three bars represent the percent of jobs by industry for 2000, 2010, and 2020. Reading from the left to the right across the chart, it illustrates the point that: Services Industries, the bars on the far left, show the greatest increase Trade Industries show a slight increase Employment in government jobs plateau, and jobs in Manufacturing, as well as the rest of the industries, on the decline What does this shift in employment demand mean to us in adult education? What does it mean to our economy? Source: Public Policy Institute of California

9 Projected Trends: Wage Earnings
Growth in population favors groups that have typically attained lower levels of education – non-foreign born Americans in poverty; immigrants and children of immigrants. Potential mismatch between education requirements of new economy and amount of education of our future population. Source: Public Policy Institute of California, 2005 California’s population growth is projected to be concentrated on groups that have typically attained lower levels of education. Immigrants and children of immigrants, primarily Mexican Americans, will make up a large percentage of the working-age population by 2025, which means there is a potential mismatch between education requirements of the new economy and the amount of education of our future population.

10 Trends in Income Earnings
Foreign-born Whites, and Asians not born Southeast Asia, have a median family income of $67,000. Foreign born Hispanics have the lowest median family income of $31,000. These individuals with the lowest median family income are the majority of the population that need adult literacy and work training. The Median Family Income rates further show the plight that the traditional racial and ethnic “minorities” are faced with…This slide shows…among US born Whites, Asians, Blacks and Hispanics… US born Whites and Asians have the highest median family income at $77,000. US born Blacks and Hispanics have a median family income of $50,000.

11 Trends in High School Education
California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE) With the projection of fewer jobs available for high school graduates and those having less than a high school diploma, the passage rates for the California High School Exit Examination is daunting for the traditional minority groups-- American Indian Hispanic Black, and Pacific Islander All of these groups had the lowest passage rate in 2004 on the CAHSEE. After June 2006, students not passing the CAHSEE will have to seek other options to get job recognizable certification. Yet another projected change in our education and workforce system. What will those options be? Who will provide those options? What role does adult education have in this process?

12 Trends, Theories and Crime
Jobs in industries thought of as “low-wage” or for the “less educated,” are fewer in the high tech economy. But, service employment includes business, professional, entertainment, recreation, health, and education. Compared to manufacturing, these services require higher levels of education. What about poverty and crime?

13 Trends in Poverty for Non-Foreign Born Americans
This slide further shows the effect of nativity status on poverty rates across the U.S. from 1994 to Although the poverty rate has been declining for all groups, the rate for Native born is far less than that of immigrants and recent immigrants, with recent immigrants having the highest poverty rate of about 23%. For Native born, poverty rates went from less than 15% in 1994 to 10% in 2000 Poverty rates for Immigrants went from more than 25% to about 17%, and Recent immigrants went from 34% to about 23%. EPI Economic Policy Institute—Author’s analysis of March population survey data U.S. Poverty Rates of Nativity Status,

14 Trends, Education and Poverty
Family income does impact children’s academic readiness and academic success Parents in poverty for both native and non-native residents is a determinant of the percent of children in poverty Only the children of college graduates have avoided increased poverty rates Poverty status is related to problems of crime, recidivism, and reentry. Summarizing the information on education and poverty… Family income has an impact on children’s academic readiness and academic success – the higher the income level of the family the greater the academic abilities of the child entering kindergarten. Poverty rates are higher among families where the parents are immigrants. And, the level of poverty among families with less than a college degree is higher today than in the past. “Only the children of college graduates have avoided increased poverty rates.”

15 Crime Rates

16 Demographics and Crime
Parent’s criminal history does have an effect on children’s involvement Ethnic minorities (African-American, Latino) are at a higher risk for arrest, incarceration and poor reintegration and reentry once returned to their neighborhoods. Source: BJS, Corrections Surveys, 2006)

17 Jail Facilities At midyear 2004, 713,990 inmates were held in the Nation's local jails, up from 691,301 at midyear 2003. In 2004, jails reported adding 19,132 beds during the previous 12 months, bringing the total rated capacity to 755, % of the rated capacity was occupied at midyear 2004. In Indian country on June 30, 2003, 70 facilities were operating with the capacity to hold 2,222 persons. These jails held 1,826 inmates in custody and supervised an additional 82 persons in the community. At midyear 2004 Prison and Jail populations: The Nation's prisons and jails incarcerated over 2.1 million persons. In both jails and prisons, there were 123 female inmates per 100,000 women in the United States, compared to 1,348 male inmates per 100,000 men. A total of 2,477 State prisoners were under age 18. The number of inmates in custody in local jails rose by 22,689; in State prison by 15,375; and in Federal prison by 10,000.

18 Part II

19 Exercise Define Recidivism Define Reintegration Define Reentry
What is the value of research? How should policy makers use research to make decisions about jail operations and management? Do you use research in your work?

20 The Problem Crime control policies resulted in “record numbers” being incarcerated in federal and state institutions (GAO Report, 2001). Although serving longer sentences than “a decade ago,” many are not serving life sentences and will return to their/our neighborhoods (GAO, 2001) Offenders released from correctional facilities (jails and prisons), face challenges that seem insurmountable to reintegration back into our neighborhoods. The racial differences in the crime rate are one of the most controversial areas of the criminal justice system Employment, education and imprisonment trends are related to theories of crime. The R’s have an effect on communities and ex-offenders: LiteRacy, WoRk, Recidivism, Reentry and Reintegration.

21 Time Served: Return To Our Community is Certain
Source: Gaines & Miller, 2005

22 Doing Time In The Neighborhood: Probation In America
Source: Gaines & Miller, 2005

23 Related Policy and Research
On March 28, 1990, Senate Hearing on ISL and DSL, organized by Dr. Garth-James for Senator Kenneth Maddy (deceased), heard expert testimony that examined the relationship between sentencing laws and sentencing purposes (punishment, rehabilitation). Research in the 1990’s, revealed California faced the challenges of sentencing and housing lower-level custody “non-violent” offenders to secure facilities: In the mid-1990s, the Little Hoover Commission released several reports that examined the crime control strategy of prevention and urged that it be made “more of a priority;” and that juvenile and adult corrections consider rehabilitation programs (education, vocational training, counseling and treatment) effect on and successful reintegration. Public policy such as passage of the Substance Abuse and Crime Prevention Act of 2000 (Proposition 36) amended sentencing laws to divert drug offenders (convicted of possession of one gram of cocaine) from incarceration (prison/jails) to community-based treatment alternatives. Policies created new felony categories which amended sentencing laws to divert “non-violent” offenders (property, burglary) and drug offenders from prison to local custody (jails).

24 Crime Trends Today Crime, Race, and Poverty
The highest crime rates in the United States are consistently recorded in the low-income, urban neighborhoods with the highest unemployment rates, Lack of education, another handicap most often faced by low-income citizens, also seems to correlate with criminal activity, Official crime data seem to indicate a strong correlation between minority status and crime: African Americans are overrepresented in arrest-, crime-, and victimization rates.

25 Policy, Research and Recidivism
In s, Recidivism studies indicate an association between education and crime and employability and crime: Texas CJ Policy Council evaluates prisoner education and vocational programs and “prospects” for lowering recidivism rates reveal positive association (C.E., 2002) . The Forensic Case Management Program investigated jail recidivism factors and found that ex-offenders (clients) were “likely to be returned to jail” if mentally ill, homeless, and formerly incarcerated in a large urban facility” (Health & Social Work, 1995) University of Massachusetts at Dartmouth, research on expanding degree-granting higher-education programs to jailed inmates “greatly reduced recidivism” (Chronicles, 1992). In West Virginia, Marshall University research findings at Huntsville Correctional Facility, indicate prisoners enrolled in GED and vocational training reported a recidivism of 6.71%; no educational participants recidivism rate was 26% (C.E.,2003). Syracuse University research of 100 women in New York Correctional facility and enrolled in vocational plumbing program, found that “ the program emphasized self-esteem, hands-on work, building confidence, literacy” leading to reduction in recidivism through re-arrest, re-incarceration. In 2004, the Russell Sage and National Science Foundations supported the research found in “Impact of Incarceration on Wage Mobility and Inequality,” which indicates the “mass incarceration of low-education” ethnic minorities “conceals the unemployment and inequality in wages” for this population (p.2).

26 Education and Employment Policy
In 1990s, federal policies created the Workforce Investment Act to replace the JTPA(1980s) with emphasis on: Employment training (or re-training) for adults (Title I) Adult Literacy for “the most in need” and “hardest to serve” adults (Title II, Sections 231 and Section 225, for educating the incarcerated, with nearly $600 million dollars.

27 Employment and Education Policy In California
California WIA, Title I, supports One-Stops services employment training and retraining for clients. California WIA, Title II, Section 231/225 grant totals about $78 million to serve 1.4 million adults (278 literacy providers). In 2003, the Public Policy Institute of California, released a report that supports the policy purposes and findings of the federal governments: Demographic “determinants of education” is the “single most” important factor to understand why ethnic/racial minority adults have low literacy. (62% of men and 63% of women have not completed 9-12 grade/no diploma, p. 3). There is “rising” value of education and employment training to the California labor market. Ex-offenders are part of that labor market.



30 Do Offenders Need Literacy?
Immigration Policy, focus on security, education and employment training of immigrant (incarcerated) adults. The Refugee Resettlement Act allocates millions of dollars for integration services that include adult literacy and employment training, some are former lawbreakers. Federal Law for Adult Literacy (WIA, Even Start, Barbara Bush Foundation Grant), including families of ex-offenders. Research from the National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAALs) Survey 2003, indicates 63 million adults have literacy deficiency and a “significant” number are incarcerated. In August, 2005, Focus on Basics Connecting Research to Practice, dedicated the entire volume to corrections education research and understanding how long-term outcomes for ex-offenders returned to our communities with literacy and employment training can improve chances for employment.

31 Jail Population In California
At the end 2003, California county jails housed about 76,000 inmates (see chart). Source: Jail Profile Annual Report, 2003, California Board of Corrections.

32 Correctional Education In California
In , there are 32 WIA, Title II, Section 225 programs operating in local jails, or a halfway house, and community college prisoner transition program. In , state-funding for Jail Education totaled nearly $14 million.

33 California Jail Education
Access to postsecondary education has become increasingly important for economic success. The enrollment of jail inmates in adult education courses has increased from 41,000 respectively in , to over 50,000 in (see bar chart). Source: Comprehensive Student Assessment System Data (CASAS) Data, 2004.

34 Nearly One-Fourth (1/4) Of the Jail Inmates In Adult Education Are Age 16-30 Years
Source: CASAS Data, 2004

35 Nearly Thirty Percent (30%) of Jail Inmates in Adult Education Speak Spanish

36 Nearly Half of the Jail Inmates Have Less Than 12 Years Of Schooling
Source CASAS Data 2004

37 More Than Half Of The Jail Inmates Are Enrolled In A Career Technical Certificate Program
Source: CASAS Data 2004

38 Part III Education Reduces Crime

39 Making The Case For Educators To Develop Stronger Relationships With Sheriff’s
Good Relationships Depend On You Agency Capacity Intensity and Duration (instruction and curriculum) Data Reporting and Performance (Learning Gains) Funding Budget Technology Working around Lock-downs Public Policy and Community Support Partnerships Do Work

40 Making The Case For Sheriffs Working Effectively With Educators: Understanding Constraints on Offender Education Programs Overcrowding in correctional facilities. Routines as lock-downs and head counts interrupt training. Inadequate funding for offender education and vocational programs. Inadequate equipment and materials for training programs (Paul, 1991; C.E., 2002). Inadequate teachers, problems with guards and lack of administrative support. Offenders and ex-offenders have poor attitude about literacy and work training. Transportation, transitory life-style interrupt services. Lack of family and community support. Peer pressure to continue as predator versus contributor.

41 Making The Case For Coordination: Understanding How The Jail Facility Effects Offender Education and Reentry

42 Making The Case For Community Involvement: Addressing The Concerns of Recidivism

43 Making The Case For Opportunity: The Ex-offender Returns To The Neighborhood
Ex-offender Reentry Success: What Can Teachers Do? Successful literacy and vocational programs are learner centered. Use learners strength to shape their learning by sharing results. Help with realistic goal-setting. What learning gains can the inmate learner achieve in 3, 6 months? One year? Motivate, build confidence and esteem. Recognize that prisoners have high incidence of disabilities, low academic skills and other challenges. Use standardized assessments to accurately pinpoint the literacy deficiencies and accomplishments of the learner. Use computer-assisted instruction and vocational programs. Help keep prisoners connected and on track to literacy and employment training success when they are released back into the community. Ex-offender Reentry Success: What Can Media, Public and Policy Makers Do? Recognize offenders are returning to our communities either as predators or contributors. Advocate politicians pass and vote for smart policy that support reentry (family reunification services, victims support, adult literacy, employment training) and improves ex-offenders readiness to come back home.

44 Making The Case For Opportunity: The Ex-offender Returns To The Neighborhood
Ex-offender Reentry Success: What Can Sheriffs and Probation Officers Do? Use the literacy providers in the community as partners such as the Literacy Network, Nonprofit literacy providers, Community Colleges, Library Literacy, and the Adult Schools. Consider expanding employment opportunities such as vocational training and prison industries—i.e. privatized workshops and programs located in the jails. Coordinate with educators scheduled activities that might interrupt education (lockdowns, other) Use EC 1900 to establish Adult Education programs in your county jail. Encourage offenders to work on their literacy skills

45 Making The Case For Education in Jails
What can educators do? Work with the county sheriffs to establish Adult Education programs in jails pursuant to the Education Code Sections 1900 and Budget Item XXX-158 Structure education activities using evidence-based curricula and teaching methods Stress realistic goal-setting so that the offender participates in tracking their learning Coordinate education activities with deputies ( elicit their support)

46 Making A Case For Accountability
Ex-offender Reentry Success: What Can Business Do? Establish meaningful partnerships with corrections and build joint ventures work shops behind bars that offer marketable job skills training to offenders. Use the joint venture laws to provide training that is hands-on, builds confidence, addresses attitudinal concerns, and pays marketable wages with appropriate deductions.

47 Making The Case For Coordinating With Stakeholders
Ex-offender reentry, what can probation and community organizations do? Remember that probation and community organizations (drug abuse recovery service providers, literacy providers, faith-based service providers) can help reduce the harmful destabilizing effect upon the ex-offender’s return to the neighborhood. Probation should coordinate support services for the ex-offender upon reentry.

48 Bridges * HOPE * Fathers *Elk Grove Jail Women Aftercare
Summary Assessing policy and research about the 3Rs of Recidivism, Reentry and Reintegration and connection to work helps Make The Case For Corrections Education Programs In County Jails Bridges * HOPE * Fathers *Elk Grove Jail Women Aftercare Should the success of Literacy, Work programs be solely judge by recidivism? END. THANK YOU

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