Presentation on theme: "Thought and Language (PS) 264-271. Discuss with your partner. Someone leaves a beautiful puppy at your door. You don’t like animals, but you know it would."— Presentation transcript:
Thought and Language (PS)
Discuss with your partner. Someone leaves a beautiful puppy at your door. You don’t like animals, but you know it would be a great birthday present for your 7 year-old child. He loves animals and so does your husband/wife. However, you know that your apartment is too small and they aren’t careful enough to take care of the puppy so you will probably end up taking care of and cleaning it. What would you do? (PS)
BASIC FUNCTIONS OF THOUGHT:
INFORMATION PROCESSING SYSTEM Approach that studies human thought processes and compares them with the way computers process information. Thinking is defined as the manipulation of mental representations. Incoming stimulus Stage 2 PERCEPTION (description) (elaboration) Stage 3 DECISION MAKING (Planning) Stage 4 RESPONSE SELECTION (Action) Stage 5 RESPONSE EXECUTION (Action) Stage 1 SENSORY PROCESSING
INFORMATION-PROCESSING SPEED: Reaction Time Mental chronometry: timing of mental events Reaction time: time elapsing between stimulus and response - complexity: if you have a large number of possible responses, then your reaction time will be longer. - stimulus-response compatibility: if the spatial relationship between your stimuli and possible response are not compatible, then your reaction time will be slower. - expectancy: if you already expect some kind of stimulus, your reaction time will be faster. - speed-accuracy tradeoff: your errors will increase in a task if you try to respond quickly. On the other hand, if you try for an error- free performance, your reaction time will increase.
MENTAL REPRESENTATIONS: The ingredients of thought. – PROCESS OF THOUGHT MENTAL CHRONOMETY » describe ( reaction time) » elaborate » decide » plan » act WHAT? Information 1. Cognitive maps 2. images 3. concept schemas and scripts 4. propositions.
1.COGNITIVE MAPS (conceptual, mind, sketch) Cognitive maps: mental representations of familiar parts of your world. Experience shapes cognitive maps. Maps are not accurate copies of the environment; they include systematic distortions.
2. IMAGES Images are mental representations of visual information. Manipulations performed on images of objects are very similar to those that would be performed on the objects themselves. The more and finer details in question, the longer the response time takes.
3. CONCEPT SCHEMAS and EVENT SCRIPTS. They’re a way of thinking about the world that encodes the meaning of things. Through the manipulation of concepts, which are categories of objects, events, or ideas with common properties. – concrete and visual – abstract – artificial – natural When you have a concept. You recognize the properties, relationships or features that are shared by and define the members of a category Scripts: schemas about familiar sequences of events or activities
PROPOSITIONS Mental representations of relationships between and among concepts, the smallest units of knowledge that can stand as a separate assertion. Spoken or unspoken Describe relationships between concepts Describe the relationship between a concept and its properties
Verb “to be” Simple present Simple past Past continuous Present perfect Vocabulary -Parts of the body -Parts of the house -Feelings -Family relationships -Verbs