Lineage Al-Jawaad Al-Ridha Al-Kadhim Al-Saadiq Al-Baagir Zainul Abideen Al-Husain Ali Subeyka Progeny of Mary Wife of the Prophet
Lineage Father Al-Ridha Mother Subeyka Progeny of Mary Grandfather Al-Kadhim Al-Jawaad Wife of the Prophet
Al-Jawaad in early childhood Born in 195 Hijrah, his father Al-Ridha was 45 Yrs old by then Was born after a long wait for his father to have a child Al-Jawaad grew up in the laps of righteousness and piety, with love and tender care. Is tutored by his father Al-Ridha early on Memorized the Quran and learned a great deal about Islam quite early
Al-Jawaad in Boyhood Al ‑ Jawaad grew attached to his father Imam Al ‑ Ridha, It was mutual love and understanding. It was mutual love and understanding. Enjoyed going with his father to the Prophet's Mosque where he noticed his father praying, saying Du'aa, and crying. Al ‑ Jawaad was the questioner and investigator, and his questions gradually increased in complexity.
Al-Jawaad in Boyhood Al-Ridha was quoting Muhammad (pbuh) by saying to his uncle: “The son of the best Nubian maid-servants [Al- Jawaad] will be among his [Al-Ridha's] descendants. He will be pursued, exiled, and deprived of his father. He will be pursued, exiled, and deprived of his father. His grandson [Al-Mahdi] will be the Imam who goes into occultation. His grandson [Al-Mahdi] will be the Imam who goes into occultation. It will be said that he [Al-Mahdi] has died or had been killed or any such excuse.”
Al-Jawaad in Boyhood Al ‑ Jawaad had sharp memory and a great capacity to learn At a young age Al ‑ Jawaad: had memorized the Quran, learned the meaning of its various parts, the historical background of some Ayahs, and many of their intricacies. many of their intricacies. He had an excellent teacher in his father. He asked complex questions and received appropriate answers by his father.
Al-Jawaad in Boyhood Al-Jawaad learned that: To support his Khilaafah, Al ‑ Ma'Moon (the Khalifa) was cleverly utilizing the love of people for Ahlul Bayt, Al-Ma’Moon was pressuring Al-Ridha to be his deputy (accept the Khilaafah) The reason is because part of his administration and fighting forces were devotees of Ahlul Bayt Al-Ridha told his son how much he abhorred this proposal
Al-Jawaad in Boyhood Al-Jawaad in Boyhood Al-Ridha told his son “When you become the Imam you will be directed by two ways as all the Imams including myself have: 1.“The first way is by an Unerring Inspiration. 2.The second is by way of the Al-Muhad'dith.” Then he added, “Son, our answers to people's inquiries come from: 1.Our studies of the Corpus of Knowledge. 1.Our studies of the Corpus of Knowledge. 2.By way of inner inspiration, as if there is a compeller within us giving the answer. The Imam's inspiration is accurate and unerring, it is correct. 3.Al-Muhad'dith, we may hear his answer but see no one. 3.Al-Muhad'dith, we may hear his answer but see no one. When we reiterate what we had heard the answer is amazingly clear, to the point and correct.”
Corpus of Knowledge Corpus of Knowledge consists of the following: 1.Quran in chorological order 2.Tafseer (Mus’haf Fatima) 3.Hadith (Saheefa of Ali) 4.Ah’kaam 5.Al-Jafr a.White Jafr: Prophets and early times b.Red Jafr: Rules of war in Islam
In his Boyhood Al ‑ Ridha advised his son: Your mind is better than that of most people I am in my fifties and my final days are near Being the Imam after me, carry on whatever the circumstances are Your duty as an Imam will be more difficult on account of your age. Remember, Allah will support you with the Divine Light. I may soon be forced to go to Khurasan Teaching the correct Message of Islam is what counts, and through your grandson the awaited Al ‑ Mahdi will be born. Teaching the correct Message of Islam is what counts, and through your grandson the awaited Al ‑ Mahdi will be born.
The Golden Chain of Narration Thousands of Hadiths were narrated and quoted by Ahlul Bayt Each Imam said, "My Hadith is the Hadith of my father, and his is the Hadith of his father, up to Ali, who directly narrated the Hadith from Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)." This is called the Golden Chain of Narration. These Hadiths were of immense importance, since they corrected the inaccuracies and set right the contaminations which had crept into this science. These Hadiths were of immense importance, since they corrected the inaccuracies and set right the contaminations which had crept into this science.
The Golden Chain of Narration Each quoting his father and forefathers up to the Prophet Ali, quoting Muhammad (pbuh) Al-Hasan and Al-Husain quoting Ali Zainul Abideen quoting Al-Husain Al-Baaqir quoting Zainul Abideen Al-Saadiq quoting Al-Baaqir Al-Kadhim Quoting Al-Saadiq Al-Ridha Quoting Al-Kadhim Al-Jawaad Quoting Al-Ridha
Golden Chain of Narration: (so far) The Golden Chain of Narration
By the age of about 10 years Al ‑ Jawaad had witnessed the many debates in the court of Khalifa Al ‑ Ma'Moon His father (Al-Ridha) was the source and the ultimate reference to the invited scholars. Al ‑ Jawaad learned of the courtly life in the Royal Palace and the personalities involved in it. Al-Jawaad knew of his father’s advice given to Al ‑ Ma'Moon: 1.Leave Maru and make Baghdad the capital again, 2.Remove the Prime Minister from office (who was deceptive), and 3.Remove him [Al-Ridha] from the heir ‑ apparent position. According to this suggestion preparations were underway for moving the headquarters of the government from Maru to Baghdad.
In Medina In Medina, Al-Jawaad was tested by scholars coming from Baghdad, they felt assured and very satisfied He held discourses in Surba (suburb of Medina) Many attend his discourses Surba was built by his grandfather Al-Kadhim Al-Ma’Moon requests him to move to Baghdad
As a Youth Al-Jawaad stays in Medina for some time carrying out his duties as the Imam Sometime later Khalifa Al-Ma'Moon requests him to move to Baghdad Now in Baghdad Al-Jawaad stays for 8 years The daughter of Khalifa Al ‑ Ma'Moon Umm Al ‑ Fadh’l, becomes wife of Al-Jawaad Baghdad seems fascinating
Contest with Ibn Al-Ak'tham Khalifa Al ‑ Ma'Moon challenged anyone to outsmart Al ‑ Jawaad in any field of Islamic Tradition Benu Abbas chose the highest Supreme Justice of the time, Ibn Al ‑ Ak'tham. Ibn Al ‑ Ak'tham was renowned in the art of argument and persuasion Ibn Al ‑ Ak'tham came fully prepared for the contest and Al ‑ Jawaad was ready for him. Ibn Al ‑ Ak'tham came fully prepared for the contest and Al ‑ Jawaad was ready for him.
Contest with Ibn Al-Ak'tham II 900 elders of Benu Abbas and prominent men attended th contest Ibn Al ‑ Ak'tham presented the most complex Fiqh query Al ‑ Jawaad requested Ibn Al ‑ Ak'tham to clarify his question and to indicate which of the 11 subdivisions of that query he meant. Ibn Al ‑ Ak'tham was stunned, then stuttered, since he did not know about any subdivisions. Al-Jawaad gave details of each subdivision Silence fell on the audience, all 900 scholars, including the nobility and dignitaries. Al ‑ Ma'Moon broke the silence saying, “Did I not tell you that this Progeny (of Ahlul Bayt) has been gifted by the Almighty with limitless knowledge? Don't you see that no one can cope even with the young of this noble house?” “Did I not tell you that this Progeny (of Ahlul Bayt) has been gifted by the Almighty with limitless knowledge? Don't you see that no one can cope even with the young of this noble house?”
His marriage to Umm Al ‑ Fadhl Al ‑ Jawaad’s marriage to Umm Al ‑ Fadh’l was not a smooth one. She was daughter of the Khalifa raised in luxury Al ‑ Jawaad’s penetrating insight discovered that Umm Al ‑ Fadh’l was: a spoiled woman of luxury who was childish, egotistical, and self ‑ centered Al ‑ Jawaad knew that his wife could not understand his status as the Imam of the Ummah and the `Marji'
In Baghdad Al-Jawaad refuses to live in the Palace of the Khalifa His wife nags him (prefers the Palace of her father) But he was tolerant of his wife, Umm Al-Fadh’l His house was always open for Counsel Very popular Was sought after Became the Counsel for the Khalifa Palace
His work in Baghdad Al ‑ Jawaad ’ s thoughts, verdicts, and the counsel had very positive impact Baghdad was an interesting town, but the opulent court of his father ‑ in ‑ law (Khalifa Al ‑ Ma'Moon) was even more fascinating He knew that many scholars of Islamic sciences and most Justices (Qadhi) were government employees Such people resented him due to his age and the verdicts he gave which they could not match
The network The Shi'a were all over by this time with many: Ministers called Naqeeb and Representatives called Wakeel These representatives collected Zakat and Khums funds Al-Jawaad’s representatives were in Egypt, Iraq, Persia, Yemen, and Syria forming a vast and formidable network. Al-Jawaad’s representatives were in Egypt, Iraq, Persia, Yemen, and Syria forming a vast and formidable network. The funds were distributed to the poor and needy, and to the Syeds according to their status. The funds were distributed to the poor and needy, and to the Syeds according to their status.
Work in Medina In the educational effort: Circles of discussions took place daily. Circles of discussions took place daily. Myriad of questions were dealt with He always answered to the point, and with a cheerful countenance. People looked up to him and loved him An example of the reverence shown: his father's uncle, (Ali son of Al ‑ Saadiq), a highly respected scholar, would join Al-Jawaad’s circle of discussion, standing in deference, calling him my Imam, even though he was Al-Jawaad’s great ‑ uncle
Al-Jawaad in Medina again Active in teaching in the Institute Takes charge of the Management of the institute Gets married again: Maries descendant of Ammar ibn Yasir (the Sahaabi) A boy is born one year later (Al-Haadi) Umm Al-Fadh’l very unhappy
Medina to Baghdad once more Year 224H: after seven years in Medina, Al ‑ Jawaad is on his way to Baghdad for the second time Requested by Al ‑ Mu'tasim to move to Baghdad. Requested by Al ‑ Mu'tasim to move to Baghdad. His wife Umm Al ‑ Fadh’l (niece of the present Khalifa) accompanies him. His wife Umm Al ‑ Fadh’l (niece of the present Khalifa) accompanies him. He leaves behind his son (Al ‑ Haadi) with his mother Al-Haadi was cared for and raised under the exclusive tutelage of his father, Al-Jawaad.
Discourse Sites 1.Al-Masjid Al-Nabawi 2.Home when in Baghdad 3.When in Medina, in Surba (town built by Al- Kadhim) 4.Ka’ba during Haj
Ismah Emphasized Ismah: Ayah of Tat’heer: Surah 33 : Ayah 33. Ahlul Bayt are to be obeyed, not just revered; Imamah: was of immense importance. A designated Imam was Ma'soom, i.e., safeguarded by Allah from: 1.Religious error, 2.sin, and 3.forgetfulness. Those who ignore the Imamah will have ignored a basic pillar in their faith.
Contemporary Schools of Thought Numerous Piety-minded communities have evolved; headed by its leader called Aalim. They were each active and many were highly influential. To mention just a few there were: 1.The Shi'a (Imamah-Asserters), 2.Mu'tazila, 3.Al-Hanafi 4.Al-Maaliki 5.Al-Shafi’i 6.As‘haab Al-Hadith 7.Khariji, 8.Jabriah, 9.Qadariyah, 10.schools of Ibn Abbas, 11.schools of Ibn Omar, 12.Murji'ah,
Al-Jawaad’s Person Appearance: Imam Al ‑ Jawaad was fair in complexion, with often a smile, a radiant countenance, with repose Discourse Capacity: He was renowned for answering questions about Fiqh, Al ‑ Ah'kaam such as Halal and Haram, quoting the Hadith, Tafseer, and other sciences. It is said that one authority alone had registered about 30,000 Fiqh queries which he clarified. Personal Habits: Al ‑ Jawaad cared for the feeling of others and was gracious to them. The door of his house was always open for anyone wishing for discussions. The door of his house was always open for anyone wishing for discussions. He employed no guards. He employed no guards. All his servants and employees were treated equally and fairly, even though he was the son ‑ in ‑ law of the Khalifa (Al ‑ Ma'Moon).
Similarities with Forefathers Al ‑ Jawaad had similar traits as his forefathers: He loved to pray, say Du'aas, and do Sujood frequently, Al ‑ Jawaad used to fast often (voluntary fasting) He was a kind person known for his compassion, thus called Al ‑ Jawaad, meaning the benevolent. He was a kind person known for his compassion, thus called Al ‑ Jawaad, meaning the benevolent. His courtesy and affection toward friends and distinguished companions were well known to all. The needy and indigent flocked to him, whether he was in Baghdad or in Medina. The poor had allowances of charity, and his deputies gave fixed allowances to the needy in various provinces
Character Ethics and Character: He was the model for others to emulate. He was virtuous who emphasized piety and was its prototype and model. Al ‑ Jawaad was endearingly referred to as Ibn Al ‑ Ridha. He was renowned for his knowledge of Shari'ah and Fiqh Generosity: He was uncommonly hospitable, known for helping the needy, the disadvantaged, and those under financial pressure. Modesty: He refused to live in the Royal Palace despite the urging of his wife. He continued to attend the Royal Palace to counsel, and to resolve any intricate Fiqh question or answer an issue, yet he refused to be a part and parcel of the Palace's Court life.
Al-Jawaad dies Al-Jawaad was sick, he grew weak and the weakness was progressive. It is reported that his wife, Umm Al-Fadh’l, the daughter of Khalifa Al-Ma'Moon, had poisoned him The poisoning was at the instigation of her uncle Khalifa Al-Mu'tasim. The poisoning was at the instigation of her uncle Khalifa Al-Mu'tasim. Al-Jawaad was in his twenties when he died Like his grandfather Al ‑ Kadhim, he died in a strange land away from family and loved ones Many were very distressed because they thought there was foul play.
Contemporary Khulafaa During his Lifetime, Imam Al-Jawaad was contemporary to the Following Rulers of Benu Abbas Benu Abbas: Al-Amin, son of Al-Rashid Al-Ma'Moon, son of Al-Rashid Al-Mu’tasim
Sample Dialogue “Everyone of us, Imams, is Qaa'im [in charge of] Allah's Resolve, and guiding to the Deen of Allah. But the Qaa'im [the Specific Person], by whom Allah will purify the earth from Kufr [Evil through disbelief] and denial of the Truth, and who fills the earth with Equity and Justice [Righteousness] is the one whose birth will be concealed from people, his person will be absent from their sight, and they will be forbidden from calling him by his [first] name. His first name and Kunya are that of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). He is the one for whom the earth will be folded, and every difficulty becomes subdued.” ما منا إلاّ قائمُ بأمر الله وهاد إلى دين الله، ولكن القائم الذي يطهر الله به الأرض من الكفر والجحود وملأُ الأرض قصطاً وعدلاً هو الذي يخفى على الناس ولادته ويغيب عنهم شخصه ويحرم عليهم تسميته وهو سميُّ رسول الله (صلى الله عليه وآله) وكنيته، وهو الذي تطوى له الأرض ويذل له كلُّ صعب ما منا إلاّ قائمُ بأمر الله وهاد إلى دين الله، ولكن القائم الذي يطهر الله به الأرض من الكفر والجحود وملأُ الأرض قصطاً وعدلاً هو الذي يخفى على الناس ولادته ويغيب عنهم شخصه ويحرم عليهم تسميته وهو سميُّ رسول الله (صلى الله عليه وآله) وكنيته، وهو الذي تطوى له الأرض ويذل له كلُّ صعب
Select sayings of Al-Jawaad A believer needs three features: Success [granted to Him] by Allah, self-admonition, and acceptance of an advice offered to him. How can one become lost [when] Allah is supporting him? And how can one escape [when] Allah is chasing him? For the person who relies not on Allah, Allah will assign him to what that person had relied on. And the person who acts in ignorance his bad actions will overshadow his good ones. The person who obeys his passions will give his enemy [Satan] what Satan wishes.
Select sayings of Al-Jawaad II The one who rejects his brother's good intention will also be displeased with his offerings. The one who rejects his brother's good intention will also be displeased with his offerings. The one who benefits a brother to please Allah, stands a chance to gain an abode in the Garden of Bliss. Three attributes enable a person to please Allah: Ample seeking forgiveness, being amiable, and the plentiful giving of Sadaqah [Charity]. Verily Allah confers continuous bounty on some people: Such favors continue as long as they spend it to benefit others from them. But once they keep the bounty to themselves, Allah will take that away and transfer it to others.
Sample Advice Hold on to patience, do not resent indigence, desist [your] lust, decline [your] fancy, and be aware that never will you be away for Allah's sight. Therefore, see how you would [like to] be. Refrain from the company of a wicked person, for he is like a withdrawn sword, the looks of which is wonderful but the track [outcome] of which is ghastly. Deal not with an endeavor before the time of its maturity lest you regret it, and do not drag on [it] lest your hearts become hardened. Have mercy on the weak among you, and incur mercy from Allah by your treating the weak mercifully. Deal not with an endeavor before the time of its maturity lest you regret it, and do not drag on [it] lest your hearts become hardened. Have mercy on the weak among you, and incur mercy from Allah by your treating the weak mercifully.
Sample Du’aa O Allah! You are the Preeminent, without precedence before Thee. You are the Final One with no defined finality. O Allah! You brought us into being not because of any subjugation: And You designed us by Thy wisdom only through Thy choice. And You are testing us by Thy commands and prohibitions by way of trial. And You supported us by the tools of faculties. And You provided us with myriads of means. And You charged us with what we can bear. And You have enjoined on us to obey Thee. O Allah! Even though You put directives, You gave us the freedom to choose; and even though You had prohibited, You had already warned. You have granted us abundantly, but asked from us the meager. O Allah! Even though You put directives, You gave us the freedom to choose; and even though You had prohibited, You had already warned. You have granted us abundantly, but asked from us the meager. O Allah! Though Thy command was disobeyed, You showed mercy; and though Thy caliber was slighted, You were charitable.
Translation of Ziyarah (Visitation) Peace be upon you; O Abu-Ja’far, the Pious, the Devout, the Guide, and the Loyal to the Almighty Peace be upon you; O the Pleased, the Pure Peace be upon you; O the Devoted Servant of Allah Peace be upon you; O the Confidant of Allah Peace be upon you; O the Envoy of Allah Peace be upon you; O the Secret of Allah Peace be upon you; O the Light of Allah Peace be upon you; O the Brilliance of Allah Peace be upon you; O the Word of Allah Peace be upon you; O the Mercy of Allah Peace be upon you; O the Dazzling Light Peace be upon you; O the Rising full moon…..