Presentation on theme: "Integrated Pest Management for Food Safety, Food Security and Sustainability Karel Bolckmans Director Global Research & Development Lunch Debate with PAN."— Presentation transcript:
Integrated Pest Management for Food Safety, Food Security and Sustainability Karel Bolckmans Director Global Research & Development Lunch Debate with PAN E and DG AGRI Brussels, March 24 th, 2011
Introduction KOPPERT : Biocontrol-based IPM and pollination ( 1967) IBMA : International Biocontrol Manufacturers Association ( 1995) IOBC : International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants ( 1955)
Case Study : Almeria, Spanje
What was going on ? Key Pests in Sweet Peppers 1.Western Flower Thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV) 2.Whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) 3.Two-spotted Spider Mites (Tetranychus urticae) Pesticide Resistance
The vicious spiral Agronomic problems –Resistance –Resurgence : pesticide induced pest outbreaks Hormoligosis Elimination of natural enemies Leads to –Increasing application frequency –Increasing dose rates –Use of illegal pesticides Leads to –More pest problems –Increasing residue levels Leads to –Increasing environmental impact –Decreasing Food Safety 1.Agronomic problem 2.Environmental problem 3.Food Safety problem
Challenging dogma’s “If the only tool you know is a hammer, every problem looks like a nail”
Management by Objectives Retailers taking the lead with extra-legal requirements 1.Safety margin : x% below MRL 2.Adding up residu’s from the same group 3.Black listed pesticides 4.Maximum number of active ingredients IPM became the only way out Necessity is the mother of invention !
Integrated Pest Management “A system that keeps harmfull organisms below the economic damage level based on ecologically, economically and toxicologically acceptable methods, taking into account the specific ecology of crops as well as harmfull organisms.” (IOBC, 1973) strategy, systems approach uses integrated combination of different tactics to : –prevent (hygiëne, exclusion, …) and –manage (mechanical, biological, cultural, agronomic, …) populations of harmful organisms. chemical control = last resort IPM ≠ Intelligent Pesticide Marketing ! biocontrol is part of IPM, alongside other non-chemical methods (IPM is more than only “products” !)
Biological Control “The action of parasites, predators and pathogens in maintaining another organism’s acitivity at a lower average than would occur in their absence” (Debach, 1964) uses biological agents (natural enemies) (parasites, predators, pathogens) to manage pest populations below an acceptable level (economic damage threshhold)
Biological Control 1.Classical Biological Control Introduction of ecologically adapted natural enemies from the area of origin of the target pest. 2. Conservation Biological Control Conservation of natural enemies in the ecosystem using cultural practices or habitat management to enhance their activity. 3. Augmentative Biological Control Releasing mass-reared natural enemies.
IPM Toolbox TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.INTRODUCTION2 1.1 GOAL2 1.2 FRAMEWORK2 1.3 THE THREE PILLARS OF IPM2 2.DEVELOPMENT OF BASIC KNOWLEDGE3 2.1 PESTS, DISEASES AND WEEDS3 2.2 PLANT PROTECTION PRODUCTS3 2.3 TRAINING4 3.TOOLS FOR IPM BEFORE PLANTING4 3.1 RISK ASSESSMENT4 3.2 PREVENTION5 4.TOOLS FOR IPM DURING CROPPING6 4.1 PREVENTION6 4.2 MONITORING AND DECISION SUPPORT TOOLS7 4.3 INTERVENTION8 5.TOOLS FOR IPM POST-HARVEST POST-HARVEST TREATMENTS STORAGE AND TRANSPORTATION11 REFERENCES12
3.1. RISK ASSESSMENT History of the plot Surrounding crops and vegetation Soil and water samples Analysis and Evaluation of the Risk Assessment 3.2. PREVENTION Soil : creating and maintaining fertile and suppressive soils by : crop rotation, fallow, green manure, soil biodiversity, managing erosion, non- chemical soil-desinfection, clean-tillage or sanitation of crop residues, … Water : clean water, optimal irrigation and fertigation Plants resistant varieties adapted to local growing conditions, resistan rootstock, pest- and disease-free starting material, plant density Climate : warning systems based on climate models Timing of planting & growing Location, plot selection TOOLS FOR IPM BEFORE PLANTING
4.1. PREVENTION Cleanliness of the farm (Hygiene and Sanitation) Prevent transmission of pests, diseases and weeds by vectors, people, equipment, materials and by managing crop residues Prevent pesticide drift from neighbouring plots Cultural and Technical Measures Optimal crop care (fertilization, irrigation,etc.) Canopy management and micro-climate Cropping system : cover crops, mixed crops, strip cropping, strip harvesting, permaculture, fallow field margins,... Mulching Induced resistance against pests and diseases Other technical measures : exclusion techniques, etc Conservation Biological Control Measures to increase populations of natural enemies and pollinators in and around the crop Provide nesting places for predatory birds to control rodents. Prevent population reduction of natural enemies by using pesticides. TOOLS FOR IPM DURING CROPPING
4.2. MONITORING AND DECISION SUPPORT TOOLS Organisation Observation Record keeping Warning Systems and Decision Tools Evaluation / Decision making TOOLS FOR IPM DURING CROPPING
4.3. INTERVENTION Mechanical / Physical Control (e.g. roughing, vacuuming, UV-C, TPC,...) Semiochemicals : mass-trapping, mating disruption Augmentative Biological Control Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) Use of natural and environmentally friendly products (“Biopesticides”) Smart use of Chemical Plant Protection Products 1)Monitoring, Warning Systems, Decision making, Action Thresholds 2)Product Selection 3)Adjuvants 4)Anti-resistance management 5)Application : Precision Agriculture 6)Nominate a person who is responsible for application of crop protection products. TOOLS FOR IPM DURING CROPPING
Prototype UV-C applicator
Thermal Pest Control (TPC)
Sterile Male Technique
5.1. POST-HARVEST TREATMENTS Selection of techniques and products (chemical, biological, technical) Application technique Record of applications 5.2. STORAGE AND TRANSPORTATION Monitoring Prevention Intervention TOOLS FOR IPM POST-HARVEST
Warm Water Treatment
2.1. PESTS, DISEASES AND WEEDS List of relevant pests, diseases and weeds in the target crop for the specific area – region or country Basic information (fact sheets) about the biology of the relevant pests, diseases and weeds and about their natural enemies PLANT PROTECTION PRODUCTS List of pesticides which can be legally applied against the relevant pests, diseases and weeds in the target crop Basic information (fact sheets) plant protection products 2.3. TRAINING 2.4. EXTENSION DEVELOPMENT OF BASIC KNOWLEDGE
What happened with the sweet peppers from Almeria ?
Biocontrol-based IPM Amblyseius swirskii
The Pesticide Policy Paradox Plus –Removal of harmful pesticides –Stronger registration requirements –MRL’s –Promotion of sustainable use of pesticides Minus –Extension Services are disappearing –Dwindling research on crop protection, which is too much focused on biotechnology alone.
A new Green Revolution Green Revolution 1.0 productivity 1.Plant Breeding 2.Irrigation 3.Chemical Pesticides Green Revolution 2.0 productivity + sustainability !!! 1.Plant Breeding 2.Soil & Water Management 3.Integrated Pest & Disease Management (IPM)
Chemical Pesticides are killing pest ánd innovation into other crop protection methods !