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Karel Bolckmans Director Global Research & Development

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1 Integrated Pest Management for Food Safety, Food Security and Sustainability
Karel Bolckmans Director Global Research & Development Lunch Debate with PAN E and DG AGRI Brussels, March 24th, 2011

2 Introduction KOPPERT : Biocontrol-based IPM and pollination (1967)
IBMA : International Biocontrol Manufacturers Association (1995) IOBC : International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants (1955)

3 Case Study : Almeria, Spanje

4 Key Pests in Sweet Peppers
What was going on ? Key Pests in Sweet Peppers Western Flower Thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV) 2. Whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) 3. Two-spotted Spider Mites (Tetranychus urticae) Pesticide Resistance

5 The vicious spiral Agronomic problems Leads to Resistance
Resurgence : pesticide induced pest outbreaks Hormoligosis Elimination of natural enemies Leads to Increasing application frequency Increasing dose rates Use of illegal pesticides More pest problems Increasing residue levels Increasing environmental impact Decreasing Food Safety Agronomic problem Environmental problem Food Safety problem

6 ?

7 Challenging dogma’s “If the only tool you know is a hammer, every problem looks like a nail”

8 Wake-up call Greenpeace Germany Report MRL exceedances
Illegal pesticides

9 Protest and Desperation

10 and Hope …

11 Necessity is the mother of invention !
Management by Objectives Retailers taking the lead with extra-legal requirements Safety margin : x% below MRL Adding up residu’s from the same group Black listed pesticides Maximum number of active ingredients  IPM became the only way out Necessity is the mother of invention !

12 Integrated Pest Management
“A system that keeps harmfull organisms below the economic damage level based on ecologically, economically and toxicologically acceptable methods, taking into account the specific ecology of crops as well as harmfull organisms.” (IOBC, 1973) strategy, systems approach uses integrated combination of different tactics to : prevent (hygiëne, exclusion, …) and manage (mechanical, biological, cultural, agronomic, …) populations of harmful organisms. chemical control = last resort IPM ≠ Intelligent Pesticide Marketing ! biocontrol is part of IPM, alongside other non-chemical methods (IPM is more than only “products” !)

13 Biological Control uses biological agents (natural enemies)
“The action of parasites, predators and pathogens in maintaining another organism’s acitivity at a lower average than would occur in their absence” (Debach, 1964) uses biological agents (natural enemies) (parasites, predators, pathogens) to manage pest populations below an acceptable level (economic damage threshhold)

14 Biological Control Classical Biological Control
Introduction of ecologically adapted natural enemies from the area of origin of the target pest . 2. Conservation Biological Control Conservation of natural enemies in the ecosystem using cultural practices or habitat management to enhance their activity. 3. Augmentative Biological Control Releasing mass-reared natural enemies.


16 IPM Toolbox TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2 1.1 Goal 2
1.2 FrameworK 2 1.3 The three pillars of IPM 2 2. Development of Basic Knowledge 3 2.1 Pests, diseases and weeds 3 2.2 Plant Protection Products 3 2.3 Training 4 3. Tools for IPM before Planting 4 3.1 Risk assessment 4 3.2 Prevention 5 4. Tools for IPM during Cropping 6 4.1 Prevention 6 4.2 Monitoring and Decision Support Tools 7 4.3 Intervention 8 5. Tools for IPM Post-harvest 11 5.1 Post-harvest treatments 11 5.2 Storage and Transportation 11 References

17 Tools for IPM before Planting
3.1. Risk assessment History of the plot Surrounding crops and vegetation Soil and water samples Analysis and Evaluation of the Risk Assessment 3.2. Prevention Soil : creating and maintaining fertile and suppressive soils by : crop rotation, fallow, green manure, soil biodiversity, managing erosion, non-chemical soil-desinfection, clean-tillage or sanitation of crop residues, … Water : clean water, optimal irrigation and fertigation Plants resistant varieties adapted to local growing conditions, resistan rootstock, pest- and disease-free starting material, plant density Climate : warning systems based on climate models Timing of planting & growing Location, plot selection

18 Tools for IPM during Cropping
4.1. Prevention Cleanliness of the farm (Hygiene and Sanitation) Prevent transmission of pests, diseases and weeds by vectors, people, equipment, materials and by managing crop residues Prevent pesticide drift from neighbouring plots. Cultural and Technical Measures Optimal crop care (fertilization, irrigation ,etc.) Canopy management and micro-climate Cropping system : cover crops, mixed crops, strip cropping, strip harvesting, permaculture, fallow field margins, ... Mulching Induced resistance against pests and diseases Other technical measures : exclusion techniques, etc. Conservation Biological Control Measures to increase populations of natural enemies and pollinators in and around the crop Provide nesting places for predatory birds to control rodents. Prevent population reduction of natural enemies by using pesticides.

19 Tools for IPM during Cropping
4.2. Monitoring and Decision Support Tools Organisation Observation Record keeping Warning Systems and Decision Tools Evaluation / Decision making

20 Tools for IPM during Cropping
4.3. Intervention Mechanical / Physical Control (e.g. roughing, vacuuming, UV-C, TPC, ...) Semiochemicals : mass-trapping, mating disruption Augmentative Biological Control Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) Use of natural and environmentally friendly products (“Biopesticides”) Smart use of Chemical Plant Protection Products Monitoring, Warning Systems, Decision making, Action Thresholds Product Selection Adjuvants Anti-resistance management Application : Precision Agriculture Nominate a person who is responsible for application of crop protection products.

21 Bladversnipperaars

22 Removing leaves

23 Prototype UV-C applicator

24 Thermal Pest Control (TPC)

25 Sterile Male Technique

26 Pheromones

27 Tools for IPM Post-harvest
5.1. Post-harvest treatments 5.1.1 Selection of techniques and products (chemical, biological, technical) Application technique Record of applications 5.2. Storage and Transportation 5.2.1 Monitoring 5.2.2 Prevention 5.2.3 Intervention

28 Warm Water Treatment

29 Development of Basic Knowledge
2.1. Pests, diseases and weeds List of relevant pests, diseases and weeds in the target crop for the specific area – region or country. Basic information (fact sheets) about the biology of the relevant pests, diseases and weeds and about their natural enemies. 2.2. Plant Protection Products List of pesticides which can be legally applied against the relevant pests, diseases and weeds in the target crop. Basic information (fact sheets) plant protection products 2.3. Training 2.4. EXTENSION

30 What happened with the sweet peppers from Almeria ?

31 Biocontrol-based IPM Amblyseius swirskii




35 The Pesticide Policy Paradox
Plus Removal of harmful pesticides Stronger registration requirements MRL’s Promotion of sustainable use of pesticides Minus Extension Services are disappearing Dwindling research on crop protection, which is too much focused on biotechnology alone.

36 A new Green Revolution Green Revolution 1.0 Green Revolution 2.0
 productivity Plant Breeding Irrigation Chemical Pesticides Green Revolution 2.0  productivity + sustainability !!! Soil & Water Management Integrated Pest & Disease Management (IPM)

37 are killing pest ánd innovation into other crop protection methods !
Chemical Pesticides are killing pest ánd innovation into other crop protection methods !

38 Systems Approach

39 Green Revolution 2.0 Requires : Legislation Extension
Research & Innovation

40 Our Ultimate Resource is Human Inventiveness

41 Thank you !

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