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Why are there so few women in science? Introduction to the leaky pipeline research Women in Science Tips, Tricks and Answers Skill Training for Young Scientists.

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Presentation on theme: "Why are there so few women in science? Introduction to the leaky pipeline research Women in Science Tips, Tricks and Answers Skill Training for Young Scientists."— Presentation transcript:

1 Why are there so few women in science? Introduction to the leaky pipeline research Women in Science Tips, Tricks and Answers Skill Training for Young Scientists by Postgraduates’ International Network (PI-NET) Flying Puli Cafe (1072 Bp., Klauzál utca 13.) május 8. Paksi Veronika Research Assistant, Institute of Sociology, CSC, HAS PhD student, Corvinus University Budapest Member, Women in Science Association Supported by Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA K ) Head of Research: Dr. Beáta Nagy, Associate Professor, Corvinus University Budapest

2 Table of content 1.The leaky pipeline metaphor 2.Development of the leaky pipeline research 3.Main obstacles to women’ career advancement during education establishing early career career building 7. Conclusion

3 The leaky pipeline metaphor 1.Berryman (1983) introduced the metaphore to show the gender imbalance in science 2.Horizontal segregation 3.Vertical segregation: –as career proceeds we find fewer and fewer women with higher scientific degrees or in higher positions –even when there is a balanced gender proportion in MA or PhD level –public and private sector 4.The metaphore conceptualized the career as a narrowing pipeline from which women „leak out” to a greater extent than men 5.Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)

4 1. Number of degree holders → Reasons of the leaking 2. Structural barriers (demand/push factors) → Structural and individual barriers (supply/pull factors) (Xie and Shauman 2003) family and children (lifecourse approach) attitudes and preferences (Hakim 2006) 3. Under- and postgraduate education → Longer academic career: elementary education → late career 4. Non-representative samples Quantitative methods Cross-sectional research → Representative (quant.) samples Qualitative methods Longitudinal research 5. Lack of other dimensions (Hughes 2001) → Ethnicity, religion and class (Eccles 2005; Hanson 2004) 6. STEM fields → Disciplines within STEM Humanities, social sciences Development of the leaky pipeline research

5 Social problemCareer stagesResearch field 1) Few girls in science majors EducationSecondary and tertiary education 2) Women tend to leave science after PhD Career establishment Entrance to the labor market Family formation 3) Women’ career advancement is slow or gets stucked Career buildingEmployment - Career advancement

6 I. Education 1.Masculine worldview of science 2.Girls’ academic performance 3.Girls’ interest towards science 4.Curriculum 5.Pedagogy and methods 6.Chilly climate 7.Lack of female role models 8.Lack of networking and mentoring (Blickenstaff 2005)

7 II. Career establishment 1. Career and family establishment should be/are at the same life period –majority of PhD: age of –Age of higher educated women at 1st child: over age of 30 –Problem of balancing 2. Rigid, male career model: –white, male middle class male employment, 50ies-60ies –continuous employment, lock-step advancement, –Inflexible, though labor market changed foundamentally –academic clock ↔ women’ biological clock –punishments for career breaks 3. (More) postponement of career and family establishment –limited 4. Work-life imbalance (Hewlett 2007, Wolfinger 2008,)

8 Work-life (im)balance* Professional women (USA, Sweden) –Children within 5 years after PhD = less choice for tenure position –Higher proportion of singles –Fewer children –First child at a later age –More childless (all compared to men) Top achieving professional women (every field, USA) –first child: early (in their 20ies) or late (age of 35-38), but no later –20% have fertility problems –Childcare and household chores remain their resposibility –24-31% career breaks due to caring for other family members Fertility differences by fields –physicians >attorneys > academics –care, teaching and culture > economics and technology Women’ attitudes and preferences –Women in STEM are family-oriented, as other women! * from all research fields, not just STEM (Hewlett 2007, Lappegard 2005, Mason et al 2010, Wolfinger 2008, Hakim 2006)

9 1.Chilly climate 2.Lack of female role models 3.Lack of networking and mentoring 4.Discrimination, biases 5.Sandwich generation: situation of senior researchers: taking care of other family members III. Career building

10 Conclusion 1.Pipeline is still leaking 2.Research of all 3 career stages is important 3.Obstacles are interrelated 4.More complex research are needed

11 Thank you for your attention! Veronika Paksi Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA K ) Head of Research: Beáta Nagy, Associate Professor, Corvinus University Budapest

12 Association of Hungarian Women in Science Nők a Tudományban Egyesület tagjai olyan világban szeretnének élni, amely egyformán integrálja és elismeri mindkét nem tudását a társadalmi és technológiai innováció folyamataiban. Misszió, cél: Az egyesület tevékeny részt kíván vállalni a társadalmi innováció azon hazai és nemzetközi folyamataiban, amelyek hozzájárulnak ahhoz, hogy –a tudomány és innováció közelebb kerüljön a társadalom egészéhez –minden fiatal tehetségének megfelelő tanulási lehetőséget és szakmai életpályát választhasson –az esélyegyenlőség alapvető és kikerülhetetlen értékmérő szemponttá váljon a kutatás-fejlesztés és innováció valamennyi területén – megvalósuljon egy sokszínű, kiegyensúlyozott kutató- fejlesztői társadalom. Elérhetőségek: Szigeti Fanni,

13 Selected references Berryman, S (1983) Who will Do Science? Minority and Female Attainment of Science and Mathematics Degrees: Trends and Causes. NY: Rockefeller Foundation Carli, L. L. - Eagly, A. H. (2007) A társas befolyásban és a vezetővé válásban mutatkozó nemi eltérések. In: Nagy B. (szerk.) Szervezet, menedzsment és nemek. Budapest: Aula Godfroy-Genin AA (2009) "Women's academic careers in technology: a comparative European perspective", Equal Opportunities International, 28(1): Hewlett, S. A. (2003) Creating a Life: What Every Woman Needs to Know About Having a Baby and a Career. New York: Miramax Books Hewlett, S. A. (2007) Off-ramps and On-ramps: Keeping Talented Women on the Road to Success. Boston: Harvard Business School Hochschild A. (1989) The second shift. Working Families and the Revolution at Home. New York: Penguin Group Husu L-Koskinen P(2010): "What does it take to get to the top? Women at the top of technological research". In: Godfroy-Genin, Ann-Sophie (ed.): Women in Engineering and Technology Research. Berlin: Lit Verlag pp Mavriplis C, et al (2010) Mind the Gap: Women in STEM Career Breaks, Journal of Technology Management and Innovation, 5(1): Ridgeway, C. L. - Correll, S. J. (2004) Motherhood as a Status Characteristic. Journal of Social Issues, 60(4) Wolfinger, et al (2008). “Problems in the Pipeline: Gender, Marriage, and Fertility in the Ivory Tower.” The Journal of Higher Education 79: Published, 2008.

14 Ajánlott irodalom Xie 2003 (empíria, közép-és felsőoktatás) Lewis 2013 (fenntartható karrier) Blickenstaff 2005 (összefoglaló, közép-és felsőoktatás) Bennett 2011 (kritika, okok bemutatása karrierszakaszonként) Harding S 1986 (tudomány feminista kritikája) Margolis 2001 (rejtett tanterv a felsőoktatásban) Hewlett 2007 (magasan képzett nők munka- magánélet egyensúly)

15 Women’ representation in science (HU, %) DataYearLevel Enginee ring Natural sci. OtherAll KSH2011BA, MA 22,850,367,761,4 KSH PhD student 31,344,452,148,7 KSH Newly minted PhD 34,239,448,245,5 KSH2011R&D 21,323,143,931,7 NIH2013DSc ~11,0~16,6 NIH2013 Member of the Academy 3,04,4

16 Nők aránya a doktori képzésben (Mo) (%) Doktorandus z hallgató Oklevelet szerzett Doktorandusz hallgató Oklevelet szerzett Műszaki tudomány 26,2 (211 fő/év) 29,6 (25 fő/év) 31,3 (218 fő/év) 34,2 (27 fő/év) Természet- tudomány 39,3 (556 fő/év) 33,2 (53 fő/év) 44,4 (574 fő/év) 39,4 (96 fő/év) Többi tudomány 47,845,352,148,2 Összesen 44,0 (3361 fő/év) 42,5 (408 fő/év) 48,7 (3495 fő/év) 45,5 (537 fő/év) 11,8  12,4 % 9,5  16,7 % 12,1  15,4 % Saját számítás. Magyarországi adatok. Forrás: KSH Sikeres védések aránya a beiratkozottak tükrében

17 Nők aránya a K+F-ben (Mo) (%) Műszaki tudományok - államháztartási34,136,0 - felsőoktatási18,219,4 - vállalkozási23,620,9 összesen 22,621,3 Természettudományok - államháztartási29,230,9 - felsőoktatási24,325,6 - vállalkozási14,415,4 összesen 22,523,1 Többi tudományterület 43,343,9 MINDÖSSZESEN 33,031,7 Forrás: KSH

18 Why to research women in science? 1.Social injustice: gender inequalities 2.Segregation: reproduces inequalities 3.Loss of human capital 4.Waste of talents 5.Lack of women’ (and other minorities’) approach: the more diverse approach there is in science the better 6.Lack of engineers ⇔ economic development of industrialized economies based on science and technology


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