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Exploring learning transfer in L2 writing education Department of English, Tamkang University June 6, 2012 Mark Andrew James Arizona State University

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1 Exploring learning transfer in L2 writing education Department of English, Tamkang University June 6, 2012 Mark Andrew James Arizona State University Mark.A.James@asu.eduhttp://www.public.asu.edu/~mjames6/index.html

2 What is learning transfer? Learning transfer occurs “when learning in one context or with one set of materials impacts on performance in another context or with another set of materials” (Perkins & Salomon, 1994, p.6452). For example...... knowing how to ride a bicycle  learning how to ride a motorcycle;... learning math in school  shopping outside school.

3 ... a topic of widespread interest Psychology: Learning transfer has been actively studied for over a century in psychology (Haskell, 2001).Psychology: Learning transfer has been actively studied for over a century in psychology (Haskell, 2001). Education: “When students cannot perform tasks only slightly different from those learned in class, or when they fail to appropriately apply their classroom learning in settings outside of school, then education is deemed to have failed” (Marini & Genereux, 1995, p.1).Education: “When students cannot perform tasks only slightly different from those learned in class, or when they fail to appropriately apply their classroom learning in settings outside of school, then education is deemed to have failed” (Marini & Genereux, 1995, p.1). Human resources development (HRD): U.S. corporations spent $58.5 billion on workplace training in 2007 (Training, 2007), with the obvious expectation that the results of this training would transfer to the workplace.Human resources development (HRD): U.S. corporations spent $58.5 billion on workplace training in 2007 (Training, 2007), with the obvious expectation that the results of this training would transfer to the workplace.

4 Learning transfer is a fundamental goal of L2 writing education “[O]ne of the most important aspects of an EAP reading/writing class (or any ESL/EFL class) is the development of transfer of learning” (Johns, 1993, p.283) (emphasis mine). “The goals of most English for academic purposes (EAP) writing classes are transcendent. That is, the usual purpose is to enable students to write better not for EAP writing classes but for academic purposes” (Leki & Carson, 1997, p.39) (emphasis mine).

5 How “far” learning transfers is important to discussions of writing and L2 writing pedagogy Far transfer... -- Cognitive perspectives on writing (e.g., Flower & Hayes, 1981); -- Process-oriented approaches to writing instruction (Zamel, 1976); -- General writing skills instruction (GWSI) (Petraglia, 1995); -- English-for-general-academic- purposes (EGAP) instruction (Jordan, 1997); -- Language-for-specific-purposes “education” (Widdowson, 1984). Near transfer... -- Sociocultural perspectives on writing (e.g., Russell, 1995); -- Genre-oriented approaches to writing instruction (e.g., Swales, 1990); -- Writing-in-the-disciplines (WID) programs (Bazerman et al., 2005); -- English-for-specific-academic- purposes (ESAP) instruction (Jordan, 1997); -- Language-for-specific-purposes “training” (Widdowson, 1984).

6 There is a need to understand how learning transfers in L2 writing education “Positive findings of transfer, near and far, suggest that whether transfer occurs is too bald a question. It can, but often does not. One needs to ask under what conditions transfer appears” (Perkins & Salomon, 1994, p.6455) (emphasis mine).

7 There is a need to understand how learning transfers in L2 writing education The most important question about the validity of genre- based instructional approaches is "whether, to what extent, and under what conditions skills acquired within one genre are transferable to another" (Swales, 1990, p.233) (emphasis mine); this is "a highly significant investigative issue" (p.234). “[I]t is assumed that students will transfer skills from the [EAP class] to the content class examination, and then ultimately to their other content classes. But we do not know what conditions must exist for this positive transfer to take place.” (Snow, 1993, p.45) (emphasis mine).

8 What do we know about learning transfer in L2 writing education? Learning transfer can occur, but it is not inevitable (e.g., Leki & Carson, 1994; Leki, 1995; James, 2006). “There is no guarantee that skills and strategies learned in an ESL program actually will be applied in new situations” (Spack, 1997, p.50); “[T]ransfer from one domain to another is, at the very least, difficult for learners” (Tardy, 2006, p.92).

9 Learning task Learning context Elements of learning transfer situations (from James, 2007, adapted from Marini and Genereux, 1995) Transfer task Transfer context Learner

10 Learning task Learning context Elements of learning transfer situations (from James, 2007, adapted from Marini and Genereux, 1995) Transfer task Transfer context Learner

11 Background of study 1 Context: English-for-general-academic-purposes writing (EGAP) instruction.Context: English-for-general-academic-purposes writing (EGAP) instruction. Targeted learning outcomes (e.g., using a writing process, using resources) and believed to be applicable across disciplines. This is common in North American university settings. Focus: Learning transfer.Focus: Learning transfer. Transfer is a fundamental goal of all EAP instruction, and with EGAP writing instruction, transfer is expected to be broad. L2 and L1 writing scholars question EGAP writing instruction from a transfer perspective (Hyland, 2002; Leki, 2003; Russell, 1995; Wardle, 2007, 2009). Empirical research has shed some light on this issue (e.g., Allen, 2008; James, 2008, 2009; Nelms & Dively, 2007; Spack, 1997), but the picture of how broadly learning transfers here remains unclear.

12 Research questions for study 1 Does learning transfer from EGAP writing instruction to other academic courses? If so, what transfers, and to where?

13 Research design for study 1 Qualitative case study in 2007-2008 academic year.Qualitative case study in 2007-2008 academic year. Context: One section of a 2-semester freshman EGAP writing course at a large, urban university in the US.Context: One section of a 2-semester freshman EGAP writing course at a large, urban university in the US. Participants: 11 students (out of 19 in that section).Participants: 11 students (out of 19 in that section). 10 freshmen, 1 sophomore; average age 20; 6 male, 5 female; 5 different nationalities (most common South Korean [4 students]); 5 different majors (most common business [6 students])

14 Data collection for study 1 Two sources of data:Two sources of data: Interviews with students. Each student was interviewed 2 times in the fall semester and most were also interviewed 2 times in the spring semester. Each interview involved the same set of questions, focusing on whether the student tried to use anything learned or practiced in the EGAP course to do tasks in other courses. Writing samples. Students were asked to provide examples of any writing they did (e.g., lab reports, essays, work sheets for tutorials, short answers on tests/quizzes, messages on online class discussion boards, etc.) for graded tasks in any of their courses. I gathered a total of 54 writing samples (11 from the EGAP course, and 43 from other courses).

15 Data analysis for study 1: Step 1 – interview transcripts Units of analysis were coded for discipline, task type, and the kind of transfer, if any, that had been reported. Example unit of analysis Researcher: When you wrote that [brief explanation after a calculation in your math homework], did you think of [the EGAP course]? Participant: [The EGAP course]? Yes. Yes, I wrote like, ‘‘nevertheless.’’ Yes. Researcher: Really? Participant: It’s like a transition word. Like that. Researcher: So is ‘‘nevertheless’’ a transition word you practiced in [the EGAP course]? Participant: Yes. (Participant 1, interview 1)

16 Data analysis for study 1: Step 1 – interview transcripts Units of analysis were coded for discipline, task type, and the kind of transfer, if any, that had been reported. Example unit of analysis Researcher: When you wrote that [brief explanation after a calculation in your math homework], did you think of [the EGAP course]? Participant: [The EGAP course]? Yes. Yes, I wrote like, ‘‘nevertheless.’’ Yes. Researcher: Really? Participant: It’s like a transition word. Like that. Researcher: So is ‘‘nevertheless’’ a transition word you practiced in [the EGAP course]? Participant: Yes. (Participant 1, interview 1) Discipline: “Natural sciences” Task type: “Explanation of calculation” Kind of transfer: “Establishing coherence”

17 Data analysis for study 1: Step 2 – writing samples Samples were coded for discipline, task type, and whether each of 10 learning outcomes explicitly targeted in the EGAP course textbook had been applied.

18 Data analysis for study 1: Step 2 – writing samples Samples were coded for discipline, task type, and whether each of 10 learning outcomes explicitly targeted in the EGAP course textbook had been applied. 1. describing visually2. stating personal significance 3. narrating4. using similes/metaphors 5. framing6. using temporal transitions 7. using short sentences to 8. avoiding missing commas draw reader’s attention after introductory elements draw reader’s attention after introductory elements 9. avoiding fused sentences 10. using past perfect verb tense accurately tense accurately

19 Data analysis for study 1: Step 2 – writing samples

20 ... Indicator of transfer in writing samples: a student’s application of a given learning outcome (a) in the writing sample from the first major task in the EGAP course and (b) in a writing sample from a subsequent task in another course.

21 Data analysis for study 1: Reliability Another researcher recoded 20% of the data (7 interview transcripts and 13 writing samples). Comparison of the other researcher’s coding decisions with the coding decisions I had made with the same data resulted in intercoder reliability values of 93% (interview transcripts) and 96% (writing samples).

22 Findings for study 1 Research questions: Did learning transfer from this EGAP writing course to other academic courses? If so, what transferred, and to where?

23 Findings from study 1: Interview transcripts Students reported 8 different kinds of transfer: 1. Organizing (8 students, 15 tasks) 2. Using resources (5 students, 8 tasks) 3. Developing topics (4 students, 5 tasks) 4. Establishing coherence (3 students, 4 tasks) 5. Using appropriate syntactic patterns and devices (3 students, 4 tasks) 6. Using a process (2 students, 5 tasks) 7. Writing efficiently (2 students, 3 tasks) 8. Using appropriate vocabulary (1 students, 1 task)

24 Findings from study 1: Interview transcripts Example of reported transfer in the category organizing... Researcher: Why not think about [the EGAP course] when you did this task and the other task? Participant: Why not? Maybe, I don’t know, but one thing, the introduction and the main point and a conclusion thing, I used what I learned. Researcher: Did you consciously, you thought ‘‘I should use an introduction, body, conclusion’’? Participant: Yes, yes. Researcher: When you thought about the structure, and introduction, body, conclusion, did you think about [the EGAP course] or did you think about learning back in Japan? Participant: [The EGAP course]. (Participant 9, interview 1)

25 Findings from study 1: Interview transcripts

26 Findings from study 1: Writing samples - Transfer across learning outcomes

27 Findings from study 1: Writing samples - Transfer across disciplines

28 Findings from study 1: Writing samples - Transfer across task types

29 Summary of study 1 Learning in the EGAP writing course did transfer to other courses. Learning in the EGAP writing course did transfer to other courses. This transfer involved a variety of learning outcomes, helping add detail to our picture of transfer in EGAP writing education. This transfer occurred across a broad range of task types and disciplines, helping add support to the position that EGAP instruction can lead to broad transfer. This transfer was inconsistent, raising practical questions about the success of this EGAP writing instruction.

30 Learning task Learning context Elements of learning transfer situations (from James, 2007, adapted from Marini and Genereux, 1995) Transfer task Transfer context Learner

31 Learning task Learning context Elements of learning transfer situations (from James, 2007, adapted from Marini and Genereux, 1995) Transfer task Transfer context Learner

32 Study 2: Transfer climate Transfer climate is the support for learning transfer that an individual perceives in the target context of instruction (Burke & Baldwin, 1999).

33 Study 2: HRD examples of transfer climate In workplace training research, transfer climate involves workers’ perceptions of: (a) support from supervisors, coworkers, and/or supervisees in the form of... expectations that training outcomes will transfer; demonstration of training outcomes; encouragement to transfer training outcomes; attention to connections between workplace and training; positive reactions to transfer; positive attitudes toward training. (b) personal outcomes of learning transfer (e.g., salary raises, promotions).

34 Study 2: Transfer climate in EAP education Transfer climate seems relevant here because... (a) the mainstream academic settings that EAP instruction prepares students for: are similar to workplaces in that students have to do work (i.e., coursework) and deal with supervisors (i.e., instructors, TAs) and coworkers (i.e., classmates). are complex and may present hurdles to learning transfer. (b) EAP educators are interested in understanding mainstream academic settings, and a transfer climate lens can help them do that.

35 Study 2: Definition and research question The definition of transfer climate in EAP education is: learners’ perceptions of characteristics of their mainstream academic courses that may facilitate or inhibit the application of learning outcomes from an EAP course. The research question for this study is: What can a transfer climate perspective reveal about challenges EAP students face in a mainstream academic setting?

36 Study 2: The setting A 1-semester, 3-credit university EAP writing course. 8 sections (with 19 students each) of the course were offered.... students from 5 of those sections participated. All sections had 4 formal written assignments.... these assignments were 3-4 page essays involving self-reflection and/or primary/secondary research.... for each project, the students had to create a rough draft that was peer- and/or instructor-reviewed, and then revise the rough draft to create a final draft.

37 Study 2: The participants 52 students participated. Most were in their first year of university study. 29 were male and 23 were female. They represented 22 different nationalities, the most common being Saudi Arabian (12 participants), South Korean (11), Indian (5), and Chinese (3). They represented a range of majors, the most common being business (15 participants), engineering (11), and the natural sciences (5).

38 Study 2: Data collection Each student participated in 1 semi-structured interview. The main questions were: Do instructors in other courses... expect strong writing skills? provide feedback on students’ writing skills? react positively to your use of skills from the EAP course? Are classmates in other courses concerned about writing? Do instructors / classmates in other courses... use the same kind of writing you have been learning in the EAP course? talk about connections between those courses and EAP courses? encourage students to transfer learning from EAP courses? have positive attitudes toward EAP courses? Will using skills from the EAP course help you get higher grades and / or work faster in other courses?

39 Study 2: Data collection Each student participated in 1 semi-structured interview. The main questions were: Do instructors in other courses... expect strong writing skills? provide feedback on students’ writing skills? react positively to your use of skills from the EAP course? Are classmates in other courses concerned about writing? Do instructors / classmates in other courses... use the same kind of writing you have been learning in the EAP course? talk about connections between those courses and EAP courses? encourage students to transfer learning from EAP courses? have positive attitudes toward EAP courses? Will using skills from the EAP course help you get higher grades and / or work faster in other courses?

40 Study 2: Data collection Each student participated in 1 semi-structured interview. The main questions were: Do instructors in other courses... expect strong writing skills? provide feedback on students’ writing skills? react positively to your use of skills from the EAP course? Are classmates in other courses concerned about writing? Do instructors / classmates in other courses... use the same kind of writing you have been learning in the EAP course? talk about connections between those courses and EAP courses? encourage students to transfer learning from EAP courses? have positive attitudes toward EAP courses? Will using skills from the EAP course help you get higher grades and / or work faster in other courses?

41 Study 2: Data analysis Quantitative: I coded each response as “yes”, “no”, “varied”, “don’t know”, or “unclear”. For example... Researcher: Do your instructors expect strong writing skills? Student: In some courses they do, but in others, no.  code: Varied. Qualitative: I identified reasons students gave for unsupportive aspects of transfer climate and coded them into categories. For example... Student: My professors don’t expect strong writing skills. I make grammar mistakes on my lab reports, and they don’t take off any marks.  code: No connection between language use and grades.

42 Study 2: Findings from quantitative analysis Aspect of transfer climateYesVariedNoDon’t know Unclear/ no resp. Instructors... expect strong writing skills174831 04... give feedback on quality of writing 23762 00... use learning outcomes targeted in EAP course294027 22... have positive attitudes toward EAP courses2915 392... make connections to EAP courses 21089 00... encourage transfer from EAP course 42173 02... react positively to transfer from EAP course393327 02 Classmates... are concerned about writing skills192942100... use learning outcomes targeted in EAP course174435 40... have positive attitude toward EAP courses125417152... make connections to EAP courses 4 294 00... encourage transfer from EAP course 8 681 24 Transfer has (or will have) a positive impact on grades.3560 6 00 Transfer has (or will have) a positive impact on efficiency.272944 00 Student’s response

43 Study 2: Findings from quantitative analysis Aspect of transfer climateYesVariedNoDon’t know Unclear/ no resp. Instructors... expect strong writing skills174831 04... give feedback on quality of writing 23762 00... use learning outcomes targeted in EAP course294027 22... have positive attitudes toward EAP courses2915 392... make connections to EAP courses 21089 00... encourage transfer from EAP course 42173 02... react positively to transfer from EAP course393327 02 Classmates... are concerned about writing skills192942100... use learning outcomes targeted in EAP course174435 40... have positive attitude toward EAP courses125417152... make connections to EAP courses 4 294 00... encourage transfer from EAP course 8 681 24 Transfer has (or will have) a positive impact on grades.3560 6 00 Transfer has (or will have) a positive impact on efficiency.272944 00 Student’s response

44 Study 2: Findings from quantitative analysis Aspect of transfer climateYesVariedNoDon’t know Unclear/ no resp. Instructors... expect strong writing skills174831 04... give feedback on quality of writing 23762 00... use learning outcomes targeted in EAP course294027 22... have positive attitudes toward EAP courses2915 392... make connections to EAP courses 21089 00... encourage transfer from EAP course 42173 02... react positively to transfer from EAP course393327 02 Classmates... are concerned about writing skills192942100... use learning outcomes targeted in EAP course174435 40... have positive attitude toward EAP courses125417152... make connections to EAP courses 4 294 00... encourage transfer from EAP course 8 681 24 Transfer has (or will have) a positive impact on grades.3560 6 00 Transfer has (or will have) a positive impact on efficiency.272944 00 Student’s response

45 Study 2: Findings from quantitative analysis Aspect of transfer climateYesVariedNoDon’t know Unclear/ no resp. Instructors... expect strong writing skills174831 04... give feedback on quality of writing 23762 00... use learning outcomes targeted in EAP course294027 22... have positive attitudes toward EAP courses2915 392... make connections to EAP courses 21089 00... encourage transfer from EAP course 42173 02... react positively to transfer from EAP course393327 02 Classmates... are concerned about writing skills192942100... use learning outcomes targeted in EAP course174435 40... have positive attitude toward EAP courses125417152... make connections to EAP courses 4 294 00... encourage transfer from EAP course 8 681 24 Transfer has (or will have) a positive impact on grades.3560 6 00 Transfer has (or will have) a positive impact on efficiency.272944 00 Student’s response

46 1. Explicit negative reference to EAP writing courses Researcher: What about other students? [How do they feel about EAP writing courses?] Student:Some of my friends took [another EAP writing course]. They told me it is kind of a waste of time. So they feel negative. (Student 12)

47 2. Explicit negative reference to academic writing Researcher:How do you think your professors feel about freshman writing courses? Student:Some I would say, my math teacher, she doesn't feel too good about it, kind of negative, being in math and all. Researcher:How do you know that? Student:I remember when she said, “the writing”, she said, “this is the only writing, I'm sorry, this is the only writing you will ever have to do in math. I was never good in writing.” She was explaining the course. She said, “in this part of the course, you'll have to do a little bit of writing, and I'm sorry for that.” (Student 23)

48 3. Effective language use Researcher:Do you think the students are concerned about writing skills? Student:I don't know. No, I don't think so. Researcher:Why do you think they're not? Do they say anything? Have you heard anything? Student:I think for them, most of the students I know, they are native English speakers. So they're not very concerned about English. They know it, so they use it very easily. It's not a big thing. (Student 2)

49 4. Ineffective or careless language use Student: So I don't think some of them are positive, because they are always absent, they come late to the class. And they do their projects and homework in really short time. So they don't spend that much time. (Student 18)

50 5. Little or no connection between language use and grades Researcher:How do you know [instructors] don't expect students to have good writing skills? Student:Yes, I sometimes write my opinion in [a Human Services courses] casually, and sometimes I make a mistake with grammar, but she doesn't care. She gives me full points. (Student 19)

51 6. Unrelated activities Researcher:If you tried to use the skills from [the EAP writing course] in these courses, what impact would it have on your grades? Student:Maybe negative. Researcher:Why? Student:Because they are different writing styles. Just as, you can't wear a T-shirt to a job interview at a business, a company. (Student 29)

52 7. Unrelated disciplines Student: But I wouldn't think the people in architecture would be very concerned about English. Mostly they are right-brained people. (Student 51)

53 8. Limited resources Researcher:So how do you know, or why do you think, you said the other students are maybe not so concerned [about their writing skills], how do you know that? Student: I don't think they really have, I'm not trying to be, I think they're just short on time, to concentrate on the studying, so whenever they're doing writing, I don't think they have time to concentrate. Same as me, I don't really have any time to consider my grammar skills when I do history, because I'm kind of focusing on what is going on in that area. So it's based on that. (Student 5)

54 9. Low-level courses Researcher:Do you think the professors expect students to have strong English writing skills? Student:I'm not sure about that. But from my perspective, I think these are 100-level courses, it looks like professors don't really expect too much from the students. (Student 17)

55 Study 2: Summary A transfer climate perspective can shed useful light on challenges EAP students face in a mainstream academic setting... EAP students can perceive support for learning transfer in a variety of ways; but, they can also perceive a lack of support for learning transfer in a variety of ways. Various concrete features of a mainstream academic setting can contribute to negative transfer climate (e.g., explicit negative references to academic writing; little or no connection between language use and grades), and therefore might be added to a list of challenges EAP students face in mainstream academic settings.

56 Study 2: Implications for research By examining students’ perceptions, this study complements research that has examined mainstream academic settings from other angles (e.g., faculty perspectives).By examining students’ perceptions, this study complements research that has examined mainstream academic settings from other angles (e.g., faculty perspectives). By examining a broad range of features of mainstream academic settings, this study complements research that has examined students’ perceptions of language-related difficulties.By examining a broad range of features of mainstream academic settings, this study complements research that has examined students’ perceptions of language-related difficulties. By examining support for learning transfer, this study complements research that has examined students’ perceptions of interactions with teachers/peers.By examining support for learning transfer, this study complements research that has examined students’ perceptions of interactions with teachers/peers.

57 Study 2: Implications for teaching This study sheds light on the challenges EAP students face in mainstream academic courses.This study sheds light on the challenges EAP students face in mainstream academic courses.... opportunities to apply learning outcomes from an EAP course do not occur in a vacuum: They occur in situations in which students may feel varying degrees of support. So, EAP instructors may want to assess transfer climate, in order to:So, EAP instructors may want to assess transfer climate, in order to: (a) raise students’ awareness of the variation they may perceive in support for learning transfer; (b) help students decide how to react appropriately in these situations.

58 Learning task Learning context Elements of learning transfer situations (from James, 2007, adapted from Marini and Genereux, 1995) Transfer task Transfer context Learner

59 Study 3: Background Motivation is critical to L2 learning and has been the topic of much research (e.g., Dornyei, 2001, 2003).Motivation is critical to L2 learning and has been the topic of much research (e.g., Dornyei, 2001, 2003). Earlier research has focused on motivation to learn a L2; this study focuses instead on motivation to transfer L2 learning.Earlier research has focused on motivation to learn a L2; this study focuses instead on motivation to transfer L2 learning. Transfer is important in L2 education, and it can’t be taken for granted.Transfer is important in L2 education, and it can’t be taken for granted.

60 Study 3: Definition L2 transfer motivation = a combination of effort, desire, and attitudes that influences whether an individual will apply L2 learning from one context in a different context.

61 Study 3: Research questions 1.Are students motivated to transfer learning from a L2 course? 2.What factors influence this motivation?

62 Study 3: Research design Qualitative case study 40 students from 4 sections of a first-year credit-bearing English-for-academic-purposes (EAP) course at a large American university Participants: 40 students from 4 sections of the course. 75% second-year; average age 21; 67.5% male, 32.5% female; 19 different nationalities (most common Saudi Arabian [17.5%], South Korean [17.5%], Chinese [10%], and Taiwanese [10%]); Wide range of majors (most common business [35%], engineering [20%], natural sciences [12.5%], and design [10%])

63 Study 3: Data collection A single semi-structured interview with each participant, focusing on the following questions: Desire. Is it important to you that you actually use what you have learned or practiced in the EAP course in your other courses? Why or why not? Favorable attitudes. Do you (or would you) take pleasure in using what you have learned or practiced in the EAP course in your other courses? Why or why not? Effort. Do you make an effort to use what you have learned or practiced in the EAP course in other courses? Why or why not?

64 Study 3: Data analysis Interview transcripts were divided into units of analysis (i.e., a sequence of related turns that began with one of the main interview questions).Interview transcripts were divided into units of analysis (i.e., a sequence of related turns that began with one of the main interview questions). For the first research question (i.e., Are students motivated to transfer learning from this L2 course?), I coded the relevant units of analysis deductively, as “yes”, “no”, or “mixed”.For the first research question (i.e., Are students motivated to transfer learning from this L2 course?), I coded the relevant units of analysis deductively, as “yes”, “no”, or “mixed”. For the second research question (i.e., What factors influence this motivation?), I coded the relevant units of analysis inductively, by looking for general themes in the units and then grouping units with similar themes together.For the second research question (i.e., What factors influence this motivation?), I coded the relevant units of analysis inductively, by looking for general themes in the units and then grouping units with similar themes together.

65 Study 3: Data analysis - Reliability Another researcher re-coded 20% of the data (8 interview transcripts). Comparison of the other researcher’s coding decisions with the coding decisions I had made with the same data resulted in an inter-coder reliability value of 92.7%.Another researcher re-coded 20% of the data (8 interview transcripts). Comparison of the other researcher’s coding decisions with the coding decisions I had made with the same data resulted in an inter-coder reliability value of 92.7%. One month after initial coding, I re-coded 20% of the data myself. Comparison of those coding decisions with the original coding decisions I had made with the same data resulted in an intra-coder reliability value of 96.4%.One month after initial coding, I re-coded 20% of the data myself. Comparison of those coding decisions with the original coding decisions I had made with the same data resulted in an intra-coder reliability value of 96.4%.

66 Study 3: Findings Research question 1: Are students motivated to transfer learning from this L2 course? YesMixedNoOther Desire transfer?42.53027.50 Have favorable attitudes toward transfer? 67.517.5150 Make effort to transfer?522.5702.5* * One participant reported that s/he made an effort to not transfer learning from the EAP course to other courses.

67 Study 3: Findings Research question 2: What factors influence this motivation?... eight factors: 1.Perceptions of resource availability 2.Perceptions of opportunity for transfer 3.Perceptions of requirement for transfer 4.Personal beliefs about transfer 5.Expected impact of transfer 6.Perceptions of competence 7.Attitudes toward learning outcomes 8.Attitudes toward learning and transfer context/tasks

68 1. Perceptions of resource availability Researcher:Why have you not made an effort? Why not make more effort? Participant: Time is a constant. [... The student explained for the next approximately 30 seconds that s/he planned to make more effort in the future.] Researcher: So am I correct that you have not made an effort to use things you learned in [the EAP course] in these courses, only because of time? Participant: Yes, only because of time. I can’t think. I have to finish my assignments, and I have to learn it. So whatever comes into print, I’m doing it. (Participant 3)

69 2. Perceptions of opportunity for transfer Researcher: Why do you feel that way? [that using things you have learned or practiced in the EAP course in other courses is not that important] Participant: Because I think that writing for the English course is unique. I mean it’s really different from the other course writing. It is specific. Something specific in this writing. Because I learned a lot of writing before, and it's totally different from the other course. I mean English is English. It's just writing for English. It doesn't, maybe it helps the writing with the other subjects. But other subjects is not exactly what the English writing is. (Participant 2)

70 Study 3: Summary Research question 1: Were students motivated to transfer learning from this L2 course? yes, but this was a small proportion of this group of students. Research question 2: What factors influenced this motivation? factors related to the context (i.e., resources, opportunities, requirements, impact, learning outcomes, courses/tasks) and the learner (i.e., beliefs about transfer, competence).

71 Study 3: Discussion These findings are valuable because they... suggest that transfer motivation cannot be assumed in L2 education, and therefore highlight L2 transfer motivation as an issue worthy of attention. overlap with research on transfer motivation in other areas (e.g., workplace training), and therefore suggest that such research is relevant to future research on L2 transfer motivation. overlap with research on motivation to learn L2s, and therefore suggest that motivation to learn a L2 and motivation to transfer L2 learning may be influenced by similar factors.

72 Study 3: Discussion Implications for teaching practice... if generating motivation to transfer L2 learning is seen as an important goal in L2 education, the findings of this study (i.e., that L2 students can have gaps in transfer motivation) may cause concern. However, this study also uncovers a range of factors that L2 educators can address to try to generate transfer motivation.... “Without knowing where the roots of motivation lie, how can teachers water those roots?” (Oxford & Shearin, 1994, p.15).

73 Learning task Learning context Elements of learning transfer situations (from James, 2007, adapted from Marini and Genereux, 1995) Transfer task Transfer context Learner

74 Learning context/task Learning transfer can be enhanced by: the integration of academic tasks in an EAP writing course (Braine, 1988; Carson, 2000; Meyer, 1996); the integration of academic tasks in an EAP writing course (Braine, 1988; Carson, 2000; Meyer, 1996); the provision of a range of conceptual activities in an EAP writing course (Currie, 1993); the provision of a range of conceptual activities in an EAP writing course (Currie, 1993); having students use disciplinary portfolios (Hirvela, 1997); having students use disciplinary portfolios (Hirvela, 1997); training students in ethnographic methods (Johns, 1988; 1990); training students in ethnographic methods (Johns, 1988; 1990); having students compare and contrast a variety of texts in familar and unfamiliar genres (Johns, 1997; 1999); having students compare and contrast a variety of texts in familar and unfamiliar genres (Johns, 1997; 1999); having students reflect on strategies they use to complete writing tasks (Johns, 1997; 1999). having students reflect on strategies they use to complete writing tasks (Johns, 1997; 1999).

75 Learning context/task Teaching-for-transfer techniques (Perkins & Salomon, 1988): Hugging = designing learning tasks/context to appear similar to target tasks and contexts Bridging = designing learning tasks/context to stimulate abstract thinking

76 Future directions? How can we most effectively identify learning transfer? How can we most effectively identify learning transfer? Where should we look? (all writing vs. some writing) When should we look? (immediately vs. delayed) How should we look? (low-road vs. high-road) How do various learning outcomes in L2 writing education compare/contrast in terms of learning transfer? (e.g., near vs. far; low-road vs. high-road) How do various learning outcomes in L2 writing education compare/contrast in terms of learning transfer? (e.g., near vs. far; low-road vs. high-road) How do elements of transfer situations interact with actual learning transfer? (e.g., transfer climate; transfer motivation; teaching-for-transfer techniques) How do elements of transfer situations interact with actual learning transfer? (e.g., transfer climate; transfer motivation; teaching-for-transfer techniques)

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