# Science and Technology II Lab Exam. Basic Lab Equipment Beaker Graduated cylinderTest tubeHot plate Triple beam balanceErlenmeyer Flask.

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Science and Technology II Lab Exam

Basic Lab Equipment Beaker Graduated cylinderTest tubeHot plate Triple beam balanceErlenmeyer Flask

Lab Reports Purpose (why are we doing the lab?) Hypothesis (educated guess as to what will happen) Materials (everything you need to use) Procedure (step by step instructions) Results (table, graph, drawing) Conclusion (what did you learn?)

Which is the best procedure? Option 1: First, we poured 50 ml of water into the graduated cylinder and then we added it to the 100 ml of vinegar that was in the beaker. Option 2: 1. Measure 100 ml of vinegar in a beaker. 2. Measure 50 ml of water in a graduated cylinder. 3. Add the water to the vinegar.

MicroscopesMicroscopes To find the total magnification of the specimen being viewed, multiply the eyepiece magnification (10) by the objective lens magnification. Example: If the objective lens is set to 40, then the toak magnification will be 10 x 40 = 400x This means the specimen looks 400x bigger than it really is.

Always 10x4x, 10x, or 40x

MassMass We use a triple beam balance to measure the mass of an object. The units is grams (g). 373.4 g

If we are measuring the mass of a liquid, we need to subtract the mass of the container from the total mass.

Volume: Solids A rectangular prism can be measured using a ruler. Volume = length x width x height = 3 x 2 x 2 = 12 cm3

Volume: Irregular Solids If a solid cannot be measured with a ruler, use the water displacement method. 40-30= 10 ml

Volume: Liquids Use a graduated cylinder Put the cylinder on a flat surface Read under the meniscus 19.8 ml

MicroscopesMicroscopes To find the total magnification of the specimen being viewed, multiply the eyepiece magnification (10) by the objective lens magnification. Example: If the objective lens is set to 40, then the total magnification will be 10 x 40 = 400x This means the specimen looks 400x bigger than it really is.

CellsCells Plant cells are rectangular and stuck together like bricks. Animal cells are circular and often spread out.

Plant CellsAnimal Cells NucleusCell wall Cytoplasm Cell membrane

DiffusionDiffusion The movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Examples: food colouring spreading in water, room spray filling up a room, the smell of dinner cooking meets your nose in your bedroom...

SolutionSolution A solution is a mixture. In it, the substance that gets dissolved is called the solute. The substance that does the dissolving is called the solvent. Example: mixing water with Kool-Aid powder Solute = Solvent = Solution = Kool-Aid powderWaterThe Kool-Aid drink

Chromatography Lab Chromatography is a separation process used to uncover the underlying elements or colours in a substance. We used it to test if the red of autumn leaves was always present or if the red appeared in autumn. We found out that the green chlorophyll covers the rest of the colours in the summer but fades away in the autumn to reveal the colours which were hidden all along.

Flower Reproduction Plants and trees that produce flowers reproduce sexually. Flowers have both male and female gametes in their reproductive organs.

States of Matter

Change of State

Acids and Bases Nature Red Litmus paper Blue Litmus paper pH paper Example AcidRedRed 0 - 6.9 Vinegar BaseBlueBlue 7.1 - 14 Baking soda NeutralRedBlue7Water

Acids and Bases Litmus paper and pH paper are both indicators. They tell you if a substance is an acid, a base, or neutral. Litmus paper only tells you if the substance is an acid or base. pH paper tells you the strength of the acid or base.

MixturesMixtures Heterogeneous Mixture The different phases are visible Homogeneous Mixture The different phases are NOT visible

SolutionSolution A solution is a mixture. In it, the substance that gets dissolved is called the solute. The substance that does the dissolving is called the solvent. Example: mixing water with Kool-Aid powder Solute = Solvent = Solution = Kool-Aid powderWaterThe Kool-Aid drink

Separation Processes Evaporation: heating up a solution to allow the solvent to evaporate. (Example: salt + water) Sedimentation and Decantation: allowing the mixture to separate over time and then pouring off the top layer. (Example: oil + vinegar)

Filtration: pouring the mixture through a filter to trap the bigger particles. (Example: sand + water) Distillation: Making use of different boiling points to separate a mixture and collect both liquids. (Example: water and rubbing alcohol)

TemperatureTemperature Know how to read a thermometer The boiling point of water is 100 C The melting point of water is 0 C

ElectrolysisElectrolysis Electrolysis is the splitting of water into its component elements: hydrogen and oxygen. Since the formula for water is H2O, there will be twice as much hydrogen as oxygen after it is split. For example, if there are 22 ml of hydrogen after the reaction, there should be ____ ml of oxygen. 11

After the oxygen and hydrogen are split, you can test which gas is which: If you place a glowing splint into the test tube and it re-ignites, it is oxygen. If you place a flaming splint into the test tube and you hear a pop, it is hydrogen.

Physical Changes No new substance No breaking of bonds Change of state Change of shape

Chemical Changes A new substance is formed Bonds are broken. Proof: 1.Hot or cold 2.Light 3.Precipitate 4.Effervescence 5.Colour change

Conservation of Mass Reaction between vinegar and baking soda. Mass of the inputs = mass of the outputs (since we trapped the CO2) confirming that the mass was conserved. If we had allowed the gas to escape, the mass would have ________ decreased

MineralsMinerals A mineral is a solid, inorganic substance found in the Earth's crust. Has a definite chemical composition. Measured on the Mohr's hardness scale.

Shovel Design Plan

TemperatureTemperature Know how to read a thermometer The boiling point of water is 100 C The melting point of water is 0 C

SoilSoil The different types of soil can be analyzed based on porosity, density, and alkalinity. An acidic soil turns litmus paper red and has a pH between 1 and 6.9 An basic (or alkaline) soil turns litmus paper blue and has a pH between 7.1 and 14 A neutral soil keeps litmus paper it's original colour and has a pH of 7

Transmission of Motion Gears, pulleys, friction wheels, belt and pulley and chain and sprocket are all transmission systems. This means they transmit the same type of motion from one part of a system to another. Gears and friction wheels make each consecutive piece rotate in the opposite direction: cw ccw

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