Presentation on theme: "Karolina Lendák-Kabók, MSc Center for Gender Studies, University of Novi Sad Women in Science, Budapest, 8. May 2014."— Presentation transcript:
Karolina Lendák-Kabók, MSc Center for Gender Studies, University of Novi Sad Women in Science, Budapest, 8. May 2014.
Introduction Serbian higher education in the CEDAW reports Hungarian women students position and faculty choices at the University of Novi Sad Hungarian high school students migration and faculty choices – girls vs. boys
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (1979)
Overview Equality of rights for women is a basic principle of the United Nations Preceded by the Declaration on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (1967) CEDAW was adopted by the UN’s General Assembly in 1979 In 1981, after the twentieth member State had ratified it, the Convention entered into force Faster than any previous human rights convention had done The Convention has now 187 State Parties Hungary joined in 1980 Serbia (re)joined in 2001
Analyzed reports – article 10 CEDAW Serbia Government report 1 ( ) CEDAW Serbia Alternative report ( ) CEDAW Serbia Government report 2-3 ( ) CEDAW Serbia Alternative report ( )
Gender equality in education 2003/2004 – Centre for Gender Studies established at the University of Novi Sad Courses in the field of gender studies at the postgraduate (two years) and specialist (one-year) levels. Studies on the MSc and PhD levels - today “Gender Equality in Schools” – pilot project with 10 secondary schools, in cooperation with the Ministry of Education and Sports of the RS and NGOs “Women Can Do It 1 and 2” – domestic and international NGOs ran a series of courses on economic and political rights of women
Women students in % Engineering Social & medicine 19.84% in Mechanical Engineering 21.05% in Electrical Engineering in Mining 42.74% in Civil Engineering % in Philosophy 70,8% in Medicine 60,1% in Law
Female teaching staff and women leaders in academia 29,4% of the total in % of independent researchers ( EUROSTATSerbia is in the fourth place, although funds in this area are not sufficient – only 0.3% of gross domestic product) Over 50% of assistants and or technicians in scientific institutions At the University of Novi Sad since 2001 – 3 women rectors 2002/03 – The Rector of the University of Belgrade was a woman – the first one since 1905
Gender related Millennium Development Goals Key laws introduced to govern and promote the improvement of the status of women Gender related Millennium Development Goals in Serbia: Introduce gender studies into the educational system Increase the number of computer literate women. Gender studies have been introduced at the Faculty of Political Sciences in Belgrade Faculty of Philosophy in Novi Sad The Faculties of Law in Belgrade and Niš have so-called legal clinics with free of charge consultations for women
Women take the “empty space” Women take the “empty space" emerging as a result of brain drain and other reasons Jobs at universities and in scientific institutions were no longer prestigious and well-paid as during socialism The presence of women gradually increased in lower positions in the scientific / academic institutions These institutions lost economic / social prestige Women took the place of that of their male counterparts considered not desirable
Gender in education Women poorly represented in leadership positions at universities, scientific institutions and in decision-making positions in the educational system Participation of NGOs in the implementation of research on gender in university programs Optional gender research subjects introduced in regular studies at some universities in Serbia These programs are faced with constant resistance and cynical comments academia Less than 6% of women in the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts Since its founding, there was no women head of the Academy
Legal framework - today Law on Prohibition of Discrimination: prohibit discrimination and gender-based discrimination in education Law on Gender Equality: Discrimination prohibited within the framework of institutions for the education and vocational training institutions Law on Higher Education: in Serbian, but education in the languages of national minorities also possible Law on the Protection of the Rights and Freedoms of National Minorities: right to education in their own language in preschool, elementary and secondary education, in higher education departments and faculties can organize lectures in minority language National strategy to improve the situation of women: aims on integration of equal opportunity in education, gender equality principles in education The Education Development Strategy 2020: absolutely no mention of gender equality in education as a criteria
Representation and faculty choices Analysis of the 14 Faculties of the University of Novi Sad
Hungarian students at the University of Novi Sad ( ) 13% of Hungarians in the total population of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (a.k.a. Délvidék) 6.77% Hungarian students at the UNS in 2012/13 30% of Hungarian students from Vojvodina study in Hungary !
Hungarian women students at the University of Novi Sad
Faculty choice of the Hungarian women - influences University education in their mother-tongue Lack of adequate knowledge of the majority language results in adverse situation and lack of confidence Stereotypes and home education
Analysis based on a study conducted by the Hungarian National Council (Magyar Nemzeti Tanács)
About the study… A total of 1459 high school students (831 girls vs. 628 boys) Graduates and third grade students (who will graduate next year) Study conducted in high schools in towns: Ada, Csóka, Nagybecskerek, Óbecse, Szabadka, Topolya, Törökkanizsa, Újvidék, Zenta & Zombor Questions about: migration intentions, language barriers, choice of faculties...
High school summary 30% will continue their studies in Hungary 6% will continue their studies in other countries Even the choice of a STEM high school does not steer girls towards STEM faculties Less then 2% of the graduates has insufficient knowledge of the Serbian language % questionable – students might not have been honest
Hungarian high school students Girls Boys 57% were girls 36% will study abroad 33% will study in Serbia 7% of girls will continue their studies in STEM field 3,8% of girls finished a STEM high school 18,75% will study STEM 2,8% will not continue their studies 43% were boys 30% will study abroad 37% will study in Serbia 14% of boys will continue their studies in STEM filed 12,7% of boys finished a STEM high school 40% will study STEM 3,5% of boys will not continue their studies
Current situation – where are the Hungarian women? The legal framework is satisfactory – there is room for improvement – harmonization of the strategies is needed Hungarian women students are overrepresented in the field of education studies (partly because they can continue their studies in Hungarian) 30% of the high school graduates continue their studies in Hungary – more girls Serious “brain drain” among the Hungarian population in Vojvodina Low % of girls continue their studies in STEM field
Suggestions for actions - conclusions Introduction of quotas for state-funded status for women students in the STEM filed of studies Scholarships for women students and high school girls who have achieved outstanding research results The help of NGOs is needed to popularize engineering (a good example is the Hungarian Women in Science (NATE) association, whose aim is to raise the interest of the high school girls' in the STEM field of studies) Foundation of a Hungarian University in Serbia (Szabadkai Egyetem), which could stop the migration of the high school graduates