Presentation on theme: "Assessment and Design Anthropometry Physiology of Work"— Presentation transcript:
1Assessment and Design Anthropometry Physiology of Work Ergonomic/Anthropometric AssessmentDesign of Work
2AnthropometryThe science of measurement and the art of application that establishes the physical geometry, mass properties, and strength capabilities of the human body (Roebuck, 1993)Anthropos = humanmetricos = measurementUses/applications for measurementDesign, criminology, medical practice, personnel selection
3What defines the human being anthropometrically? Physical MeasurementsWide range of sizesProportions of various body dimensionsMobilityStrengthsHuman Sensing and Performance CapabilitiesPhysiologyPsychology of Comfort and Perceptione.g., three dimensional spatial locations of the eyes so as to determine what can be seen and thereby identify obstructions that limit vision and cause error
4Anthropometry helps to Evaluate postures and distances to reach controlsSpecify clearances separating the body from hazards such as surrounding equipmentIdentify objects or elements that constrict movementAssess the biomechanical forces and torques during manual material handling , operator fit in vehicles, accommodation comfort, and general human performanceAssist in the design of tools to be grasped and handles that can be grasped or readily operatedHelp clothing designers develop better fitting garments and make it easier for clothing buyers and military quartermasters to know how many of what sizes to procureProvide numerical data permitting a person’s body dimensions to seat heights, breadths, depths, and support angles (studies have shown that ranges of these values correlate closely with comfort/discomfort according to the activity performed in the seat.
5History of Anthropometry An outgrowth of physical anthropologyDeveloped 200 years ago to distinguish among the races and ethnic groups of humans, identify criminals, and aid in medical diagnosisMore recently used in developing engineering design requirements and evaluation of modern vehicles, work sites, equipment, and clothing (Roebuck, Kroemer, and Thompson, 1975), evaluations of cockpits and clothing were strongly supported and determined by military needs during and following World War II (Hertzberg, 1955)Many modern applications are to commercial and civilian equipment, vehicles, and clothing (CAD Modelling, 1992; Czaja, 1984; Roe, 1992; Sanders and Shaw, 1985).
6History of Anthropometry Anthropometric studies are fairly infrequent and lack the prominence in academic anthropology – tend to be more technical papersConsidered a developing science where certain aspects of he subject matter of anthropometry qualify it as an historical science (anthropometric surveys are in many ways historical events and can never be repeated in exactly the same way, even on the same people due to developmental changes. Consequently, populations are frequently identified by year of measurement, by occupation, and by ethnic group.Body dimension surveys serve as benchmarks against which new survey data can be compared and can be used to trace and predict the microevolution of human groups.
7Electronic Modeling and New Measurement Technologies Technological innovations are changing the use of anthropometry in engineering applicationsComputer modeling of people as substitutes for living humans in computer-aided design (CAD) for human factors applicationsUse of new electronic imaging methods for measurement3-D visualization and statistical manipulation of body sizes and shapesWidespread attempts to develop graphical computer models of the human body forms and functionsBecoming a new design approach called “concurrent design” or “simultaneous engineering” (Boyle, Ianni, Easterly, Harper, and Korna, 1991; Majoros, 1990; Roebuck, 1991)Major goal is to complete engineering analyses before spending a large percentage of the project funds on construction of physical mockups, prototypes, or products (e.g., Boeing 777 and 787)Ergonomics today cannot rely as heavily on the responses and fit of living subjects in mockupsLeading to models of human responses and size variations into electronic models of humans
8Electronic measurement and modeling Focusing attention on past and current deficiencies of anthropometric data gathering, reporting and application methodsCreating new demands for more comprehensive, integrated data3-D measurements of body surface contours and landmarksLocation of internal joint centers of rotationDetermination of interjoint link lengths and orientationsNeed for data on the effects of changes in orientation, pressures on external surfaces on body flesh, environmental effects, clothing shape, and new concepts for body support
9Computer ModelingHistorically, it has been common to have different sets of data and models for each application area (e.g., work space or clothing)Developments in computer models and data-handling technologies offers new opportunities for using large, central mathematical databases and more integrated, comprehensive representations of the human formPotentially useful for design of clothing, work space, tools, and equipmentFrequently require more data than available from most surveysData need to be in three dimensions and to describe ranges of movement for jointsWhen a great deal of contour data are known (up to 5000 points), it has generally not been at the key cross-sections desired (passing through joints or a specified percentages of distance between joints) or related to internal links and joint centersLack of data and large individual differences result in contour data cannot be readily analyzed using conventional statistics
10New ApproachesDevelopment of typical sets of equations that describe general form functions common to many different peopleStandard sets of internal coordinate systems related to joint centers and vectors connecting themModelers hope to more completely specify body shape, size, and postures without incurring excessive cost to gather, analyze, and publish dataPotential to improve our understanding how the geometry of human bodies may be defined in terms of statistical variables and functional mechanisms
11Benefits Computer modeling offer enhancements to: Sports performance Design of personal protective gearDesign of clothingDesign of medical prostheses and medical equipmentDesign of tools and assembly jigsDesign of vehicle interiors
12Measurement Technology Started as simple body measurementsStandardization required focus on body landmarksUsefulness required understanding of joint movements, associated torques and stressesNew measurement techniques include use of lasers, stereo video, structured light, flying-spot light beam, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computer aided tomography (CAT) scanning, special X-ray methods, ultrasonic visualization, sonic digitization, movement measurement methodsMost new methods couple computers to sensors in ways that produce digitized data, points, and pixels located in three-dimensional space. Significantly more data than single or two dimension methods.New measurement capabilities complement new data needs but pose problems for comparing/understanding data produced by older, manual methods
13Knowledge and Skill Requirements Traditional measurement requires knowledge of anatomy, especially locations, names, and shapes of bones and musclesUnderstanding of how to read measurement scales, how to measure weights, how to handle instruments.Advanced technologies require understanding principles of electronics, lasers, photography, video devices necessaryStatistics knowledge to plan measurement surveys, reduce data and analyze data, forcast and estimate valuesHelpful to have successful planning experience dealing with prioritization of time and processes in an efficient and effective orderArtistic, line-drawing skills to depict measurement equipment and how it is used for scientific illustration
14Knowledge and Skill Requirements Knowledge of mathematics (algebra, geometry, and trigonometry), mechanical aspects of physics, mechanical engineering principles and practicesNeed to be able to read engineering orthographic drawings and understand the concepts of mass properties, force, and torqueTalent for visualizing geometric relationships and performing elementary design work for planning mockup evaluationsAbility to perform hands-on construction of models, special measurement devices, full-scale mockups from a variety of materialsSince many techniques require touching people and directing their movements to assume certain postures, need to be able to explain your activity in a credible mannerMust be able to develop a friendly relationship with subjects while maintaining a professional attitude
15Planning for Measurements Fundamental requirement when selecting measurements and methods is to plan ahead to satisfy users of the data producedImagine future applicationsPerform task analyses on future uses of the dataAsk potential users what they need (face to face or use of questionaireAfter list of perceived needs is compiled, creative methods to estimate some dimensions may be developed to help limit the number and kind of dimensions to be measured (use the systems approach)
16Remember that most anthropometric measurements represent samples taken at one point in time (cross-sectional survey). Rarely are individuals tracked in a longitudinal surveySequential surveys will reveal changes in means, variabilities, correlations, and proportions of body parts that may be caused by attrition from death, illness, disinterest, aging, selection, or dietary changes.Remember there are significant changes in proportions of different racial and ethnic groups surveyed at different times that may affect body proportion averagesRemember to consider these changes not only when deciding on sampling procedures but also when assessing the accuracy and meaning of available anthropometric data. This is especially important with regard to age brackets because of relatively rapid changes during youth and extreme age
17Elements of a Measurement Plan Varying degrees of planning requiredFacilities, subjects, paperwork to recruit subjects, legal release of data, purchasing or building instruments/equipment, obtaining services of those who will measure/analyze dataScheduling transport, arranging for housing, feeding, sanitation, and thermal comfort of subjects; scheduling and distribution of work of the measurers, checking data before entry into records, recording data efficiently
18Facilities Private space for disrobing Adequate room for stands, jigs, chairs, desks, and other furnishingsStorage of instruments and suppliesWorkload and time required at each station (if more than one) for balanced, smooth flow of subjects through facilityTo limit confusion caused by audible reading of instructions and measurements, recommend use of separate rooms when more than one subject being tested at the same time
19EquipmentMeasuring team must obtain/have available anthropometric instruments and chairs, tables, jigs, and fixtures in a sufficient number for each measuring site plus sparesComputers at each station for checking and recording data (eliminates transcription of dataForms, recording sheets, other supplies may also be needed
20Checking Software and Procedures Remember, every measurement instrument made by human beings is subject to error.Misread scalesTransposed digitsJudgment/roundingSubjects may make inadvertent motions or measures may be inconsistent based on the pressure applied (Gavan, 1950). There are tables of expected and acceptable variations in measurement for each dimension (Gordon, 1988; Gordon and Bradmiller, 1992) as well as accuracy summaries of various scales
21Procedures (continued) Desirable to perform each measurement twice and compare the results to see if the readings are the same or acceptably closeComputers and some software available allow comparison of detected measurements against detected measurements to identify potential errors. Software may also accumulate data as measuring proceeds and develop a continually updated prediction of expected population statistical extremes (e.g., 2-3 standard deviations) for each dimension measured.As collection continues, software may be able to calculate dispersion values around average trends (regressions of one dimension on one or more others). (Churchill, et al., 1988).May consider regression formulas to test for outliers or deviant measures to be expected in a population of measures
22PersonnelEach measuring site typically requires two people: one to record and one to conduct measurements.If complicated adjustments are required, a third technician may be needed.Best if a female measurer works with female subjects and a male conducts measurements on male subjects especially when measurements are made in sex-sensitive areasMay consider a receptionist to manage scheduling and appearance times, for paperwork management, and for answering questions at the beginning of the measuring process.Subject selection is a key concern and may require several recruiters.
23TrainingMeasurers need to be trained in proper techniques and tested to assure the principal investigator that all are using the same techniquesConsistancy among measures requires hours of practice. PI needs to check that each measurer will obtain the same results with repeated measures.Training time will depend on new skills to be learned and personnel background.May consider preparing a videotape of the measurement methods as a more feasible and cost effective method of trainingVideo taped records of measuring may also serve as an effective supplement to written documentation of methods used in the survey and can be very helpful in standardizing data (Gordon et al., 1989a, 1989b). This becomes increasingly important with large surveys.
24SchedulingThe number and relative complexity of measurements should be divided equitably among the measuring teams to make efficient use of their time and ensure a smooth flow of subjectsCommonly the measurer and recorder alternate tasks after a suitable period (say an hour) to reduce fatigue and boredomScheduling should consider procedures for ensuring health and safety.When direct contact methods are used, provisions should be made to prevent the transmission of disease. Instruments should be wiped with alcohol before each useConsider giving subjects disposable paper slippers and washable shorts
25Administrative Concerns Need to consider and resolve and problems with:pay (unless volunteers are used)Lines of authorityPermission to use buildings and roomsScheduling of work hoursEnsure that the planning efforts are carried out through effective and timely actions by all involved in the surveys
26What to Measure?When planning an anthropometric survey, developers are faced with conflicting goals in deciding what parts and attributes to measure.Industrial Applications – workplace designBody segment lengths and heightsSome breadthsSome depthsFew circumferencesClothing Design/Size DistributionsCircumferencesSurface areasFew lengths and heights
27Physiological Studies VolumesDensitiesAreasComputer Modeling – workspace design/manual materials handlingJoint centers of rotationInter-joint link lengths relative to skin surfacesOffsets in relation to consistent, 3D coordinate systems
28Regardless of the measurement devices/media used, the question of what to measure for engineering anthropometry MUST include posturesStanding postureStandard upright sitting postureCertain postures that permit maximum reach with the arms and legsFuture needs for the location of joint centers may dictate several different postures for each joint that can be flexed or extended in order to locate effective centers of joint rotation.Ideally, a full set of contours for the entire body should be scanned in several postures to provide details of body cross-sections so that joint centers of rotation can be derived.Models incorporating a full set of contours for the whole body may prove useful in many different applicationsThese ideas have rarely been achieved due to the constraints of time, money, and available technologyIf contour data are not gathered, measures should obtain many more depths, breadths, and offsets than is typical of current practice.
29Historical Practice and Measuring Standards Standard measurements needed for comparative purposes and forecasting trendsIdeas about which dimensions should be standard have gradually changed with purposes of anthropometric measurementsMajor shift in goals for the use of data away from purely scientific studies of differences among peoples of various parts of the world toward engineering applications (which are also changing
30Surveys done by/for the USAF present high quality documentation Good for teaching about commonly used measurement methods and instrumentsFrequently include text and illustrations of techniques with line drawings and photographsAnthropometric Standardization Reference Manual (Lohman, Roche, and Martorell, 1988) is a more readily accessible commercial publicationBook includes pictures and illustrationsEmphasizes measurements of interest for sports medicine and performance rather than design of work space and clothing
31“What are the accepted standards for measurement naming, measurement selection, and measurement methodology?”Titles of landmarks and measurement methods written in German by Martin (1928) and later revised (Martin and Knussman, 1988; Martin and Saller, 1957) (out of print).Certain general approaches to establishing names for dimensions have evolved and appear consistently throughout the literature on physical and engineering anthropometry.Various compilations but little consensus“Anthropometric Source Book” (NASA, 1978a,b,c)Electronic Human Modeling (CSERIAC, 1991) workshop but mainly concerned with medical imaging and software communication standards rather than anthropometry for design
32Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) held meetings (1990) for setting standards and naming anthropometric dimensions, performing measurements, and selecting a preferred minimum list of measurementsVarious source books (Donelson and Gordon, 1991; Gordon et al., 1989a,b; Clauser et al., 1987) illustrate the various landmarks (key features marked on the body prior to measurement) used to identify locations of underlying bone featuresAlthough many measurements are common to all past large-scale military surveys, some notable exceptions influence applications of data to design (e.g., Waist Height and Buttock-Heel Length)
33Waist HeightEither of two easily confusable measurements may sometimes be erroneously listed simply as Waist HeightDimension name should indicate which of two common landmarks was used for the Waist Height measurementNaval (omphalion in some reports)Natural Indentation – place where the middle portion of the trunk is narrowest (as seen from front or back) and where the circumference is generally smallest). Difficult to locate on very obese persons (often resulting in arbitrary decisionOften easy to locate on military personnelCan be defined as half the between the 10th rib and top of the pelvis (iliocristale)Place an elastic cord with round cross section, adjust its length to apply moderate tension, release tension, cord will see the height with the smallest circumference) – height then marked and circumference measured with a tape.
34Buttock – Heel LengthA subtle problem relating to definition of measurement and postures used in measuring and the ultimate use of the data used.Buttock-leg length, buttock-heel length, functional leg length, total leg length.CAD generate models and drafting manikins is a theoretical upright sitting posture with legs fully extended forward at the knee would be desirable (note, upper and lower legs in alignment and the sum of the distances from heel to hip joint (approximately equal to Trochanteric Height) could be subtracted from Buttock-Leg length to determine horizontal location of the hip jointKnee bent posture is more realistic when back is uprightMen cannot actually achieve the extended posture when sitting with a hip angle of 90 degrees (mean is 2.3 cm longer than the theoretical length with sd of .64 greater
36Clauser is yet another solution but introduces error in average length of perhaps 2.2 cm depending on the angle of the leg from horizontalPerhaps consider Idealized Buttock-Heel length by adding Buttock-knee length to Flexed knee-heel length, standing (which can be either difference between Stature and Kneeling Height to determine Flexed Knee-heel Length standing.Issues of sitting heights are lack of weight on the heal pads and joints and subtle leaning postures involved in stable standing orientations that can produce small changes in overall length.Joints measured landmark to landmark are often slightly longerWith increased accuracy requirements come more careful and detailed attention to effects of posture and gravitational load on differences between landmarks.
38SummaryFor each population, you must read the descriptions of how the measurements were madeResearchers and writers dealing with anthropometry shouldAttempt to use standard methods when possibleAccurately describe each measurement method used, especially if it is unusual or if no commonly recognized standard is available;Locate all such descriptions together in reports and handbooks so that they can be readily compared.
42AssignmentNext time we meet, be prepared to conduct some anthropometric dimension measurementsEach of you should be dressed or be prepared to change into some athletic clothing, preferably thin cloth (like running pants)You should be prepared to be both a “Subject”, a “Measurer”, and a “Data Collection Agent”We will shift roles as we measure various anthropometric dimensions