Presentation on theme: "Bullying and the Law: Issues for Administrators"— Presentation transcript:
1Bullying and the Law: Issues for Administrators Prepared by:David Trevaskis, Esq. andStacie Molnar-Main, MSEd.with contributions from Michelle Nutter
2AgendaThe quick and dirty is that the law doesn't really protect against general bullying. It does offer protection if the bullying is based on a protected category (i.e. race (Title VI), sex (Title IX), disability (504 and the ADA)). Those types of cases are considered "hostile environment" cases. In short, if a school knows or should have known that a hostile environment existed (i.e. that a student was being bullied/harassed/subjected to a hostile environment because of his/her race, sex, or disability), it has an obligation to take action that is reasonably calculated to stop the harassmentOverview of Bullying and the LawStandards for ActionRecent FocusDefinitionsDavis v. MonroeOther casesWhere the law is headed…
3Big IdeasLegal standards of action are the minimum standard of action.Some bullying issues have civil or criminal implicationsThe Davis v. Monroe (1999) case is illustrative of the concept of deliberate indifference and the potential for victims to obtain legal recourseThe school has a duty to act in cases of suspected bullying
4Bullying Activities May Violate: Criminal LawCivil LawSchool PolicyProfessional StandardsMoral StandardsWhen dealing with an issue of bullying, remember there are different levels of response…MoralProfessionalLegalJust because you are doing enough under the law doesn’t mean you have done enough!
5Standards for ActionWhen dealing with an issue of bullying, remember there are different levels of response…MoralProfessionalLegalJust because you are doing enough under the law doesn’t mean you have done enough!
6Deontological Reasoning Utilitarian Reasoning Moral ReasoningDeontological ReasoningUtilitarian ReasoningWhat is right is determined by a higher law or standard“Bullying interferes with a basic human right”Do unto others…What is right is based upon relative benefit“Most students learn better when they feel safe”The greater good…
7Professional Standards Educators have a duty to maintain safe classrooms and schoolsClimate standards include anti-bullying languageStudents cannot learn if they are afraid of being abused
8School Policies"Bullying" shall mean an intentional electronic, written, verbal or physical act, or a series of acts:Directed at another student or students;Which occurs in a school setting;That is severe, persistent or pervasive; andThat has the effect of doing any of the following:Substantially interfering with a student's education;Creating a threatening environment; orSubstantially disrupting the orderly operation of the school; and "school setting" shall mean in the school, on school grounds, in school vehicles, at a designated bus stop or at any activity sponsored, supervise or sanctioned by the school.House Bill 1067, which required all PA school districts to adopt or amend a bullying policy by January 1, 2009, defines “bullying” very broadly, as you can see by this slide.Please note that the legislation covers face-to-face bullying, as well as bullying that uses digital technology to carry out the activity.Also, please note that the activity can be severe, persistent OR pervasive. While this does not fully mesh with the Olweus definition that bullying is a “repeated” series of events, by this legal definition, one severe instance meets the threshold definition of “bullying.”Since we have passed the January 1, 2009 deadline, I will assume that all districts participating in this call have created or amended their district policy to adhere to the legislation. These policies are a school’s first line of defense in dealing with bullying activities. According to HB 1067, policies must:delineate disciplinary consequences for bullying.identify the appropriate school staff person to receive reports of incidents of alleged bullying.be posted in each school building, in every classroom and on the district’s publicly accessible Internet Web site, if available.)
9Off-campus Acts of Bullying A school entity may define bullying in such a wayas to encompass acts that occur outside a schoolsetting if those acts are:directed at another student or students;are severe, persistent and pervasive; orhave the effect of:substantially interfering with a student's education;creating a threatening environment; orsubstantially disrupting the orderly operation of the school. Finally, please note that the legislature provided schools with the ability to address acts of bullying and cyberbullying which take place off-campus, through their bullying policy. The bottom line is that schools must look at the effects of the bullying on the victimized student. The main function of a school is to educate its students. When the educational process is halted, for one, some or all students, the business of the school cannot take place.It is very easy to understand that administrators have the ability to deal with acts of bullying which take place on campus. It is a little more confusing for administrators to decide if they can or should become involved in situations that take place off campus. While the temptation exists to take a hands-off approach to things that happen at home, at night, over the weekend or during school breaks, the reality is that many of these events may bring the educational process to a screeching halt.Let’s look at what a nexus is, and how it applies to bullying activities.
10Acceptable Use Policy for Digital Devices Students are required to follow their school policiesI’m not going to spend a lot of time on this slide, but I do want to remind you than if digital bullying activities take place during school hours or on school properties, students are most likely violating the District’s “Acceptable Use Policy.” Depending on the school’s policies, additional disciplinary consequences may be brought to bear, in addition to consequences delineated by the bullying policy.
11What is a Nexus?Nex⋅us [nek-suhs] noun: 1. a means of connection; tie; link. 2. a connected series or group. (www.dictionary.com)As you can see, a nexus is a way to link events together. For the purposes of off-campus bullying activities, a nexus exists if the activity that took place off campus can be linked or tied to what happens on campus.So from a legal standpoint, schools should look at the off-campus bullying activity and determine whether or not that bullying does ANY of the following:substantially interferes with a student's education;creates a threatening environment; orsubstantially disrupts the orderly operation of the school. If the school can answer that one or more of these situations is present, it is in their best interest to act. “Deliberate Indifference” lawsuits are on the rise nationwide. When a student or parent can prove that the school “knew or should have known” about the activity or the emotional or physical fallout from the activity and chose not to act, schools may find themselves in a messy, costly legal battle.
12Case Study Pervasive pattern of bullying behavior…fits definition Teasing, physical aggression, threats, social exclusion and cyber elementsWho is the student who is being victimized?Who is the bully?Does the school know (or should it have known)?What is the school’s response?What is the school required by law to do?Are there avenues of action for the victimized student?
13Civil Criminal Law Violations The legal system is divided into two areas: civil law and criminal law. Separate courts govern (control) these two areas of the law. One of the most confusing things about the legal system is the difference between civil cases and criminal cases. There may be both civil and criminal cases occurring at the same time as a result of the same activities. A very infamous example of this is the two cases against OJ Simpson. Simpson was arrested and charged with the homicides of two people. He was found not guilty of these criminal charges. He was also civilly sued for being responsible for the two deaths. Simpson was found civilly responsible for the deaths.The burden of proof in a civil case is much lower than that of a criminal case. Civil cases must prove the claim based on a preponderance of evidence (51%), while the criminal standard is guilty beyond a reasonable doubt (99%). Civil Law In a civil action, the victim is asking the court for protection from the abusive person. You are not asking the court to send that person to jail for committing a crime. However, if the abuser violates the civil court order, he may be sent to jail for the violation. In a civil case, you are the person bringing the case against the abuser and (in most circumstances), you have the right to withdraw (drop) the case if you want to. Criminal Law The criminal law system handles all cases that involve violations of criminal law such as harassment, assault, murder, theft, etc. A criminal complaint involves your abuser being charged with a crime. In a criminal case, the prosecutor (also called the district attorney) is the one who has control over whether the case against the abuser continues or not. It is the county/state who has brought the case against the abuser, not the victim. It is possible that if you do not want the case to continue (if you do not want to “press charges”), the prosecutor might decide to drop the criminal charges, but this is not necessarily true. The prosecutor can also continue to prosecute the abuser against your wishes and could even issue a subpoena (a court order) to force you to testify at the trial.
14Legal Overview Criminal Civil Although there are no specific anti-bullying crimes listed in the Juvenile Act or the Crimes Code of PA, behavior which might be called bullying in schools can be prosecuted as anything from disturbing the peace to assault (or worse).Most of this session will focus on civil law since that is the area of law schools and educators are most likely to find themselves involved in when there is an intersection between bullying and the law.
15PA Crimes Code Offenses Harassment , Harassment by Communication or Address, StalkingPossession of Child PornographyDistribution of Child PornographySexual Abuse of ChildrenSexual Exploitation of ChildrenUnlawful Contact/Communication with a MinorEthnic Intimidation (Hate Crime)The following few slides deal with possible criminal charges in online or cyberbullying.Harassment is the intent to annoy or alarm the other person by repeatedly committing acts that serve no legitimate purpose.Harassment by communication or address:(A) A person commits the crime of harassment by communication or address when, with intent to harass, annoy, or alarm another, that person:(1) Communicates to or about such other person any lewd, lascivious, threatening or obscene words, language, drawings or caricatures; or(2) Communicates repeatedly in an anonymous manner;(3) Communicates repeatedly at extremely inconvenient hours;(4) Communicates repeatedly in a manner not covered by paragraph (2) or (3).(F) Definitions: "Communicates." Conveys, without intent of legitimate communication or address, by written or electronic means, including telephone, electronic mail, Internet, facsimile, telex and similar transmission.Stalking is defined under PA criminal laws as repeatedly following or committing other acts upon a person with an intent to place the person in reasonable fear or bodily injury, or otherwise cause the person substantial emotional distress.
16Sexual Abuse of Children (photographing, etc.) F2 6312(c) 18 Pa. C.S. § OFFENSE TITLESTATUTORY CLASS2709(a)HarassmentM32709.1(c)(1)StalkingM1 or F32710Ethnic IntimidationEnhancement6312(b)Sexual Abuse of Children (photographing, etc.)F26312(c)Sexual Abuse of Children (dissemination, etc.)F3 or F26312(d)Possession of Child Pornography6320Sexual exploitation of children7624(1)Internet service provider (child pornography violation)M3, M2 or F3Here are some of the possible criminal charges in a cyberbullying case, which we discussed on the previous few slides. On this slide, the first column is the citation for the charge in the Pennsylvania Crimes Code, the middle column gives the offense title, and the third column notes the class of each crime. Statutory Class will be explained more on the next slide.
17Sentencing Guidelines GradingMurder 1Murder 2Murder 3Felony 1Felony 2Felony 3Misdemeanor 1Misdemeanor 2Misdemeanor 3SummaryMaximum Fines$50,000$25,000$15,000$10,000$ 5,000$ 2,500$Maximum SentencesDeath or Life In PrisonLife ImprisonmentNot More Than 40 YearsNot More Than 20 YearsNot More Than 10 YearsNot More Than 7 YearsNot More Than 5 YearsNot More Than 2 YearsNot More Than 1 YearNot More Than 90 DaysThe previous slide noted the Statutory Class of the crimes we are discussing. You will recall that Harassment was listed as a M3 crime. That means it is charged as a Misdemeanor of the Third Class, which is punishable by a fine not to exceed $2500 and a prison sentence not to exceed one year.Ethnic Intimidation was listed as an “enhancement” offense. This means that the underlying crime is enhanced, or bumped up to the next level. So using our Harassment example, if ethnic intimidation is also charged, the class for the harassment is “enhanced” to an Misdemeanor of the 2nd degree, with a fine not to exceed $5000 and a prison sentence not to exceed two years.
18What is Sexting?Sexting: sending of sexually explicit photos or text through one’s cell phone.A funny picture or flirty message on your cell phone may seem innocent enough, but what are you really saying when you send it? Once the picture is sent, it exits forever.Seventeen Magazine: “Teenagers are having sex by phone, sending flirty messages, meeting up to have sex.”According to the National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy (December 10, 2008):20% of teens say they’ve sent or posted naked or semi-naked photos or videos of themselves.A third of teen boys say they’ve seen nude or semi-nude images sent to someone else; about a quarter of teen girls say the same.39% of teens say they’ve sent suggestive text messages.73% said they knew sending sexually suggestive content “can have serious negative consequences,”yet 22% said it’s “no big deal.”Many students do not realize that once a picture hits the Internet, it is most likely impossible to eliminate it from the web. It can be viewed by parents, friends, schools, colleges, potential employers, police and even predators.Although there is pending legislation that would make activity committed by minors a misdemeanor instead of a felony, as the law currently stands, minors engaging in sexting may face long-term consequences, including being labeled as a child predator and having to register as a sex crimes offender under Megan’s Law.
19Sexting – State and Federal Offence? Title 18 of the Pennsylvania Crimes Code :Child pornography is defined as any visual depiction, including any photograph:Sexual Abuse of ChildrenPossession of Child PornographyUnlawful Contact or Communication with a MinorSexual Exploitation of Childrof a minor engaging in sexually explicit conduct;the production of such visual depiction; orsuch visual depiction has been created, adapted, or modified to appear that an identifiable minor is engaging in sexually explicit conduct.
20Civil Law Slander Libel Defamation of Character Harassment/Sexual HarassmentDiscriminationProtections derive from the PA Constitution and its amendments, the US Constitution and federal, state and local statutes/ordinances. Think “Life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.” I’m not going to enumerate all the statutes which cover these civil protections, but please keep in mind that some of the most noteworthy are: Americans with Disabilities Act, IDEA, Title IX, Civil Rights Act of 1964, and moreSlander is the term generally used to describe false statements made orally which tend to damage the reputation of a person or to expose him to public ridicule, hatred and contempt.Libel is the term generally used to describe false and injurious statements made in writing.Defamation is a broader term, encompassing both libel and slander, as well as false statements disseminated over the airwaves. It is often said that a man’s good name and reputation are worth more than any money or property. Thus, the Pennsylvania Constitution places a man’s reputation in the same class with life, liberty and property.Discrimination is often used to mean illegal discriminatory acts. Discrimination means noticing the differences between things or people that are otherwise alike, and making decisions based on those differences. More on this topic later.Sexual harassment is one form of discrimination. It is verbal or physical abuse, typically of a sexual nature. The harasser can be a man or a woman, and so can the victim; the harasser and the victim can be of the same gender. Harassment is considered discrimination because it singles out the victim on the basis of a protected category — in this case, gender.
21Discrimination in the Law Federal Civil Rights Laws:Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990Enforcement Agency: DOE Office of Civil Rights (OCR)PA Human Relations Act:Prohibiting certain practices of discrimination because of race, color, religious creed, ancestry, age or national origin by employers, employment agencies, labor organizations and others…Enforcement Agency: PA Human Relations Commission (PHRC)Discrimination on the basis of race, color, and national origin is prohibited by Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; sex discrimination is prohibited by Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972; discrimination on the basis of disability is prohibited by Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973; and age discrimination is prohibited by the Age Discrimination Act of These civil rights laws enforced by OCR extend to all state education agencies, elementary and secondary school systems, colleges and universities, vocational schools, proprietary schools, state vocational rehabilitation agencies, libraries, and museums that receive U.S. Department of Education funds. Areas covered may include, but are not limited to: admissions, recruitment, financial aid, academic programs, student treatment and services, counseling and guidance, discipline, classroom assignment, grading, vocational education, recreation, physical education, athletics, housing, and employment. OCR also has responsibilities under Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (prohibiting disability discrimination by public entities, whether or not they receive federal financial assistance). In addition, as of January 8, 2002, OCR enforces the Boy Scouts of America Equal Access Act (Section 9525 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, as amended by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001).
22Protected Classes Race Use of a Guide or Service Animal Color Religion G.E.D. versus High School DiplomaNational OriginAncestryBeing Known to be Related to a Handicapped or Disabled PersonAge (40 and over)GenderHandicap or DisabilityBeing Retaliated AgainstAs you can see, this list is very expansive and EVERYONE is covered. There is a mistaken belief that only certain folks are covered. That is not true. This statute covers EVERY race, EVERY color, EVERY religion, etc.When people of one group are treated differently than people in other groups, discrimination is occurring.A recent evaluation survey conducted by the Center for Safe Schools to teachers employed by schools which are PA CARES grantees revealed that teachers have frequently observed bullying that appears to target students because of their race. Schools must take this type of bullying very seriously.Schools are obligated to provide students with a harassment-free learning environment. Failure to address racial bullying opens the door to complaints being filed with the PA Human Relations Commission, US Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights and/or the US Department of Justice. Additionally, victims have a legal right of action to civilly sue districts for failure to protect, among other possible claims. Suits of this nature have resulted in damages being awarded to victims in the amount of six- and seven-figure sums.This is true not only for racial bullying, but bullying which targets any of the protected classes listed on this slide.
23Recent Focus on Bullying On October 22, 2010, President Obama spoke about the importance of bullying prevention and safe school climate. Here is the link to our President’s message
24More from Department of Education Secretary of Education Arne Duncan: "Bullying is a problem that shouldn't exist. No one should ever feel harassed or unsafe in a school simply because they act or think or dress differently than others. To every student who feels threatened or harassed—for whatever reason—please know that you are not alone. Please know that there are people who love you. And please know that we will protect you.”"Students cannot learn if they feel threatened or harassed," said Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights, Russlynn Ali. "We want to keep students safe and learning."
25Recent Focus on Bullying What does the Dear Colleague letter (DCL) do?Clarifies the relationship between bullying and discriminatory harassment under the civil rights laws enforced by the Department of Education’s (ED) Office for Civil Rights (OCR).Explains how student misconduct that falls under an anti‐bullying policy also may trigger responsibilities under one or more of the anti‐discrimination statutes enforced by OCR.Reminds schools that failure to recognize discriminatory harassment when addressing student misconduct may lead to inadequate or inappropriate responses that fail to remedy violations of students’ civil rights. Colleges and universities have the same obligations under the anti‐discrimination statutes as elementary and secondary schools.Discusses racial and national origin harassment, sexual harassment, gender‐based harassment, and disability harassment and illustrates how a school should respond in each caseU.S. Department of EducationOffice for Civil RightsDear Colleague Letter Harassment and Bullying (October 26, 2010)Background, Summary, and Fast Facts
26What are a school’s obligations under these anti‐discrimination statutes? OCR offers technical assistance to help schools achieve voluntary compliance with the civil rights laws it enforces and works with schools to develop creative approaches to preventing and addressing discrimination. A school should contact the OCR enforcement office serving its jurisdiction for technical assistance. For contact information, please visit ED’s website atA complaint of discrimination can be filed by anyone who believes that a school that receives Federal financial assistance has discriminated against someone on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, disability, or age. The person or organization filing the complaint need not be a victim of the alleged discrimination, but may complain on behalf of another person or group. Information about how to file a complaint with OCR is at or by contacting OCR’s Customer Service Team at 1‐800‐421‐3481.Once a school knows or reasonably should know of possible student‐on‐student harassment, it must take immediate and appropriate action to investigate or otherwise determine what occurred.• If harassment has occurred, a school must take prompt and effective steps reasonably calculated to end the harassment, eliminate any hostile environment, and prevent its recurrence. These duties are a school’s responsibility even if the misconduct also is covered by an anti‐bullying policy and regardless of whether the student makes a complaint, asks the school to take action, or identifies the harassment as a form of discrimination.
27Davis v. Monroe County School Board (1999) LaShonda Davis was a fifth-grade student at Hubbard Elementary School in Monroe County, Georgia. In 1994, LaShonda's mother filed a lawsuit in U.S. District Court alleging that LaShonda had been the victim of a prolonged pattern of abuse perpetrated by a male classmate, "G.F." LaShonda reported the following incidents of sexual harassment:December G.F. attempted to touch LaShonda's breasts and genital areas while making vulgar statements. LaShonda reported the incident to her teacher. No action was initiated to prevent future occurrences of the behavior.
28More incidentsJanuary 4 and January 20, G.F. committed similar offensive actions against LaShonda on two occasions. LaShonda reported both incidents to her teacher and to her mother. Mrs. Davis called LaShonda's teacher and was told that the principal had been informed of the incident. No disciplinary action was taken against G.F.February 10 and February 16, In physical education class, G.F. again acted in a sexually suggestive manner toward LaShonda. She reported the incident to her physical education teacher. A week later, G.F. engaged in similar behavior. Another classroom teacher, Mrs. Pippin, observed this action. No disciplinary action was taken.
29Still more…March G.F. again harassed LaShonda in physical education. The incident was reported to the physical education teacher and to Mrs. Pippin. Although the principal was told of the incident, no disciplinary action was taken.April G.F. rubbed his body against LaShonda in a sexually suggestive manner. LaShonda reported the incident to her classroom teacher. No disciplinary sanctions were taken against G.F.
30Can you believe this?During the time that G.F. was harassing LaShonda, he was also harassing other female classmates. A number of the girls, including LaShonda, asked to speak to the principal about G.F.'s conduct; however, their teacher denied the request, saying that the principal would call them if he needed to. LaShonda and her mother complained to the teacher. Again, no action was taken against G.F. When Mrs. Davis talked to the principal about the continuing incidents, the principal told her, "I guess I'll just have to threaten him a little harder." The principal also told Mrs. Davis that LaShonda was the only student complaining about G.F.'s behavior.In May 1993, the local police charged G.F. with sexual battery for the repeated incidents of misconduct against LaShonda. The boy pleaded guilty. Although the incidents stopped, LaShonda's grades plummeted. She said she was no longer able to concentrate on her studies. Her father found a suicide note that LaShonda had written to a friend. Because the principal had taken no disciplinary actions against G.F., LaShonda's mother feared that the sexual harassment would continue.
31Making a federal case out of it… On May 4, 1994, Mrs. Davis filed a civil suit in U.S. District Court. The suit alleged that the school board had violated Title IX by not taking action to stop the student-on-student sexual harassment. Specifically, the suit alleged that the school district's deliberate indifference created an intimidating, hostile, offensive, and abusive school environment in violation of the law. The complaint sought compensatory and punitive damages, attorney's fees, and injunctive relief.
32Arguments from Court Davis Monroe The school district is not responsible because the harassment occurred. They are responsible because they were deliberately indifferent to the complaints of sexual harassment.The federal government should not be involved in running schools in such a micro-managed approach. This is a matter that each state needs to consider
33More arguments Davis Monroe This harassment was persistent in its occurrence and persistent in its being reported to administrators, who refused to punish G.F. in any way whatsoever.It is impossible for a school to remove all forms of sexual harassment. Kids always have and always will tease each other. Schools will be unable to differentiate between extremely serious/pervasive and minor incidents.
34More arguments Davis Monroe The school district receives federal funding. As a result, they must adhere to the rules of Title IX, which prohibits discrimination.The Davis family has no grounds to sue the school district for harassment committed by a student. They should be seeking monetary damages from his family, not the school. The school would only be responsible for monetary damages if an agent of the school were committing the sexual harassment.
35And a couple of more… Davis Monroe When these incidents had occurred, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and the Department of Education’s Office of Civil Rights had released guidelines instructing schools that they could be held responsible for peer sexual harassment under Title IX.If Title IX provides a cause of action for peer harassment it will be necessary to expel every “student accused of misconduct involving sexual overtones.”
36A PA CASEIt is also undisputed that Michael told a friend that he was gay and that friend repeated that information so that other students could hear it. It is also undisputed that Michael was called names like "faggot" and was teased by something called the "gay dance." Brandon and Craig, in particular, asked Michael for "blow jobs" or pretended to masturbate in front of him. Those two boys masturbated in front of him, exposed themselves to him, and sexually touched him. Brandon [*22] jabbed Michael in the buttocks with a pencil as well as putting his hand down his own pants and rubbing his hand in Michael's face. Michael also alleged that other students called him names and confronted him for "wanting ass instead of pussy." Michael was admitted to a hospital for depression and suicidal ideations. On these facts, the court concludes that Michael adduced enough evidence that a jury could find that his harassment was "so severe, pervasive, and objectively offensive that it can be said to deprive the victims of access to the educational opportunities or benefits provided by the school." Davis, 526 U.S. at 650.MICHAEL DOE, by and through his parents and natural guardians, RACHEL and MICHAEL DOE, Plaintiff, v. The SOUTHEASTERN GREENE SCHOOL DISTRICT; RICHARD HAUGER, individually and in his capacity as Principal of Mapletown Junior High School; PHILIP SAVINI, individually and in his capacity as Superintendent of Southeastern Greene School District, Defendants.Civil Action NoUNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE WESTERN DISTRICT OF PENNSYLVANIA2006 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 12790March 24, 2006, Filed
37PA is one of 42 states with bullying laws… Mandatory Bullying PolicyEvery Pennsylvania school is required to have an anti-bullying policy incorporated into their Code of Student Conduct. The policy must identify disciplinary actions for bullying and designate a school staff person to receive complaints of bullying. The policy must be available on the school's website. Every school must provide a copy of its anti-bullying policy to the Office for Safe Schools every year, and shall review their policy every three years.Act 61, signed into law by Governor Edward Rendell on July 9, 2008, contains the school bullying laws in Pennsylvania.Bully Police USA, a private watchdog group, gives the law a grade of B+ based on a 12-point grading system, and finds the law acceptable.The law requires individual schools to develop and implement anti-bullying policies that facilitate reporting bullying and taking disciplinary action. The law includes cyber-bullying in its definition of the act.
38What About Cyberbullying? Free Speech Issues…Law School 101It is listed in the PA law…BUT???
39Supreme Court Cases Directly Addressing Student Speech Tinker v. Des Moines Indep. Cmty. Sch. Dist., 393 U.S. 503 (1969):Background: Mary Beth Tinker and group of other students wore black armbands to school in protest of the Vietnam War. Upon learning of the planned protest, the School issued a rule prohibiting students from wearing such armbands. Tinker and four of her friends still wore the armbands and were suspended.Holding: School could punish student expression only if the speech would “materially and substantially interfere with the requirements of appropriate discipline in the operation of the school.” School could not base suspension on “undifferentiated fear or apprehension of disturbance.” School either had to show either past disruption or forecast that disruption was highly likely to occur.
40Bethel Sch. Dist. No. 403 v. Fraser, 478 U.S. 675 (1986): Factual Background: School suspended student who gave a speech during a school assembly in front of 600 other students. During the course of nominating another student, Fraser gave a speech replete with strong sexual innuendo, which elicited yelling, mimicry, and other reactions from other students.Holding: Schools may prohibit the manner of speech, for instance speech that is sexually explicit, vulgar, and lewd. Court explained: “Surely it is a highly appropriate function of public school education to prohibit the use of vulgar and offensive terms in public discourse.”Concurrence: Justice Brennan concurred in the decision, noting that the school could not have punished the student had the student given the same speech outside of the school.
41Hazelwood Sch. Dist. v. Kuhlmeier, 484 US 260 (1988): Factual Background: A high school principal deleted two pages of the high school newspaper containing stories about teen pregnancy and parental divorce. Principal explained that story about pregnant students might lead to students being identified and thus violate these students’ anonymity. The school banned the second article because parent was not provided with opportunity to respond to comments in the article.Distinguished Tinker: Tinker applied to the school’s tolerance of student speech, while the issue in Hazelwood pertained to the school’s affirmative promotion of student speech in a publication distributed as part of the school’s curriculum.Holding:Schools, may “exercis[e] editorial control over the style and content of student speech in school-sponsored expressive activities so long as their actions are reasonably related to legitimate pedagogical concerns.” Schools, for instance, limit speech that is “ungrammatical, poorly written, inadequately researched, biased or prejudiced, vulgar or profane, or unsuitable for immature audiences.”The Court identified the issue as whether members of the public might reasonably concluded that school-sponsored publications, theatrical productions, and other expressive activities bear the imprimatur of the school and therefore constitute the school’s speech.
42Morse et al., v. Frederick, 2007 WL 1804317 (June 25, 2007) (“Bong Hits For Jesus”): Background: On January 24, 2002, the Olympic torch passed through Juneau, Alaska on its way to the Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, Utah. Douglass High School allowed its students to observe the relay as it passed and sanctioned the event as a class trip or social event. As the torch passed, a student – Joseph Frederick – held up a 14-foot banner with the message, “BONG HITS 4 JESUS.” The principal crossed the street and demanded that the sign be taken down; Frederick refused, and the principal grabbed the sign and crumpled it. Later, the principal suspended Frederick for ten days, citing a variety of infractions of school rules.The Ninth Circuit found a violation of Frederick’s First Amendment rights, and found that the law was so clear on this issue in January 2002 that the principal was not entitled to legal immunity to money damages.
43Holding: First, the Court held that the activity took place at a school-sponsored event. It reviewed its previous decisions involving students’ First Amendment rights and distilled two basic rules:students in public schools do not have the same constitutional rights as adults andTinker is not the exclusive framework for analyzing student’s first amendment rights.Then, the Court interpreted that one reasonable interpretation of the message on the banner is that it promoted drug use (either by encouraging viewers of the banners to smoke marijuana or celebrating drug use in general). The Court concluded by stating: “Because schools may take steps to safeguard those entrusted to their care from speech that can be reasonably regarded as encouraging illegal drug use, the school officials in this case did not violate the First Amendment by confiscating the pro-drug banner and suspending Frederick.” Thus, the Court carved out “an illegal drug use” exception to student free-speech right.Alito Concurrence: Justice Alito, joined by Justice Kennedy, concurred to explain that the majority opinion should not be read to limit students’ rights to comment on political or social issues, including debates about the merits of the drug laws.
44J.S. v. Bethlehem Area School District, PA Supreme Court, 2002 Background: Eighth-grade student published a web site titled “Teacher Sux” on his own personal computer containing vulgar language about his algebra teacher and principal. A separate section of the site contained a picture of the teacher with her head cut off and blood dripping from it and included solicitation for $20 from each viewer so that the student can hire a hit man to kill her.Reaction by School: After the teacher received an from an anonymous person about the website, the school contacted local law enforcement officials. Upon learning the identity of the student, the school suspended him ultimately for ten days.Holding: Supreme Court of Pennsylvania applied Tinker and held that the Web site “materially disrupted the learning environment” and interfered with the right of others, including the teacher, the principal, and other students. The Court took into account the anonymous nature of the original postings, the serious and threatening tone of these postings, and the serious effect it had on the teacher, who had to take a one-year medical leave as a result of the postings.Other Issues: Both the principal and teacher sued student in 1998 and 1999, respectively. A jury awarded the teacher $500,000 for invasion of privacy and the student and the principal settled for an undisclosed amount.
45Third Circuit Confusion In the decisions on these two cases, released on the same day last year by two separate three judge panels of the 3rd Circuit, the court reached opposite conclusions on whether a school violated students’ First Amendment rights by disciplining students who created websites targeting their respective administrators.
46In both cases…Students used off-campus computers to create fake profiles of a school principalThe profile created a reaction on campus and from the principalThe principal reacted by suspending the studentThe student sued, claiming 1st Ad protectionDecisions vacated, en banc hearing June 2010
47Recent Legislative Action In light of the recent bullying incidents in the news in Pennsylvania, there have been widespread calls for an “Anti-Bullying Bill of Rights” in Pennsylvania. This act would strengthen the definition of bullying and require increased intervention and prevention actions on the part of Pennsylvania schools. It also specifically addresses the problem of hazing in schools and institutions of higher learning, which has not been specifically addressed by the Pennsylvania state legislature to date.
48Anti-Bullying Bill of Rights The Anti-Bullying Bill of Rights would amend Title 22 of the Pennsylvania Code to include gender identity as a protected category in primary school education, requiring school districts to list harassment, intimidation, and bullying as grounds for suspension or expulsion, adding “sexual orientation” and “gender identity or expression” as protected categories in terms of higher education.It would require those who work in public or private schools, as part of their certification, to undergo suicide prevention training and bullying prevention training, adding gender identity as a category that is protected from discrimination by professional educators.
49More on the Idea…Additionally, the proposed act would add a new section which provides a comprehensive definition of bullying, provisions and duties for district anti-bullying coordinators, school safety teams, and anti-bullying specialists, higher standards for anti-bullying policies for schools, provisions for an anti-bullying fund, providing for grading of school districts and private schools, campus climate surveys, and provisions for higher education anti-bullying policies. It also calls for the creation of a “Week Of Respect” and would amend Title 24 of the Purdon Statutes to bar those convicted of harassment or ethnic intimidation from working in schools. The Anti-Bullying Bill of Rights would strike current anti-bullying provisions in favor of a new chapter in Title 22 of the Pennsylvania Code and amend anti-hazing laws to require institutions of higher learning to have mandatory minimum sanctions for hazing.This proposed legislation is based on similar legislative proposals in New Jersey to address school bullying. It is gaining support through social media campaigns and has become increasingly popular since November
50For more information: Stacie Molnar-Main, MSEd. Strategic Initiatives Manager/Center for Schools and CommunitiesPhone: (717) ext. 128David Keller Trevaskis, EsquirePBA Pro Bono Coordinator(cell)
52One final note--Yes, there is an app for it…more than one Over the Line [iTunes link] is built on the existing web and Facebook app of the same name. Each teen user is invited to share a story about being bullied, harassed or otherwise disrespected by peers, and other users can vote whether their peers were over the line, under it, or hanging around right on it — that is, whether it was bullying and harassment, acceptable behavior or just pushing the limits. Hopefully it will encourage young people to think critically about what they’re doing to their friends.BullyShield provides research-based solutions that will reduce the chance your kid is bullied and give you concrete steps to take if your child is being bullied.There is information available in other technologies as well…In August of 2010, the Obama administration hosted the first ever National Bullying Summit and launched both the Stop Bullying Now Campaign and a national database of effective anti-bullying programs.