2 INTRODUCTION :Future of any enterprise is determined on the constant development of the enterprise.Analysis/study of environment is necessary.Various types of opportunities and dangers are included in the environment.Every business enterprise can run its business activities by keeping in mind the goals, by remaining alert to remove the dangers.
3 Business activity starts with the estimation of environment. An entrepreneur has to observe daily changes of environment.If the changes of business environment can be known in time, an enterprise can be made long lasting and prosperous by arranging business strategies accordingly.Success of an enterprise depends on its capacity to establish cordial relationship between internal capacities, available factors, financial factors and the environment of the enterprise.
4 Meaning, Analysis and Environmental Diagnosis : Meaning of environment related to business-industry :Conditions, Circumstances and factors affecting capacity of an enterprise to pass through the business deals effectively and efficiently.
5 (2) Environmental analysis related to business : Emerging opportunities and danger points for an enterprise are determined.Examination of strategical governmental, financial, legal, technological, competitive and social factors is done.These factors influence future of enterprise.So it can be assumed in advance
6 (3) Environmental Diagnosis : Managerial decisions which are taken from the basis of information analysis are called environmental diagnosis.Business opportunities and dangers are analyzed in detail while taking those decisions.Information regarding environment is very necessary for the continuous development and existence of the enterprises.
7 As the success in personal life depends on capacity, skill and capability of a person to create cordial relations with the environment.In d same way success of a business enterprise depends, in its internal strength, available factors, financial factors and enterprising capability to create cordial relations with the environmnet.
8 BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT BE includes enterprises own environment. Which includes supreme management of the enterprise, financial system, production system, control on accounts research and development etc.Co-ordination and strength of various departments = success of enterprise.If various departments of enterprise are not strong and its co-operation is not available, an entrepreneur cant complete its activity successfully.So BE is important for its existence and development.
9 ENVIRONMENT RELATED TO BUSINESS-INDUSTRY : Depends upon the size of enterprise.Environmental factors are important for an enterprise and entrepreneurship.Environment related to business industry can be classified as:Economic environmentSocial environmentTechnological environmentCompetition-oriented environment
10 IMPORTANCE OF ENVIRONMENT RELATED TO BUSINESS-INDUATRY : Study of social, political and economic environment is important from social and economic point of view.An enterprise has to work being in structure of political atmosphere, industrial policy, licence policy, policy regarding foreign exchange, banking policy, technology development and social changes.So, the planning of every business should be framed keeping in mind the surrounding environment.If not accordingly than it cannot be given a final form and it cannot be put into practice.BE has direct relationship with entrepreneurship development.
11 ANALYSIS RELATED TO EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT : Factors related to Economic, Social, Technological and competition related environment business can be kept in mind in following manner while analysing the external environment:
12 1. Economic Environment : It is determined by economic condition, economic policies and economic system of a country.It has a deep effect on business.Necessary for entrepreneur to keep in mind economic environment.Following matters are included in economic environment :-
13 (a) National income :Increase in national income is a convenient factor for business.Proportion of national income is not equal in every country.Real income does not increase though financial income also increases with the increase in national income.Increase in national income increases the purchasing capacity of the public and so demand of various commodities increases.For a business having public with purchasing capacity is important.
14 The main thing is the proportion of present income of the public having cash or liquidityof finance, their propensity to save price level of commodities and available credit for use.So, with the increase in national income, purchasing capacity of people increases and development of industry is encouraged.Entrepreneurs are encouraged for new capital investment.
15 (b) Per Capita Income :Increase in national income increases per capita income of that nation, but depends upon its population.More population, per capita growth rate low. Low per capita income, demand of consumer goods increases.Demand of consumer goods and services are increasing as per capita income is less in underdeveloped countries,
16 When per capita income is more , demand of commodities of primary need certainly increases, but demand of commodities of facility and comfort increases comparatively.As per capita income is less in underdeveloped countries, demand of primary requirements is increasing rapidly.So, an entrepreneur gets good opportunity in production and selling and in production field respectively.Many various opportunities are found in developing countries in various fields such as electronic appliances, costly vehicles, modern residence, etc.
17 (c) Income that can be spent according to desire : It is that when all the requirements of goods of a person or class are satisfied than desire/preference takes place.Two uses- it can be saved or can be used to make life more comfortable and highly qualitative.
18 (d) Propensity to save : It is an important factor affecting people’s consumption cost.Higher the propensity to save, less would be the consumption cost. Whereas, reduction in propensity to save increases consumption cost.Income is the factor that affects propensity to save.If propensity to save reduces, demand of various commodities increases and so, development and expansion of enterprise becomes possible.
19 If more attractive, comfortable and reasonable products are available, that propensity to save will reduce.Propensity to consume increases, and convenient economic environment is created for development of enterprise.
20 (e) Price rise or trends related to inflation: Price rise has adverce effect on consumption cost and saving of public.If inflation, that people might purchase less or even postpone purchasing products.If prices go on increasing, there is trend of purchasing more than requirement.Price rise has an adverce effect on demand. So, the possibility of increase in production of a business unit reduces.
21 (f) Availability of loan for consumption purpose : Banking and other financial institutes give loan to consumers for buying durable things on certain conditions.If loan given at low rate of interest for long term, customers are inspired to get such loan.As a result, demand for consumer durables increases.Many standard companies sell durables in installments.At present, loan at zero interest rate is available in TV, fridge, vehicles, etcSo, demand for consumer durables has increased in underdeveloped countries.
22 (g) Distribution of national income : If the distribution of national income is unequal, demand of commodities of comfort and things, which are status symbol increases.On one hand, scarcity of primary commodities is seen and on other hand, production possibilities of commodities of comfort and entertainment are available on large scale.Distribution of national income in India is unequal, so supply of things of basic needs is less, while business-industries get big market for things of comfort.Distribution of national income is very important.
23 2. Social Environment :Social environment includes people’s choice, dislikes and social traditions or customs.Entrepreneurs should be aware of prevailing social values and should study them very minutely so that its effects can be known on the demand of various products.Values change with time and generation, new generation does not follow certain traditions and beliefs of old generation.Previously people lived with economy, and had propensity to save. Today’s generation spends what they earn.Increase in education, number of working women have increased, spread of education, etc.
24 3. Technology Environment : Brings rapid changes in all the fields and has deep influence on business-industry.Technology has a widespread effect on business.Business environment cannot neglect technology or technological environment.Entrepreneur should identify the changes of technology quickly so that he can make a strategy which is suitable to the production or bring change in it.
25 Entrepreneur who doesnot make necessary and timely changes in his product planning and strategy regarding technology, has to face economic problems.Technology changes is not to gain prosperity but to maintain existence in market.It is creative but at the same time it is destruction too.Eg. With the arrival of television and video, there has been adverse effect on film industry.
26 Technology has proved fruitful to ordinary mass to modern enterprise. It is for creative diversification in the business.In the present time, scientists are doing research in various fields as a result of which the possibility of production of new products increases and entrepreneurs get vast opportunities.Public and private enterprises spare a good proportion of financial factors for research in various fields.
27 Technology is important in 3 ways in industrial enterprise : Developed countries spend approximately 3% of national income for research while underdeveloped countries like India, this proportion is less than even ½%.By importing technology from developed countries, they get benefit of technological changes.It is the long term interest of the whole society instead of private interest.Technology is important in 3 ways in industrial enterprise :Develops rapidly.Total change comes in the prevailing or current business or it stops.Industries that are not related directly with technology also develop.
28 If comfort increases, risks too emerge on other hand. Various legal matters should be kept in mind while adopting technological changes.An entrepreneur should establish, extend and plan diversification strategy and decision making in his business.
29 4. Environment related to competition : Entrepreneurs should have knowledge about prevailing competitions.Competition always means more than two sellers or two or more than two purchasers of certain market.Every seller behaves independently from the other seller and vice versa.
30 (a) Perfect competition : It is rarely seen in real market.When the price of same thing is equal after deducting the transport expense, we can say that there is perfect competition in the market.Numerous buyers and sellers and none of them affect market value.Customers have complete knowledge about the price quality. Therefore, no need of selling cost.Quantity of production and sale have to be decided because the price is decided by the total demand and supply in the industry which has to be accepted by individual firm.
31 (b) Monopoly :“Mono” means one and “Poly” means the act of selling.Wherever selling is done by one person or a seller, it is said that there is monopoly.Where there is one seller(producer) in market, and if he doesnot have to face competition, monopoly that emerges is called perfect or pure monopoly.Imperfect or limited monopoly can be seen in the real world.
32 Things produced by monopoly is the thing having “permanent speciality”. He gets an extra-ordinary profit to a certain extent.
33 (c) Monopolistic Competition : Market with mixed elements of competition i.e. perfect and monoploy.Not perfect competition but things with close substitutes is monopolistic competition.E.g. t.v., fridge, soap, toothpaste, washing powder, etc.An entrepreneur can compete by price or non- price competition.Usually they don’t enter into price competition.Wrong notion of customers that if the price of commodity reduces than the quality have ruduced.
34 In the present time, certain firm follow the policy of price reduction In the present time, certain firm follow the policy of price reduction. E.g. Maruti company follow the policy of price reduction of its motorcar.Non-price competition means the competition is done through quality of thing or service, after sales service, advertisements and art of selling.Diversification means by changing the size, appearance, colour and shape, non-price competition exists here.In perfect competition the firm produces same type of things having same properties, whereas in imperfect competition, it produces no variety of goods.In monopolistic competition, every firm produces one thing but in the eyes of a customer, it produces different things.
35 Variety can be created in things in three ways : By creating difference in the quality of a thing.By changing the condition of selling.By bringing change in the selling cost of a thing.Following things are found in non-price competition :Attractive advertisement and propagandaDurability of commodity.After sales service at residenceCredit facilityBetter marketing system than the rivalMarket research and market developmentImprove the quality of a thing and make it stronger and more durable.Non-price competition is more profitable for an entrepreneur.
36 (d) Oligoploy :It is an imperfect competition in which a few firms produce and thus produced commodities are close substitutes to each other. Of course, these things are not complete substitute to each other.“Oligopoly is that condition of market in which the firm frames its market related policy on the basis of estimated behaviour of a few close rivals.”- George Stigler
37 The seller has to keep in mind the reactions of rivals while deciding the price of a thing. Thus, an entrepreneur has to take support of price and non-price competition in monopolistic competition and oligopolistic circumstances concerning environment related to competition.An entrepreneur should try to get a place for product in market by using four “c” (Customers, Channel, Competitors and Company)
38 Environment related to population, natural environment, political environment and international environment also affects Business Enterprise.
39 Environmental Changes : Elements present in environment are changeable.Technological changes, people’s preferances, interests and priorities go on changing.Competitive conditions, Government policies, laws also change.Business policy should be dynamic.Presumptions should be made.Pre-supposition is possible concerning factors related to population, income level, technology, etc.Internal environment is necessary, but along with it external environment should also be studied for the existence and development of the enterprise.
40 Establishment of a New Industrial Unit To raise financial funds, an enterprise has to pass through certain legal process.A new Industrial unit has to get registration.It has to get municipal licence.Financial assistance can be received from various institutes for raising funds which can be discussed in detail in following manner :
41 1. Registration of small scale Industry : Establishment of New Industrial Unit :1. Registration of small scale Industry :- Its registeration is done in the District Industries Centre (DIC)- Its office is situated in the headquarters of every district.- Application is sent to the general manager in a prescribed form.- Certain industries don’t required registeration such as wooden, flour mill, hotel, baby food, etc.
42 - Registeration of small scale industries is done in two stages : Provisional RegisterationPermanent RegisterationProvisional Registeration :Provisional registeration is obtained before starting the enterprise, and provisional registeration number is given at that time.Small scale registeration period is given for 5 years.This number is necessary to get cash assistance and registeration number.
43 ii. Permanent Registeration : Permanent registeration is done only after the industrial enterprise starts production. They get spared from getting licence regarding priority in raw material, import and paying deposit for government tender. An enterprise has to present proofs like receipt of possession of industrial shed or house if they own place. If on rented place than, receipt of rent payment, electricity connection etc. It is not necessary to register small scale industry, though it is desirable in order to get certain benefits. Benefits are as under :
44 Recommendation for changing agricultural land into uncultivated land Exemption from octroiExemption from electricity taxesHelp in the purchase of raw materialPurchase of machines on hire purchaseRecommendation for necessary material for constructionVerification subsidyAssistance regarding purchase-sale :N.S.I.C. RegisterationG.S.I.C. RegisterationPolicy regarding purchase and registeration of various commodities
45 Exemption from power control to the exporting enterprise Priority in telephone facility2. Municipal licence :After registeration of small scale industry it is desirable to get licence too.By contacting the related department licence can be obtained.An entrepreneur should get information about the accounting process and submit return regarding it regularly.
46 Financial Funds for New Industrial Unit : For any business enterprise four Ms are important : Men, Machines, Material and Money.With the help of money, other three factors can be got.And so, money or finance is known as the blood or lubricant of the business..Industrial enterprise can raise finance in following two forms :Ownership fundSinking fund
47 1) Ownership Fund : Initial stage capital or equity is required. Instead of distributing all the profits to the owners, certain part of profit is re- invested.Re-investment increases the capital of owner.In sole proprietorship or partnership firm equity fund is showed as contribution of owners while in company, it is showed as share capital.
48 Characteristics of equity share capital are: Total equity capital of a company is classified into equal small parts which are called shares.Characteristics of equity share capital are:They are permanent finance, so not returned during the existence of business.If loss in business, than no return is to be paid on equity, but if profits, remaining profit goes to owners. Ofcource, certain profit is distributed as dividend on equity fund.Equity shareholders have total control on the management. Thus, equity funds provided by owners are in 2 forms : (i) Equity share capital and (ii) Re-investment of profit.
49 2. Sinking fund : Sources for raising external sinking fund are : DebenturesTerm loanPublic depositsInter-company depositsCommercial banksOther assisting institutes
50 Debentures :- All the debts of the company are distributed in equal, small parts like share capital. This part is called debenture.- Issued through public issues or private placement by a company.- Debenture is a debt with fixed interest rate, and they are to be returned after the determined period.- As debenture is a debt, if enterprise bears loss or has less proportion of profit, it becomes inevitable to pay interest according to decided rate.- As debenture is a long term debt, they are used to raise fixed assests.
51 2) Term Loan :- - In India national and state development banks have been established to provide long term credit to the industrial enterprise. - Banks give term loans for 7 to 15 years. - Corporation working under national and state level are following :
52 National financial institutes : Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI) :Established in 1964.It is also at the supreme place for other industrial credit institutes.It was a subordinate institute to Reserve Bank from 1964 to 1976.The Governor and deputy governor of Reserve Bank used to be the governor of this bank.But it was made autonomous body by separating it from the Reserve Bank in 1976.
53 Now, it works under the observation of managing committee appointed by the central government in which representatives of government, banks and other financial institutes have been appointed.Providing industrial finance on a large scale and provide leadership for industrial development.Following direct or indirect help is provided to industrial enterprises by this bank :
54 Direct Help :Gives loan and credit to the industrial units.Provides finance by purchasing shares, debentures of the industry.Underwrites shares, debentures.Provides guarantee of loan to the industrial units of the private sector.
55 Indirect Help :Gives recredit on the credit given to industrial enterprises by industrial finance institutes.Gives recredit against the loans of commercial banks and co-operative banks.Provides recredit against the export credit given by commercial banks and co-operative banks.By investing in the shares, debentures of state finance corporation and other financial institutes, it increases financial factors so that they can give more credit.
56 Special Help :Undertaking research for industrial development in backward areas and gives them help on liberal conditions.Give soft loans for the updation of textile and Jute industry.Provide seed capital to technically capable entrepreneurs so that they can start business.Provide capital at a cheaper rate if units are able to get capital by creating development fund in other way.
57 IDBI working method is thus varietyful. They have got liberty in industrial help.For other financial institutes standards for sanctioning loans are strict, while for IDBI, no such limit has been decided.It has done praiseworthy activity in various fields.Shown special interest in development of backward areas.Provided low rate of interest to various industries.To get more credit for small and cottage industrial units, it provides liberal help to National Small Industries Corporation.It also provides help to small transport operators too.
58 Thus, IDBI also carries out important activity of achievement of planning goals beside being helpful In the quick industrial development.Like IDBI, small industries development bank of india was also established on 25th October 1989 to provide financial help to small industries.
59 2. Small Industries Development Bank of India : (SIDBI) Established on 25th October 1989 on the lines of IDBI keeping in view the strategic importance small industries.Provides assistance to small industries.It works according to the standard of IDBIWith the establishment of this institute, there is a plan of merging Small Industrial Development Fund 1986 and National Equity Fund-1987 with IDBI.It is the plan of this institute to increase its share capital upto Rs crore which was started with the share capital of Rs. 250 crore by IDBI.
60 3. Industrial Finance Corporation of India – IFCI : Established in 1948 with the aim of providing medium and long term financial help to private, public, co-operative and joint sector units.Till 1964 when IDBI was established, this corporation worked as an important financial institute of the nation.Since 1964, it works as a subordinate institute of IDBI.Even then its importance in industrial credit is still intact.It also stands as a guarantee for loan issued by the units of private sector.Does underwriting of shares-debentures.
61 Also arranges for the training of managers in order to provide trained and skilled managers. Cotton, textile, sugar, iron and chemical industries have priority in getting loan from this corporation.Rate of interest is very high.This corporation is criticized and blamed that it has a partial attitude towards good industrial houses and developed area.
62 4. Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India – ICICI : This corporation was formed in 1955 with the co-operation of world Bank and government.This corporation also got factors from development banks of U.K. and West Germany.Main act is to provide medium and long term capital to private sector units.Purchases shares of private companies, gives loan and underwrites new shares and debentures.This corporation also does the activity of bringing foreign currency.All the above institutes are active at national level.
63 (B) Financial Institutes at the State Level : (1) Gujarat State Financial Corporation – GSFC : GSFC was established in May 1960 under the State Finance Corporation Act of 1951.Its main office is situated at Ahmedabad while its regional offices are at Ahmedabad, Ankaleshwar, Mehsana, Valsad, Rajkot, Surat, Vadodara and Bhavnagar.Gives financial help to any enterprise which has been registered in other states than Gujarat but its production unit is in Gujarat.Business enterprise gets financial assistance by this corporation for following activities :-
64 For the activity of production, process and storage of material. For establishing industrial colonies in close area.For mining industry.Creation and distribution of electricity or energy source of other form.For repairing and service of every type of vehicles, machineries, etc.Assembling and packing of repairs.For hotel industry.For transportation of material and purchase of vehicle.For finishing activity, its preservation and facilities.
65 Co-operative societies and limited companies get the help of maximum 240 lakh rupees, while sole proprietorship and partnership firm get maximum assistance of Rs. 90 lakh.The help is provided to absolutely new enterprise for establishment, innovation, expansion and diversification.This corporation provides help under many schemes such as Scheme for NRI, Scheme for hospital and nursing homes, star and non-star hotels, help for amusement and tourism, etc.National equity fund scheme, lease and hire purchase scheme and prise not under any of the above schemes are included under general loan scheme.
66 PROCESS OF GETTING LOAN : Apply in a prescribed form.Informs entrepreneur, conditions regarding it are showed within 15 days of getting loan approval.If loan is upto 15 lakh, all the information is sent to regional manager.If more than it, information has to be sent to joint manager of GSFC.Rs. 250 is to be paid as verification fees for the approved loan of 1 lakh rupees & its minimum limit is Rs per unit.
67 An equitable mortgage contract has to be signed against fixed assets. Hypothecation contract to be signed against mechanical means.In special case arrangement third party security is done.In this corporation, for returning loan, 6 years are decided as term loan.New enterprise gets one year exemption from repaying loan.The amount of repaying of loan instalment is decided on the base of profitability and liquidity of the unit.
68 (2) Gujarat Industrial Investment Corporation (GIIC) : Established as a limited company under companies act on 1st April 1986.For large and medium enterprises.Development of backward areas is kept in mind.Sole proprietorship, partnership firm, company or enterprise can get help from here.New or existing enterprises can get help in extension, modernization, or diversification.Also provides services of term loan, direct investment in share-debenture, underwriting and as a guaranter too.
69 Special activities include establishment of new enterprise by joint sector, project- advisor, activity for development of entrepreneurship and help regarding the provision of equity finance to the industrial enterprise.
70 (3) Gujarat Small Industries Corporation (GSIC) : Established under companies act as a public limited company on 26th March,Help provided to small industries.Includes service of availability of raw material and distribution for import of foreign material, sale of ready material, financial help for purchase of domestic raw material, etc.
71 (4) Gujarat Industrial Development Corporation (GIDC) : Infrastructural facilities like construction of shed, roads, electricity, sanitation, etc are created.Small industries are provided plot and constructed shed according to hire purchase or lease payment done in 8 to 10 years in convenient instalment
72 3. Public Deposits :In India, manufacturing companies invite public for investment in public deposits.Get finance for 1-3 years.Interest rate has been fixed for 12% for one and for three years it is 15%Advertisement is given in newspaper for public deposits.Used more for short term working capital.Any company cannot get more than 25% of joint amount of its equity and reserve in the form of deposits.
73 Non-banking finance companies also use public deposit. Company getting finance on credit against public deposit is insecure because it does not have right to mortgage on assets.
74 4. Intercompany Deposit : The company who has surplus financial factors gives financial factors to the other company who has short term requirement to fulfill its need.This type of financial give and take is seen among the companies under one management.Intercompany deposits are used to raise working capital for a short term.Inter company rate on inter-company deposits is higher in comparison to public deposits.
75 5. Commercial Banks :Its activities are noteworthy in the development of small industries in India.Provides long term credit to small industries for purchasing fixed assets like land, house, machinery, etc.And provides finance for short term for purchase of raw material, production cost, etc.Commercial Banks gives short term credit of one year for working assets by overdraft or cash credit.Besides this, it also gives long term credit for 5 years.
76 6. Other Assisting Industries : Federation of small industries of India, Indian council of industries, National alliance of young entrepreneurs, small industries association of state level, of district level, etc also help small industries in various fields.