21. Europe and Asia Post-WWI Economic depression and social problemsDeep feelings of nationalismStrong desire to expand & gain territoryRise of dictators: democratic govt fails & people turn to authoritarians to fix the problemsThe Allies blamed Germany for the war & punished them harshly anger and resentment on all sidesGermany lost their colonies & territoriesSoviets lost parts of Russia
3A. Joseph Stalin: Man of Steel Goal: worldwide spread of communismGreat Purge: million executed or banished to SiberiaTotalitarian: total control over citizens
4B. Benito Mussolini Fascism: strong central govt Nationalist/patriotic Invades Ethiopia, 1935Ethiopians had defeated Italians in 1896, so Mussolini wanted revengeLeague of Nations issues sanctions – no real consequences
5C. Adolf HitlerNazism: extreme racism, expansionism and nationalism, Hitler's book Mein KampfAryans: the master race that needs to be served by inferior races
6D. Emperor Hirohito and P. M. Tojo Japan needs more living spaceJapan attacks & conquers Manchuria in 1931 (wants their natural resources)League of Nations issues sanctions against Japan Japan quitsLater invades Eastern China in 1937
8E. Appeasement & Neutrality France is concerned but needs Great Britain to actBritain wants no part of another warUS passes Neutrality Acts, 1935Outlawed weapon sales to nations at warOutlawed weapon sales to nations in civil warProhibited Americans from traveling on warring nations’ shipsGOAL: avoid involvement in European war
92. Road to War in EuropeRome-Berlin Axis Pact, treaty of friendship between Italy and Germany, later joined by JapanHitler begins to build up military (violation of Treaty of Versailles)
10A. Germany’s Invasions & Acts of Aggression Hitler and Nazis:Wanted to unite all German-speaking peoplesBelieved in a superior race (Aryans)The Germans needed more “living space”Felt Eastern European Slavs were inferior: “nature is cruel, so we may be cruel, too… I have a right to remove millions of an inferior race that breeds like vermin.”1. March 12, 1938 – German Troops enter Austria (“Anschluss”)
11(Sound of Music)Captain von Trapp, a decorated World War I Captain of the Austro-Hungarian Navy, hires Maria to be the governess of his children in Salzburg, Austria on the eve of World War II. As you know, they fall in love and marry.The family is eventually forced to flee the country (to Switzerland) because Captain von Trapp refuses to join Hitler’s navy. The movie closes after the family sings “Edelweiss,” a sort of national anthem of loyalty to Austria.
12Munich Conference: 1938Germany wanted Sudetenland (part of Czechoslovakia with German language speakers)Munich Conference- Britain, France, Germany and Italy meet to try to prevent war, but Germany refuses to back down.2. Germany invades Czechoslovakia in October 1939
14Invasion of Poland Nazi-Soviet Pact, August 23, 1939 3. Nazis invade Poland, Sept. 1, 1939Germany takes western land, Stalin takes eastern landFrance & Britain declare war on Germany: Sept. 3, 1939
15B. Blitzkrieg “Lightning War”: aerial bombings tanks ground troops Germany attacks Norway & Denmark in April 1940Germany conquers Belgium, Netherlands & Luxembourg in May 1940
16German Advance on France French & British troops stationed at Maginot Line (border of France and Germany)British troops retreat, caught btwn English Channel & Nazis“Miracle of Dunkirk” Emergency evacuation of Allied soldiers from the beaches and harbor of Dunkirk, France, in because the British, French and Belgian troops were cut off by the German army during the Battle of Dunkirk. 300,000 troops live!
17France Surrenders Italy attacked France from South Germans headed toward ParisFrench surrender June 22, 1940Some French officers & leaders escape to England – led by Charles de GaulleResistance begins in France
18France falls June 17, 1940 -British/ French retreat at Dunkirk
19Battle of Britain, Late Summer 1940 Neville Chamberlain is Prime Minister, refuses to surrender to GermansLuftwaffe: German Air ForceSame unit that would bomb Guernica in SpainRAF: Royal Air Force2 months of heavy bombing…people hid in the subwaysBritish able to win because of radar15,000 Londoners killed
27War ContinuesOperation Barbarossa, June 1941: Germany attempts to conquer USSRThree million German troops advanced2.5 million Russian soldiers died (unprepared, Great Purge)Germany pushed almost to Moscow and LeningradRussian troops destroyed land on the way
28Siege of Leningrad September 1941 German troops stopped by “General Winter”Russians in Leningrad suffered1 million+ died from starvationGreat Britain and Russia agree to work together
303. Holocaust Nuremburg Laws (1935) Kristallnacht (1938) anti-Semitism as a form of scientific racismdeprived Jews of their German citizenshipprohibited marriage between Jews and other Germanslegal embodiment of an already existing Nazi boycott of Jewish businessesprevented "Jews" from participating in German civic lifeKristallnacht (1938)“Night of Broken Glass”series of coordinated attacks against Jews throughout Nazi Germany and parts of Austria, carried out by SA stormtroopers and civiliansleft the streets covered with broken glass from the windows of Jewish-owned stores, buildings, and synagoguesat least 91 Jews were killed in the attacks, and a further 30,000 arrested and incarcerated in concentration camps
31Targets and the Final Solution Germany encouraged Jews to move to other countriesNazis set up concentration/ labor campsDeath camps were created in 19416,000 could be killed dailyWho else was targeted?Gypsies, communists, homosexuals, Catholics, handicapped, etc…The “Final Solution” – Nazi Germany's plan and execution of the systematic genocide of European Jews during World War II, resulting in the most deadly phase of the Holocaust.ModuleId= &MediaId=3372
32Universe of Obligation The circle of individuals and groups toward whom obligations are owed, to whom rules apply, and whose injuries call for amends. (Helen Fein, Holocaust and Human Behavior)“I love my daughters more than my nieces, I love my nieces more than my cousins, my cousins more than my neighbors. But that doesn’t mean we detest our neighbors. The fact of being Francophile doesn’t require being xenophobic (afraid of foreigners). The fact that I prefer the French does not mean that I detest the English.”A hierarchy of caring: who are we obligated to? What happens if we expand this hierarchy out to include people like us in the form of race, religion, national origin, sexual orientation, political beliefs, professions, clubs, schools, etc.?
344. Axis Powers Sign treaty in September 1940: Germany – Hitler Italy – MussoliniJapan – Emperor Hirohito
355. Neutrality in Action1939: Cash-And-Carry - nations can buy American weapons and supplies if they pay cash and carry the goods home in their own ships1940: Franklin Delano Roosevelt is 1st President to be elected for the 3rd time. Promises to keep the U.S. out of the war.
36Lend-Lease Plan (1941) Britain out of $ to buy U.S. weapons Congress allows the U.S. to lend or lease arms to “any country whose defense was vital to the U.S.”Who did this apply to?Great Britain and USSR (had been invaded by Germany in 1941)
37We “lent” Great Britain war planes and gunpowder
38U.S. Plans for WarSept. 1941: Atlantic Charter– FDR and Churchill secretly meet to set goals for warBritain and the U.S. declare why they are opposed to the Axis PowersSept 1941: German “wolf packs” begin sinking U.S. cargo ships
39Attack on Pearl Harbor Nov 1941 – Japan sends “peace envoy” to D.C. In late Nov, FDR sends “war warning” to Hawaii, Guam, and PhilippinesDec 6, 1941 – FDR intercepts coded message to Japanese peace envoy telling them to reject U.S. proposalsDec 7, 1941 – Japanese navy launches a surprise attack on American navy in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii– which officially brings the US into World War II. Why?Japan wants an empire and the U.S., Great Britain and French colonies are in their wayin order to keep the U.S. Pacific Fleet from interfering with military actions Japan was planning in Southeast Asia against overseas territories of the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and the United StatesJapan needs U.S. oil for fuel
40Attack on Pearl HarborFDR: Pearl Harbor Address -
41Pearl Harbor Attack 188 U.S. aircraft were destroyed 2,402 Americans were killed1,282 Americans were wounded8 U.S. Navy battleships were damaged, with 4 being sunkSeveral other ships were destroyed or damaged
42Progression of War US declares war on Japan December 8 Germany and Italy declare war on US December 11
436. Allied Powers– Leaders Great Britain – Winston ChurchillFrance – Charles de GaulleUnited States – FDRUSSR - Stalin
447. War for Europe and North Africa U.S. and Great Britain Join ForcesFirst, defeat Germany (unconditional surrender- nothing less)Then, focus on the Pacific
46Why was Switzerland Neutral? Switzerland was never attacked. It was able to remain independent through a combination of military deterrence, economic concessions to Germany, and good fortune as larger events during the war delayed an invasion.Attempts by Switzerland's small Nazi party to affect an Anschluss with Germany failed miserably, largely as a result of Switzerland's multicultural heritage, strong sense of national identity, and long tradition of direct democracy and civil liberties.The Swiss military strategy was changed from one of static defense at the borders, to a strategy of organized long-term attrition and withdrawal to strong, well-stockpiled positions high in the Alps. The idea was to cause huge losses to German forces and render the cost of invading too high.Switzerland was an important base for espionage by both sides in the conflict and often mediated communications between the Axis and Allied powers by serving as a protecting power.
47Battle of AtlanticGerman u-boats/Luftwaffe vs. British and Canadian navy/air forceAmerican navy aided the Allies from onward
48Eastern Front (USSR) 1942-1943- Battle of Stalingrad Germany surrenders (300,000 Germans die)Soviets lose 1.25 million soldiers and civilians2 months of hand-to-hand street fighting
50North Africa- “Operation Torch” Allies (led by Eisenhower) chase German General Rommel (The Desert Fox)Germany surrenders May, 1943
51ItalyAllies capture Sicily in summer 1943 and invade Italian towns along the coast – Axis defeated
52Italy and Mussolini’s Death Mussolini executed (by firing squad) by Italians in April, 1945Mussolini and other fascist leaders were hung upside down and beaten by a crowd of ItaliansItaly joins the Allies
53Europe Liberated: Normandy Battle of Normandy– code name “Operation Overlord”Allied powers open second front in EuropePlan to invade German-occupied FranceGeneral Dwight D. Eisenhower – supreme commanderJune 6, 1944: paratroopers drop in France at midnight176,000 Allied troops landed (via England)Approx Allied troops died80,000 Germans killed19,000 Normandy civilians killed
54Europe Liberated: D-Day The Normandy landings, codenamed “Operation Neptune:, were the landing operations of the Allied invasion of Normandy (NW France), in Operation Overlord on June 6, 1944.Goal: After the evacuation of Dunkirk in 1940, the British forces planned a return to France. General Dwight D. Eisenhower was in charge of the invasion of Germany, and the goal of the invasion was to take over the beach so the British and American forces could bring supplies and equipment.
55Battle of the Bulge Dec. 1944 outside the town of Bastogne, Germany Allies move closer to Germany, Germany retreats then stops for a surprise attackLasted a month in the winter: Hitler’s last stand
59Liberation of the Death Camps Allied troops pushed into GermanyDiscovered concentration camps
60Hitler’s DeathApril 30, 1945 – Hitler writes final letter blaming the JewsHe and new wife Eva Braun commit suicide in Berlin bunker
61Yalta Conference: Feb. 1945 Met at Yalta, Russia after V-E Day The Big Three: Churchill, Stalin, FDRPurpose was to make post-WWII plans for Europe (still fighting in Pacific)How to re-establish war-torn nationsHow to divide other nationsStalin agreed to declare war on Japan after Germany’s defeat (US needed help!)Occupation of Germany
62Occupation of Germany Demilitarized Germany Germany divided into 4 zones: French, British, American and SovietsBerlin Wall [built in 1961 by USSR Communists]
63V-E Day: Victory in Europe May 8, 1945 – Unconditional surrender of the Nazi Forces and the end of Hitler’s Third Reich.
64Potsdam Conference – July 1945 In the five months since the Yalta Conference, a number of changes had taken place which would greatly affect the relationships between the leaders.The Soviet Union was occupying Central and Eastern Europe (which had been part of Germany’s Empire)Britain had a new Prime Minister – Clement AtleeAmerica had a new President, and the war was ending – Harry Truman, who was much more suspicious of Stalin and the Soviet Union’s aggressive expansion than FDR had been.The US had tested an atomic bomb (but had not dropped one on Japan yet).
65Potsdam Conference – July 1945 Potsdam Agreement: the Allied (UK, US, USSR) plan of tripartite military occupation and reconstruction of Germany and the entire European Theatre of War territory. It also included Germany's demilitarization, reparations and the prosecution of war criminals.Potsdam Declaration: Churchill, Truman, and Chiang Kai-shek (China) outlined the terms of surrender for Japan during World War II in Asia.
66Nuremburg TrialsHeld by the Allied Powers in Nuremberg, Germany to try Nazis for “crimes against humanity”The indictments were for:Participation in a common plan or conspiracy for the accomplishment of a crime against peacePlanning, initiating and waging wars of aggression and other crimes against peaceWar crimesCrimes against humanity142 out of the 177 Nazis tried were convictedMany received death sentences