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1 Islam History, Culture and Religion Slide Presentation Part Five Click on Arrows to Move Between Slides

2 Producing the Qur’an "Alif Laam Raa. A book which we have revealed to you (Muhammad) so that you may lead the people from out of the darknesses into the light by their Lord's leave to the path of the All-Mighty, the Praiseworthy.“ Sura 14:1 “The Qur'an is a Message from Allah to humanity. It was transmitted to us in a chain starting from the Almighty Himself (swt) to the angel Gabriel to the Prophet Muhammad (saas). This message was given to the Prophet (saas) in pieces over a period spanning approximately 23 years (610 CE to 622 CE). The Prophet (saas) was 40

3 years old when the Qur'an began to be revealed to him, and he was 63 when the revelation was completed. The language of the original message was Arabic, but it has been translated into many other languages.” http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/quran. (Univ So. Calif).http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/quran “The Qur'an is one leg of two which form the basis of Islam. The second leg is the Sunnah of the Prophet (saas). What makes the Qur'an different from the Sunnah is primarily its form. Unlike the Sunnah, the Qur'an is quite literally the Word of Allah, whereas the Sunnah was inspired by Allah but the wording and actions are the Prophet's. The Qur'an has not been expressed using any human's words. Its wording is letter for letter fixed by no one but Allah.” “Prophet Muhammad (saas) was the final Messenger of Allah to humanity, and therefore the Qur'an is the last Message which Allah has sent to us. Its predecessors such as the Torah, Psalms, and Gospels have all been superceded. It is an obligation - and blessing - for all who hear of the Qur'an and Islam to investigate it and evaluate it for themselves. Allah has guaranteed that He will protect the Qur'an from

4 Ultra Violet Photo of Manuscript human tampering, and today's readers can find exact copies of it all over the world. The Qur'an of today is the same as the Qur'an revealed to Muhammad (saas).”

5 Qur’an Manuscript As Found

6 Brief History of Compilation of the Qur'an Adapted from an article in Perspectives, Vol 3, No. 4, Aug/Sept 1997 During the life of the Prophet (saas) (570-632 CE) The Prophet (saas) used to recite the Qur'an before angel Jibreel (Gabriel) once every Ramadan, but he recited it twice (in the same order we have today) in the last Ramadan before his death. Jibreel also taught the Prophet (saas) the seven modes of recitation. Each verse received was recited by the Prophet, and its location relative to other verses and surahs was identified by him. The verses were written by scribes, selected by the Prophet, on any suitable object - the leaves of trees, pieces of wood, parchment or leather, flat stones, and shoulder blades. Scribes included Ali Ibn Abi Talib, Mu'awiyah Ibn Abi Sufyan, Ubey Ibn Ka'ab, Zayed Ibn Thabit. Some of the companions wrote the Qur'an for their own use. Several hundred companions memorized the Qur'an by heart.

7 During the caliphate of Abu Bakr (632-634 CE) Umar Ibn Al-Khattab urged Abu Bakr to preserve and compile the Qur'an. This was prompted after the battle of Yamamah, where heavy casualties were suffered among the reciters who memorized the Qur'an. Abu Bakr entrusted Zayed Ibn Thabit with the task of collecting the Qur'an. Zayed had been present during the last recitation of the Qur'an by the Prophet to Angel Jibreel (Gabriel). Zayed, with the help of the companions who memorized and wrote verses of the Qur'an, accomplished the task and handed Abu Bakr the first authenticated copy of the Qur'an. The copy was kept in the residence of Hafsah, daughter of Umar and wife of the Prophet This is the claim for “inspired” or “God given” words in the Qur’an and the basis for the claim that the Qur’an is “Exactly” as God originally gave it to Muhammad.

8 THE INITIAL COLLECTION OF THE QUR'AN TEXT 1. THE QUR'AN'S DEVELOPMENT DURING MUHAMMAD'S LIFETIME. A study of the compilation of the Qur'an text must begin with the character of the book itself as it was handed down by Muhammad to his companions during his lifetime. It was not delivered or, as Muslims believe, revealed all at once. It came piecemeal over a period of twenty- three years from the time when Muhammad began to preach in Mecca in 610 AD until his death at Medina in 632 AD. The Qur'an itself declares that Allah said to Muhammad: "We have rehearsed it to you in slow, well-arranged stages, gradually" (Surah 25.32). Furthermore no chronological record of the sequence of passages was kept by Muhammad himself or his companions so that, as each of these began to be collected into an actual surah (a "chapter"), no thought was given as to theme, order of deliverance or chronological sequence. It is acknowledged by all Muslim writers that most of the surahs, especially

9 the longer ones, are composite texts containing various passages not necessarily linked to each other in the sequence in which they were given. As time went on Muhammad used to say "Put this passage in the surah in which so-and-so is mentioned", or "Put it in such-and-such a place" (as -Suyuti, Al Itqan fii Ulum al-Qur'an, p.141). Thus passages were added to compilations of other passages already collected together until each of these became a distinct surah. There is evidence that a number of these surahs already had their recognised (sic) titles during Muhammad's lifetime, as from the following hadith: “The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) (in fact) said: Anyone who recites the two verses at the end of Surah al-Baqara at night, they would suffice for him.... Abu Darda reported that Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: If anyone learns by heart the first ten verses of the Surah al-Kahf, he will be protected from the Dajal. (Sahih Muslim, Vol. 2, p.386).”

10 “As the Qur'an developed Muhammad's immediate companions took portions of it down in writing and also committed its passages to memory. It appears that the memorisation (sic) of the text was the foremost method of recording its contents as the very word al-Qur'an means "the Recitation" and, from the very first word delivered to Muhammad when he is said to have had his initial vision of the angel Jibriil on Mount Hira, namely Iqra - "Recite!" (Surah 96.1), we can see that the verbal recitation of its passages was very highly esteemed and consistently practised (sic). Nevertheless it is to actual written records of its text that the Qur'an itself bears witness in the following verse: It is in honoured scripts (suhufin mukarramatin), exalted, purified, by the hands of scribes noble and pious. Surah 80.13-16. “Regarding the written materials there are no records as to exactly how much of the Qur'an was reduced to writing during the lifetime of Muhammad. There is certainly no evidence to suggest that anyone had actually compiled the whole text of the Qur'an into a single

11 manuscript, whether directly under Muhammad's express authority or otherwise, and from the information we have about the collection of the Qur'an after his death (which we shall shortly consider), we must rather conclude that the Qur'an had never been codified or reduced to writing in a single text.” “Muhammad died suddenly in 632 AD after a short illness and, with his death, the Qur'an automatically became complete. There could be no further revelations once its chosen recipient had departed. While he lived, however, there was always the possibility that new passages could be added and it hardly seemed appropriate, therefore, to contemplate codifying the text into one harmonious whole. Thus it is not surprising to find that the book was widely scattered in the memories of men and on various different materials in writing at the time of Muhammad's decease.” Quoted from the web page of Answering Islam at http://answering- islam.org/Gilchrist/Jam/chap1.html

12 “Aishah said: A man got up (for prayer) at night, he read the Qur'an and raised his voice in reading. When morning came, the Apostle of Allah (saw) said: May Allah have mercy on so-and-so! Last night he reminded me a number of verses I was about to forget. (Sunan Abu Dawud, Vol. 3, p.1114). Here it is implied that Muhammad himself had forgotten some of the Qur’an. Islam’s answer is that God made him do it. “Let us conclude this section. Zaid, quite obviously one of the companions of Muhammad who had an outstanding knowledge of the Qur'an, set about collecting its text so as to produce as genuine and authentic a codex as he possibly could. His integrity in this undertaking is not to be questioned and we may accordingly deduce from all the evidences he consulted that the single Qur'an text he finally presented to Abu Bakr was a basically authentic record of the verses and suras as they were preserved in the memories of the reciters and in writing upon various materials.”

13 “The evidences, however, do not support the modern hypothesis that the Qur'an, as it is today, is an exact replica of the original, nothing lost or varied. There is no evidence of any interpolation in the text and such a suggestion (occasionally made by Western writers) can be easily discounted, but there are ample evidences to indicate that the Qur'an was incomplete when it was transcribed into a single text (as we have already seen) and that many of its passages and verses were transmitted in different forms…” “Before closing our study on the collection of the Qur'an during the caliphate of Abu Bakr it is important to study the brief mention made by Zaid of the two verses which he said he found only with Abu Khuzaimah al-Ansari. The full text of the hadith on this subject reads as follows: I found the last verse of Surat at-Tauba (Repentance) with Abi Khuzaima al-Ansari, and I did not find it with anybody other than him. The verse is: 'Verily there has come to you an Apostle from amongst yourselves. It grieves him that you should receive any injury or difficulty... (till the end of Bara'a)'. (Sahih al-Bukhari, Vol. 6, p.478).”

14 The Holy Qur’an Today the Qur’an may be found in many forms and bindings from many volumes with commentary to single books.

15 The Design of the Qur’an  It is written in Arabic (Arabic is read left to right).  It is divided into surahs (chapters) and ayat (verses).  There are 114 surahs and 6,000 ayats.  Surahs are arranged according to length, not chronologically.  The longer surahs are the later “revelations”.  Each surah is given a different name, which is not a part of the text, such as “The Cow,” “The Star,” “The Ant.”

16 We must not choose to test God. Testing God is a great sin and there is a command against it in the Bible: Do not test the LORD your God (Deuteronomy 6:16, NIV). However, while we must not test God, God does command us to test prophets. Test the Text, Not God For false Christs and false prophets will appear and perform great signs and miracles to deceive even the elect--if that were possible. See, I (Jesus) have told you ahead of time. (Matthew 24:24-25, NIV). Do not believe every spirit, but test the spirits to see whether they are from God, because many false prophets have gone out into the world (1 John 4:1, NIV).

17 Muhammad claimed to be a prophet of God Christians cannot reject his claim as impossible because Christians believe that God has sent prophets. But this does not mean that Christians must blindly accept that Muhammad is a prophet, that would be foolish and disobedient, instead we are commanded to test prophets to determine whether they are from God. Muhammad may be a true prophet or he may be a false prophet. We must test him to see which he is.

18 The Qur'an makes three claims as to why Muhammad is a true prophet. These claims are "testable". These claims are: 1.The Qur'an confirms the teaching of the Jewish and Christian Scriptures (Usually meaning the Torah and the Gospels). 2.The Qur'an makes clearer the teaching of the Jewish and Christian Scriptures. 3.Muhammad is foretold in the Jewish and Christian Scriptures. by examining his prophecy to see whether it is true. The prophecy of Muhammad is recorded in the Qur'an, so we need to test what the Qur'an says to see whether Muhammad is a true prophet. We test a prophet

19 Does the Qur’an Verify the Bible? Confirming the Scripture? In the Qur'an there are many references to the Jewish Talmud and the Bible. The Qur'an addresses Christians and Jews in terms of the Book: O People of the Book! Surah 5:68. The Qur'an claims that it confirms the teaching of these “former” Books: O ye People of the Book! Believe in what We have (now) revealed, confirming what was (already) with you… Surah 4:47. The Qur'an teaches that there are faithful Christians and Jews: Not all of them are alike: Of the People of the Book are a portion that stand (for the right); they rehearse the Signs of Allah all night long, and they prostrate themselves in adoration. They believe in Allah and the Last Day; they enjoin what is right, and forbid what is wrong; and they hasten (in emulation) in (all) good works: They

20 are in the ranks of the righteous. Of the good that they do, nothing will be rejected of them; for Allah knoweth well those that do right Surah 3:113-115. Nearest among them in love to the Believers wilt thou find those who say, "We are Christians": Because amongst these are men devoted to learning and men who have renounced the world, and they are not arrogant Surah 5:85. According to the Qur'an, the faithful Christians and Jews did not do what the unfaithful did; they obeyed their Scriptures and worshipped God. But what about their Scriptures? Does the Qur'an consider the Scripture of the Jews and Christians to have been corrupted by the actions of the Unfaithful? Or has it been preserved by the Faithful? Does the Qur'an consider that only part of their Scripture now contains truth?

21 O ye who believe! Believe in Allah and His Apostle, and the scripture which He hath sent to His Apostle and the scripture which He sent to those before (him). Any who denieth Allah, His Angels, His Books, His Apostles, and the Day of Judgement, hath gone far, far astray Surah 4:136. We believe in Allah, and in what has been revealed to us and what was revealed to Abraham, Ismail, Isaac, Jacob, and the Tribes, and in (the Books) given to Moses, Jesus, and the Prophets, from their Lord: We make no distinction between one and another among them Surah 3:84. Those who follow the Messenger (Mohammed), the Prophet who can neither read nor write, whom they will find described in the Torah and the Gospel (which are) with them Surah 7:157. And when there cometh unto them (Jews) a Scripture (the Qur'an) from Allah, confirming that in their possession. Surah 2:89.

22 This Koran is not such as can be produced by other than Allah; on the contrary it is a confirmation of (revelations) that went before it, and a fuller explanation of the Book. Surah 10:37. Verily this Koran doth explain to the Children of Israel most of the matters in which they disagree. Surah 27:76. The Qur'an is not referring to Scripture that Jews and Christians use to possess in the past, but now are lost. Rather, the Torah given to Moses, and the Gospel given to Jesus, is the Scripture that is with them (the Christians and Jews) and in their possession at the time of Muhammad. The Qur'an sees itself as the guardian of the message of all Scripture: To thee We sent the Scripture in truth, confirming the scripture that came before it, and guarding it in safety. Surah 5:48. DOES THE QUR’AN CONFIRM THE BIBLE?

23 In the Gospel Jesus very clearly taught that Christians are not to fight for their religion. His apostles also taught the same: (T)urn the other cheek... love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you. (Matthew 5:39, 44). Put back your sword in its place... for all who draw the sword will die by the sword. (Matthew 26:52) For our struggle is not against flesh and blood, but against the rulers, against the authorities, against the powers of this dark world and against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly realms. (Ephesians 6:12). The Qur'an says that the Gospel taught that fighting for God (religion) is acceptable. (T)hey fight in the way of God; they kill, and are killed; that is a promise binding upon God in the Torah, and the Gospel, and the Koran Surah 9:112.

24 In the Bible the punishment for stealing is that the thief must repay the property he stole plus an additional amount to compensate (Leviticus 6:1-5, Exodus 22:3-4). If the thief cannot repay then he is forced to work to repay his debt (Exodus 22:1). The maximum length of time that he can work is six years, then he must be released (Deut. 15:12- 14). This type of justice is property punishment for a property crime. In the Qur'an however a thief is to have his hand cut off: As for the thief, both male and female, cut off their hands. Surah 5:38. This type of punishment is a permanent lifelong physical punishment for a property crime. The Qur'an's teaching in no way confirms the Bible's teaching.

25 Remarrying the Same Woman In Deut. God commanded Moses that a man must not remarry his wife if after leaving him she has married another man. In fact God said it is detestable to do such a thing. …her first husband, who divorced her, is not allowed to marry her again after she has been defiled. That would be detestable in the eyes of the LORD. (Deut. 24:1-4). The Qur'an allows a man to remarry his wife when after leaving him she has been married another man: And if he hath divorced her (the third time), then she is not lawful unto him thereafter until she hath wedded another husband. Then if he (the other husband) divorce her it is no sin for both of them that they come together again. Surah 2:230. What the Qur'an allows, the Bible teaches is detestable. Obviously, the Qur'an does not confirm the Bible.

26 Marrying More Than One Wife “Marry women of your choice, Two or three or four; but if ye fear that ye shall not be able to deal justly (with them), then only one, or (a captive) that your right hands possess, that will be more suitable, to prevent you from doing injustice.” Surah 4:3. “Nevertheless, because of sexual immorality, let each man have his own wife, and let each woman have her own husband.” I Cor. 7:2 Jesus said, "For this reason a man shall leave his father and mother and be joined to his wife, and the two shall become one flesh.” Matt. 19:5 quoted from Genesis 2:24. No confirmation!

27 The Death of Jesus In the Bible Jesus clearly taught that he would die and be raised from the dead: “From that time on Jesus began to explain to his disciples that he must go to Jerusalem and suffer many things at the hands of the elders, chief priests and teachers of the law, and that he must be killed and on the third day be raised to life.” (Matthew 16:21). Jesus also said that his death and resurrection was what the prophets before him had foretold: He said to them, "This is what I told you while I was still with you: Everything must be fulfilled that is written about me in the Law of Moses, the Prophets and the Psalms." Then he opened their minds so they could understand the Scriptures. He told them, "This is what is written: The Christ will suffer and rise from the dead on the third day, and repentance and forgiveness of sins will be preached in his name to all nations, beginning at Jerusalem. (Luke 24:45-47)

28 The Qur'an teaches about the death of Jesus on the cross it says that he never really died! "We (the Jews) slew the Messiah, Jesus son of Mary, the Messenger of God" - yet they did not slay him, neither crucified him, only a likeness of that was shown to them.... and they slew him not of certainty - no indeed; God raised him up to Him; God is All-mighty, All- wise. Surah 4:156-157. Jesus taught that his death on the cross was to pay for our sins and that it was part of God's work that he came to perform. The Qur'an says that Jesus' death on the cross is no death at all. That He really did not die, “no indeed.” Obviously, the Qur'an does not confirm the Bible on this most important point.

29 “For I determined not to know anything among you except Jesus Christ and Him crucified.” I Cor. 2:2 “But God forbid that I should boast except in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom [by which ] (the cross) the world has been crucified to me, and I to the world.” Galatians 6:14. “And about the ninth hour Jesus cried out with a loud voice, saying, "Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani?" that is, "My God, My God, why have You forsaken Me?“ Matthew 27:46 If not Jesus on the cross, then who? Islam says it was Judas! The Bible Account

30 Does the Qur’an make the Bible Clearer? In the Qur'an one of Noah's sons did not come into the ark: And Noah called to his son, who was standing apart (from the ark), "Embark with us, my son, and be thou not with the unbelievers!" He said, "I will take refuge in a mountain, that shall defend me from the water."... And the waves came between them and he was drowned. Surah 11:42-43. The Bible records in great detail the plagues that God sent upon Egypt. This can be found in Exodus Chaps. 7-11. The Qur'an says: So we let loose upon them the flood and the locusts, the lice and the frogs, the blood, distinct signs; but they waxed proud and were a sinful people. Surah 7:130/133. This is just wrong; a flood was not one of the plagues that God sent on Egypt.

31 The Sacrifice of Abraham The Bible states that Abraham offered Isaac as God commanded. Islam teaches that Abraham offered Ishmael and that the promise of God comes to man through Ishmael. Does the Qur’an clear up this obvious contradiction?

32 Abraham's sacrifice The Bible teaches very clearly that Abraham was commanded to offer his son Isaac as a sacrifice to God: “He took with him two of his servants and his son Isaac.... When they reached the place God had told him about, Abraham built an altar there and arranged the wood on it. He bound his son Isaac and laid him on the altar, on top of the wood. Then he reached out his hand and took the knife to slay his son. But the angel of the LORD called out to him from heaven, "Abraham! Abraham!" "Here I am," he replied. "Do not lay a hand on the boy," he said. "Do not do anything to him. Now I know that you fear God, because you have not withheld from me your son, your only son." (Genesis 22:1-12, NIV) The rest of the Bible also teaches clearly that Isaac was the son that Abraham offered in sacrifice: By faith Abraham, when God tested him, offered Isaac as a sacrifice. He who had received the promises was about to sacrifice his one and only son. (Hebrews 11:17, NIV) Was not our ancestor Abraham considered righteous for what he did when he offered his son Isaac on the altar? (James 2:21, NIV).

33 The account of Abraham's sacrifice is also told in the Qur'an. However the account is not very clear. In particular the identity of the son is not explicitly stated. We gave him (Abraham) news of a gentle son. And when he reached the age when he could work with him, his father said to him: "My son, I dreamt that I was sacrificing you. Tell me what you think." He replied, "Father, do as you are bidden. God willing you shall find me steadfast." And when they had both submitted to God, and Abraham had laid down his son prostrate upon his face, We called out to him saying: "Abraham, you have fulfilled you vision." Surah 37:99-104. Since the identity of Abraham's son is not mentioned, this has led to all types of confusion for the Muslim community. Al-Tabari is one of Islam's greatest historians of the Qur'an. He freely admits that the early Muslim theologians were not sure which son Abraham offered, some thought it was Isaac, others that it was Ishmael. In fact Al-Tabari even says that there are reliable hadiths (reports) from Muhammad some of which say it was Isaac and others which say it was Ishmael.

34 This confusion, caused by the Qur'an, comes to a climax with the Muslim festival of Eid-ul-Adha. This festival occurs during the annual pilgrimage to Mecca. At this festival an animal is sacrificed to remember the time when Abraham offered, not Isaac, but his son Ishmael. The Bible clearly teaches that the son Abraham offered was Isaac. The Qur'an does not say who the son was, but the result of the Qur'an's unclear teaching is that Muslims reject the clear teaching of the Bible and instead think that the son was Ishmael even though there is not evidence for this from the Qur'an. Again we see that what was clearly taught in the Bible is confused by the Qur'an and has led to confusion and disagreements between Muslims and Jews and Christians. Thus the Qur'an's claim to explain more clearly the Bible is seen to be false yet again.

35 The LORD declares to you (David) that the LORD himself will establish a house for you: When your days are over and you rest with your fathers, I will raise up your offspring to succeed you, who will come from your own body, and I will establish his kingdom. He is the one who will build a house for my Name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. I will be his father, and he will be my son. (2 Samuel 7:11-14, NIV) When Jesus came to the region of Caesarea Philippi, he asked his disciples, "Who do people say the Son of Man is?"... Simon Peter answered, "You are the Christ (Messiah), the Son of the living God." (Matthew 16:13-16, NIV) Throughout the Qur'an it denies that Jesus is the Son of God yet mistakenly still calls him the Messiah. The Messiah, Jesus son of Mary, was no more than God's apostle and his Word which He cast to Mary Surah 4:171.

36 The Jews say, Ezra is the "Son of God"; the Christians say, "The Messiah is the Son of God." That is the utterance of there (sic) mouths, conforming with the unbelievers before them. God assail them! How they are perverted. Surah 9:30. They say: "God has begotten a son" God forbid! Surah 10:68. The Qur'an shows no understanding of the meaning of the title "Son of God". In the Qur'an it means nothing more than to imply that God had sex, and as we have seen from the Bible this is not what the title means. In the Qur'an Jesus is given the title of Messiah and yet denied the title of the Son of God; the Bible clearly teaches that both of these titles go together. Again we see that what was clearly taught in the Bible is confused by the Qur'an and has led to confusion and disagreements between Muslims and Christians. The Qur'an claims to make clearer the teaching of the Bible but this claim is false. It does not make clearer the Bible's teaching, in fact it only confuses it.

37 Terms and Abbreviations P.B.U.H. These letters are abbreviations for the words Peace Be Upon Him which are the meaning of the Arabic expression " 'Alaihis Salam", which is an expression that is said when the name of a prophet is mentioned. S.A.A.S. / S.A.W.S. These letters are abbreviations for the words "Salla Allahu 'Alaihi Wa Sallam", which means : may the blessing and the peace of Allah be upon him. When the name of Prophet Muhammad is mentioned, a Muslim is to respect him and invoke this statement of peace upon him. S.W.T. These letters are abbreviations for the words of "Subhanahu Wa Ta'ala". When the name of Almighty Allah is pronounced, a Muslim is to show his respect to Him. The meaning of this statement is that Allah is purified of having partners or a son.

38 (sic) when found, usually in parentheses, it means that the word, phrase, number or statement is printed (or used) as it was found in the original text. It generally denotes a wrong use: e.g. the author’s translation, grammatical, textual or printing error. AS means "Alayhi Salam" in Arabic, which means "May Allah bless him“. RA means "Radiy Allahu Anhu" in Arabic, which means "May Allah be pleased with him". [Anha=her. Anhuma=them.] You may find some of these terms in the following material. They will not be read (since we are not Muslims).

39 Is Muhammad foretold in the Bible? Dr. Jamal Badawi in his leaflet called, Muhammad in the Bible quotes the following Qur'anic verse on his title page: Those who follow the Apostle (Muhammad), the unlettered Prophet, whom they find mentioned in their own Scriptures, in the Law (Torah) and the Gospel (Surah 7:157: Trans: Yusuf Ali). He then seeks to demonstrate that Muhammad is foretold in the Bible. 

40 Muhammad: The Prophet Like Unto Moses. Long (sic) time after Abraham, God's promise to send the long-awaited Messenger was repeated this time in Moses' words. In Deuteronomy 18:18, Moses spoke of the prophet to be sent by God who is: 1) From among the Israelites, "brethren", a reference to their Ishmaelite cousins as Ishmael was the other son of Abraham who was explicitly promised to become a "great nation". 2) A prophet like unto Moses. There were hardly any two prophets who were so much alike as Moses and Muhammad. Both were given comprehensive law code of life, both encountered their enemies and were victors in miraculous ways, both were accepted as prophets/statesmen and both migrated following conspiracies to assassinate them. Analogies between Moses and Jesus overlooks not only the above similarities but other crucial ones as well (eg. the natural birth, family life and death of Moses and Muhammad but not of Jesus...) Muhammad in the Bible

41 Dr. Badawi is right to refer to Deuteronomy 18:18 as a verse which predicts the coming of another prophet after Moses. This verse from Deuteronomy is part of the law that God gave to Moses. Here is the verse: “I will raise up for them a prophet like you (Moses) from among their brothers; I will put my words in his mouth, and he will tell them everything that I command him.” (Deuteronomy 18:18, NIV) The Bible actually tells us who the prophet of Deuteronomy 18:18 is. (Jesus said:) If you believed Moses, you would believe me, for he wrote of me. (John 5:46, RSV) Dr. Badawi (and Muslims) contend that the prophet who would be like Moses was Muhammad. Who is the prophet?

42 Peter said, “The God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, the God of our fathers, has glorified his servant Jesus. You handed him over to be killed, and you disowned him before Pilate, though he had decided to let him go. You disowned the Holy and Righteous One and asked that a murderer be released to you. You killed the author of life, but God raised him from the dead. We are witnesses of this.... Now, brothers, I know that you acted in ignorance, as did your leaders. But this is how God fulfilled what he had foretold through all the prophets, saying that his Christ would suffer. Repent, then, and turn to God, so that your sins may be wiped out, that times of refreshing may come from the Lord, and that he may send the Christ, who has been appointed for you--even Jesus. He must remain in heaven until the time comes for God to restore everything, as he promised long ago through his holy prophets. For Moses said, ‘The Lord your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among your own people; you must listen to everything he tells you. Anyone who does not listen to him will be completely cut off from among his people.’” (Acts 3:13-23, NIV)

43 “The Awaited Prophet Who Was To Come From Arabia. “Deuteronomy 33:1-2 combines references to Moses, Jesus and Muhammad. It speaks of God (i.e. God's revelation) coming from Sinai, rising from Seir (probably the village of Sa'ir near Jerusalem) and shining forth from Paran. According to Genesis 21:21, the wilderness of Paran was the place where Ishmael settled (i.e. Arabia, specifically Mecca). “Indeed the King James Version of the Bible mentions the pilgrims passing through the valley of Ba'ca (another name of Mecca) in Psalms 84:4-6. “Isaiah 42:1-13 speaks of the beloved of God. His elect and messenger who will bring down a law to be awaited in the isles and who "shall not fail nor be discouraged till he have set judgement on earth". Verse 11 connects that awaited one with the descendants of Ke'dar. Who is Ke'dar? According to Genesis 25:13, Ke'dar was the second son of Ishmael, the ancestor of the Prophet Muhammad.” Dr. Badawi in his leaflet Muhammad in the Bible.

44 These verses do not even mention revelation of any sort at all. So the verse is not even speaking about revelation. Secondly, Dr. Badawi has incorrectly identified two of the locations: he says that Se'ir is near Jerusalem. It is not. Se'ir is in the country of Edom (NBD) south of the Dead Sea while Jerusalem is to the north of the Dead Sea. Then he claims that the Wilderness of Paran is Mecca; again this is wrong. The Wilderness of Paran is about 200km south west of the Dead Sea (NBD) and is nowhere near Mecca! Next, Dr. Badawi refers to Psalm 84 and says that the Baca Valley is Mecca. The verse from Psalm 84 is: Blessed are the men whose strength is in thee, in whose heart are the highways to Zion. As they go through the valley of Baca they make it a place of springs; the early rain also covers it with pools. (Psalm 84:5-6, RSV). These verses only tell how pilgrims travel through the Baca Valley; they do not say that a Prophet will arise from there. Therefore, even if the Baca Valley of Psalm 84 is the same as the Bakkah of Mecca that does not prove that a

45 Prophet will arise from there. The Bible, however, uses valleys to describe our experience of God. In Psalm 23 there is the Valley of the Shadow of Death, in Joel 3:14 the Valley of Decision, and in Isaiah 22 the Valley of Vision. The word (Baca) is Hebrew for weep(ing) (NBD). So the Valley of Baca is literally translated the Valley of Weeping. In this Psalm it symbolizes the weeping and difficulties that pilgrims have to endure when they travel across harsh terrain on their pilgrimage. Then, Dr. Badawi claims that Isaiah 42:1-13, connects the awaited one with the descendants of Ke'dar. Let us consider some of these verses: Behold my servant, whom I uphold, my chosen, in whom my soul delights; I have put my Spirit upon him, he will bring forth justice to the nations... Sing to the LORD a new song, his praise from the end of the earth! Let the sea roar and all that fills it, the coastlands and their inhabitants. Let the desert and its cities lift up their voice, the villages that Kedar inhabits; let the inhabitants of Sela sing for joy, let them shout from the top of the mountains. Let them give glory to the LORD, and declare his praise in the coastlands. (Isaiah 42:1-12, RSV)

46 It is true that they are connected, but so too are the people of Sela. In fact, all people from the ends of the earth are connected and will praise God when he brings his chosen Servant. Isaiah 42 is not saying from which nation the Servant will come, as Dr. Badawi claims; it just tells us that many nations will praise God when his Servant does come. The Bible actually tells us who the Servant of Isaiah 42 is: “And many followed him (Jesus), and he healed them all, and ordered them not to make him known. This was to fulfil what was spoken by the prophet Isaiah: "Behold, my servant whom I have chosen, my beloved with whom my soul is well pleased. I will put my Spirit upon him" (Matthew 12:15-18, RSV). The Qur'an (Koran) Foretold In The Bible?... Was it another coincidence that Isaiah ties between the messenger connected with Ke'dar and a new song (a scripture in a new language) to be sang unto the Lord (Isaiah 42:10-11). More explicitly, prophesies Isaiah "For with stammering lips, and another tongue, will he speak to

47 this people" (Isaiah 28:11). This latter verse correctly describes the "stammering lips" of prophet Muhammad reflecting the state of tension and concentration he went through at the time of revelation. Another related point is that the Qur'an was revealed in piece-meals over a span of twenty-three years. It is interesting to compare this with Isaiah 28:10 which speaks of the same thing. Muhammad in the Bible Dr. Badawi teaches that when Isaiah 42:10 says: Sing to the LORD a new song, it is foretelling a scripture in a new language. This is a ridiculous interpretation of this verse. Firstly, there no mention of any scripture, new or old, in this verse, so how can it foretell the coming of any scripture? Secondly, Dr. Badawi makes the claim that the word song means language. The word song means song! Dr. Badawi teaches that Isaiah 28 foretells Muhammad's state of tension and concentration. What is the context of Isaiah 28? After the death of King Solomon, Israel engaged in civil war and the kingdom of Israel was divided between north and south. Ephraim was a major tribe of the northern kingdom. This kingdom began to worship two golden

48 calves (1 Kings 12:28). Moses had warned Israel that if they turn to other gods then: “The LORD will bring a nation (army) against you from afar, from the end of the earth, as swift as the eagle flies, a nation whose language you do not understand, a nation of stern countenance, who shall not regard the person of the old or show favor to the young.” (Deuteronomy 28:49-50, RSV) Isaiah 28 is God's reminder to faithless Ephraim (Northern Israel) that he is now going to send this army whose language you do not understand to punish Ephraim: “Woe to the proud crown of the drunkards of Ephraim... The proud crown of the drunkards of Ephraim will be trodden under foot... Nay, but by men of strange lips and with an alien tongue the LORD will speak to this people... that they may go, and fall backward, and be broken, and snared, and taken.” (Isaiah 28:1-13, RSV) This historical event happened in 722 B.C. when the Assyrian army conquered Israel; it has nothing to do with Muhammad's state of tension and concentration.

49 That Prophet - Paraclete - Muhammad.... In the Gospel according to John (Chapters 14,15,16) Jesus spoke of the "Paraclete" or comforter who will come after him, who will be sent by (sic) Father as another Paraclete, who will teach new things which the contemporaries of Jesus could not bear. While the Paraclete is described as the spirit of truth (whose meaning resemble Muhammad's famous title Al-Amin, the trustworthy) he is identified in one verse as the Holy Ghost (John 14:26). Such a designation is however inconsistent with the profile of that Paraclete... It was Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) who was the Paraclete, Comforter, helper. From Muhammad in the Bible The Greek word (paraclete) refers to someone who acts as a counsellor, a helper, an intercessor, or a representative for someone else. Jesus acted this way for his disciples as he taught them about God and begged God to be merciful to them. Jesus was the first Paraclete. However, Jesus promised that after he had returned to heaven, God would send another Paraclete to be with the disciples. Jesus said:

50 “And I will pray the Father, and he will give you another Counsellor (Paraclete), to be with you forever.” (John 14:16, RSV). Jesus then tells us that the Paraclete is the Holy Spirit: “These things I have spoken to you, while I am still with you. But the Counsellor (Paraclete), the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he will teach you all things.” (John 14:25-26, RSV). These are but a few of the examples that could be sited to show that the claims of Muhammad (and the Qur’an) that he is mentioned in the Bible are not true.

51 Whenever a Christian quotes the Bible to a Muslim in order to establish why he believes something, the Muslim almost always responds by saying, "BUT YOU CHANGED YOUR BIBLE." Let’s examine what the Qur’an says about the Bible. These VERSES FROM THE QUR’AN CLAIM THE TORAH AND THE GOSPELS WERE TRUE AND ACCEPTABLE AT THE TIME OF JESUS. Surah 19:12. God says, "`Oh Yahya! (John the Baptist) take hold of the Book with might': and We gave him wisdom as a child." Surah 3:48. The Angel Gabriel is speaking to Mary about Jesus before Jesus' birth and says: "And he (God) will teach him the book and wisdom and the Torah and the Gospel" Surah 66:12. "and Mary (Jesus' mother)...believed in the words of her Lord and His Books" You Changed the Bible

52 Surah 3:49-50. Jesus says, "I have come to you...attesting to (the truth of) what is between my hands of the Torah, and to make lawful to you a part of that which is forbidden to you." Surah 61:6. "And remember, Jesus, the son of Mary, said: `Oh Children of Israel! I am the apostle of God to you, confirming that which IS between my hands from the Torah...'" Surah 5:49. "And in their footsteps (of Moses and the Jews) We sent Jesus the son of Mary, attesting to (the truth of) the Torah which was between his hands; and We gave him the Gospel - therein is guidance and light and attesting to (the truth of) the Torah which was between his hands: a guidance and an admonition to the righteous." Surah 5:113. "Then will God say, `O Jesus son of Mary! Recount my favor to you and to your mother when I strengthened you with the Holy Spirit, so that you spoke to the people in childhood and in maturity. Behold! I taught you the Book and Wisdom, the Torah and the Gospel...

53 The Bible Has Not Changed "As for Me," says the LORD, "this is My covenant with them: My Spirit who is upon you, and My words which I have put in your mouth, shall not depart from your mouth, nor from the mouth of your descendants, nor from the mouth of your descendants' descendants," says the LORD, "from this time and forevermore." Isaiah 59:21 “Heaven and earth will pass away, but My words will by no means pass away.” Matthew 24:35. “He who rejects Me, and does not receive My words, has that which judges him--the word that I have spoken will judge him in the last day.” John 8:48.

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