IDENTITY- SHI’A VERSION Minority within an American Majority
Stages of Development of Identity 1. Within a few months of birth 2. Grows in family 3. Grows further in school and community 4. Sees differences in: a. Color b. Language c. Religion d. Behavior and Customs
Consequences of Identity 1. When Affirmative Can be an Incentive: a. to flourish and b. innovate 2. When Negative Can: a. Lower self-respect and b. even destroy self-confidence
Identity in America 1. Born in America and raised by immigrant parents a.Middle Eastern b.Irish c.Chinese d.Buddhist, Hindu, Jewish, or other identities 2. Immigrated to America, thus facing: a.Cultural clashes b.Nationality dilemma c.Language barrier d.Education seeking
Religious Identity The most powerful identity If it is Islamic: 1. Belief 2. Language Barrier 3. Behavior modes 4. Color 5. Mode of dress The society looking at you to how to consider you
Holding on to Identity 1. Islamicly: a. Sunni b. Shi’a 2. Culturally: a. Habits, ethics, and Morality 3. Nationality: a. Language b. Education
Islamic Identity 1. Know your Islamic Affiliation: Shi’a or Sunni 2. Educate yourself about your conviction 3. Master the English to express yourself well 4. Express yourself with conviction and vigor 5. Talk with confidence and with pride
Sunni Schools of Thought: At first there were many Schools of Thought (more than 20 schools). Through time only four schools persisted: 1.Hanafi 2.Maaliki 3.Shafi‘i 4.Hanbali
Statistics as of 1996: SHI’A …………………………………………..…….. 282 Millions SUNNI Hanafi …………….……………………...…………. 380 Millions Maaliki ………………………………………………. 305 Millions Shafi’i ……………………………………………….. 190 Millions Hanbali …………………………………….......…….. 52 Millions
Sunni-Shi’a Similarities FaithDoctrine Basics of Rituals Ethical Values Eschatology
Sunni-Shi’a Dissimilarities Political: Khilaafah Expression of Rituals: Technique Ahlul Bayt (Family of the Prophet) Evolution of Heritage: Shi’a versus Sunni Source References (Tafseer, Hadith, etc.)
About Ahlul Bayt Carried out the Teaching of Islam after the Prophet Period Span: 329 Years Twelve Generations The best available means to teach in absence of media Information authentic source of Islam Suffered greatly at the hands of rulers 300 narrators of Sihah Sitta were student of Al- Saadiq
The Golden Chain of Narration Thousands of Hadiths were narrated and quoted by Ahlul Bayt Each Imam said, "My Hadith is the Hadith of my father, and his is the Hadith of his father, up to Ali, who directly narrated the Hadith from Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)." "My Hadith is the Hadith of my father, and his is the Hadith of his father, up to Ali, who directly narrated the Hadith from Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)." This is called the Golden Chain of Narration. السلسه الذهبيه These Hadiths were of immense importance, since they corrected the inaccuracies and set right the contaminations which had crept into this science. These Hadiths were of immense importance, since they corrected the inaccuracies and set right the contaminations which had crept into this science.
Golden Chain of Narration by now Ali Al-Husain Zainul Abideen Al-Baaqir Al-Saadiq Al-Kadhim Al-Ridha Al-Jawaad Al-Haadi Al-Askari Al-Hasan
The Knowledge The knowledge comes by way of: 1. the Corpus of Knowledge الجامعه 2. Al-Muhad'dith النقر بالأَسماع (المحدِّث) 3. and the Un-Erring Inspiration النكت بالقلوب
Corpus of Knowledge Corpus of Knowledge consists of the following: 1. Quran in chorological order 2. Tafseer (Mus’haf Fatima) 3. Hadith (Saheefa of Ali) 4. Ah’kaam 5. Al-Jafr 1.White Jafr: Prophets and early times 2.Red Jafr: Rules of war in Islam
Shi’a Heritage 1. Ghadeer Khum 2. Ashuraa 3. Ramadhan Du’aas (Supplications) 4. Celebration of Birthdays of the Prophet and the 12 Imams 5. Visitations of the Shrines 6. Reading special Du’aas (Supplications) at different occasions.
Shi’a Heritage Identify with: 1.Teachings of Ahlul Bayt 2.The 4 Canonical Hadith Books of Shi’a 3.Nahjul Balaaghah 4.Al-Saheefa Al-Sajjadiya Follow the Edicts of their chosen Marji’
Contemporary Schools of Thought Accepted and on the ascendancy: 1. The Shi'a (Imamah-Asserters), 2. Mu'tazila, 3. Al-Hanafi 4. Al-Maaliki 5. Al-Shafi’i 6. As‘haab Al-Hadith On Precipitous decline and in disfavor: 1. Khariji, 2. Jabriah, 3. Qadariyah, 4. schools of Ibn Abbas, 5. schools of Ibn Omar, 6. Murji'ah,
Al-Baaqir Describes his devotees "By Allah our Shi'a is: he who obeys Allah, is pious, and upright. He obeys Allah, is pious, and upright. Our Shi'a are recognized for their modesty, humility, excessive worship, frequent offering of Salat, observance of fast, and they honor their parents. Our Shi'a care for neighbors, the disadvantaged, the needy, the indebted, and the orphans, Our Shi'a always speak the truth, recite the Holy Quran, hold their tongue against speaking ill of others, and Our Shi'a are trustworthy in all matters of social and spiritual relationship. والله ما شيعتنا إلاّ من إتقى الله وأطاعه والله ما شيعتنا إلاّ من إتقى الله وأطاعه وما كانوا يُعرَفون إلاّ بالتواضع والتخشع وأداء ألأمانة وكثرةِ ذِكر الله والصوم والصلاة والبرِّ بالوالدين وتعهُّد الجيران منَ الفقراء وذوي المَسْكنةِ والغارمين والأيتام وصِدق الحديث وتلاوة القرآن وكفِّ الألسن عن الناس إلا من خير
Al-Askari Advises: “I advice you to be heedful of Allah, pious in your Deen, truthful in whatever you say, to render the trust to him who had entrusted you with, whether that person was pious or not, to prolong your Sujoods, and to be good to your neighbors, for this is what Muhammad (pbuh) came out with. Pray with your people, be present at their funerals, visit the sick, and give people their rights. أُوصيكم بتقوى الله والورع في دينكم وصدق الحديث وأداء الأمانة إلى من ائتمنكم من بار أو فاجر، أُوصيكم بتقوى الله والورع في دينكم وصدق الحديث وأداء الأمانة إلى من ائتمنكم من بار أو فاجر، وطول السجود وحسن الجوار، فبهذا جاء محمد (ص) وطول السجود وحسن الجوار، فبهذا جاء محمد (ص) وصَلُّوا في عشائركم وعودوا مرضاكم وأدوا للناس حقوقهم
Al-Saadiq and the Silent Da’wa "I advise you to be heedful of Allah, to render the trust to those who had trusted you with it, to treat well those in your company, and be the ones who will do the Silent Da'wa [Callers] for us." يقول لأصحابه: أُوصيكم بتقوى الله وأداء الأمانة لمن ائتمنكم وحُسن الصُّحبة لمن صحبتموه وأن تكونوا لنا دعاةً صامتين ……..
Al-Kadhim advises Grant yourself a portion of the Dunya [the present world] by allowing it its desires from the lawful things and from what does not breach honor, nor of extravagance. Make use of it to help you fulfill your Islamic duties, for it is reported that: “He is not one of us who abandons his Dunya [the present world] for the sake of the next world [Deen], nor who abandons his Deen [Islam] for his Dunya.” إجعلوا لأنفسكم حظاً من الدنيا بإعطائها ما تشتهي من الحلال، وما لا يثلم المروءه وما لا سِرْفَ فيه، واستعينوا بذلك على أُمور الدين، فإنه روي: ليس منا من ترك دنياه لدينه، أو ترك دينه لدنياه إجعلوا لأنفسكم حظاً من الدنيا بإعطائها ما تشتهي من الحلال، وما لا يثلم المروءه وما لا سِرْفَ فيه، واستعينوا بذلك على أُمور الدين، فإنه روي: ليس منا من ترك دنياه لدينه، أو ترك دينه لدنياه
Select sayings of Al-Askari The heart of the fool is in his mouth, while the mouth of the wise is in his heart, [meaning: A foolish person speaks without weighing what he wants to say, while a wise man thinks deeply before he says]. What an ugly quality a believer may have, that he desires [something] for which he degrades himself. The love of a pious man for another pious person is a reward for the pious person; while the love by an impious man for the pious one is distinction for the pious person. But, the spite of the pious person toward the impious ones is a disgrace on the impious ones.
Holding on Cultural Identity Hold to your ways but be discerning Make effort to befriend people of your nationality Be friendly to Americans Explain your ways with pride to Americans Frequent and consistent visits to Islamic Centers
Holding on Nationalistic Identity Speak your language with parents Teach children Arabic as well as your own language Celebrate your usual national holidays Attend meetings catering to your national aspirations
Unique opportunity in America The US is your host country that gives you freedom of expression and work opportunity As its guest you ought to: respect the ways fit for the Americans, but keep your ways intact and sound Be innovative and aggressive in pursuit of your goals and aims
Unique opportunity in America Get involved in the American Process Seek Professions: ConstructionBusinessGovernmentPoliticalAdministrativeInvestments The Myriad others available Encourage your children to Pursue Professions of Potential Value to America as well as Islamic Society