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Uthman (r) Up to Abu Bakr’s Khilaafah A.S. Hashim, MD From Wikipedia.com
Sources of Reference ibn Hisham, Uthman bin Affan, the Third Khalifa of Islam by, Abdul Basit. Hilya al-Awliya, Abu Nu’aym, Uthman ibn Affan: The Man With Two Lights (Part Two) The Murder of the Khalifa Uthman, M. Hinds, The Arabs in History, Oxford University Press, 2002 Encyclopædia Britannica The Early Islamic Conquests, Fred Donner, Princeton 1981 A Restatement of the History of Islam and Muslims The Cambridge History of Islam, Bernard Lewis, The Succession to Muhammad Makers of Arab History By Philip Khuri Hitti.
In this Slide Show Lineage Uthman: nickname Dhul-Nurayn ذو النورين Conversion to Islam Migration to Abyssinia Life in Medina Treaty of Hudaibiyah After the Conquest of Mecca Uthman's family converts Tabuk Ghadeer Khum Marriages During the Last Days of the Prophet
Uthman ibn Affan: عثمان بن عفان Uthman ibn Affan عثمان بن عفان was: One of the Sahaaba (companions of Prophet Muhammad). An early convert to Islam, he played a major role in early Islamic history, most notably as the third Khalifa of the Rashidoon Empire, Prophet's son-in-law and the compilation of the Quran.
Lineage Uthman was born in Ta’if, which is situated on a high elevation, Presumably during the summer months, since wealthy Meccans usually spent hot summer days in the cooler climate of Ta’if. Uthman was born into the wealthy Umayya clan (Benu Umayya) of the Quraish tribe of Mecca, He was seven years younger than Muhammad, and 5 years younger than Abu Bakr, but eight years older than Omar. Uthman's father, Affan, died young while traveling abroad but left a large inheritance to Uthman. Uthman followed the same profession as his father, and his business flourished, making him one of the wealthiest among the Quraish tribe. Uthman’s mother, Arwa Bint Kuraiz أروى بنت كريز was the daughter of the aunt of Prophet Muhammad
Lineage Father Affan Mother Arwa bint Kuraiz Uthman Tribe Benu Ummaya Tribe Abd Munaaf
Uthman: nickname Dhul-Nurayn ذو النورين Later Uthman was nicknamed Dhul-Nurayn ذو النورين Dhul-Nurayn means: a Man with two lights, because of his marriage with two of the Prophet Muhammad's daughters. 1. Ruqayya Bint Muhammad, Who bore him a son, Abdullah, but he died early, 2. When Ruqayya died, Uthman got married to her sister, Umm Kulthoom Bint Muhammad, who bore no children.
Uthman up to his Khilaafah Lineage 1. Lineage 2. Conversion to Islam 3. Migration to Abyssinia 4. Treaty of Hudaibiya 5. Tabuk 6. During Last Days of the Prophet
Description Uthman was: handsome,generous, and plain rather than luxurious. Uthman was said to be charming. Uthman was well known for his reported generosity. During Muhammad's time, while in Medina, he financed the project for the construction of the Al-Masjid al-Nabawi and purchased the well Beer Rauma, which he dedicated to the free use of all Muslims. Uthman’s generosity continued after he became Khalifa.
Conversion to Islam Uthman was an early convert to Islam and is said to have spent a great amount of his wealth on charity. On returning from a business trip to Syria in 611, the 33 yr old Uthman found out that Muhammad had declared his mission. Uthman, after a discussion with his friend Abu Bakr, decided to convert to Islam, and Abu Bakr took him to Muhammad to whom he declared his faith. It is claimed that Uthman was the fourth male to convert to Islam, after Ali, Zaid and Abu Bakr had embraced Islam.
Conversion to Islam ولما عرض أبو بكر عليه الإسلام قال له: ويحك يا عثمان واللَّه إنك لرجل حازم ما يخفى عليك الحق من الباطل، هذه الأوثان التي يعبدها قومك، أليست حجارة صماء لا تسمع، ولا تبصر، ولا تضر، ولا تنفع؟ فقال: بلى، واللَّه إنها كذلك، قال أبو بكر: هذا محمد بن عبد اللَّه قد بعثه اللَّه برسالته إلى جميع خلقه، فهل لك أن تأتيه وتسمع منه؟ فقال: نعم. وفي الحال مرَّ رسول اللَّه ـ صلى اللَّه عليه وسلم ـ فقال: (يا عثمان أجب اللَّه إلى جنته فإني رسول اللَّه إليك وإلى جميع خلقه). قال : فواللَّه ما ملكت حين سمعت قوله أن أسلمت، وشهدت أن لا إله إلا اللَّه وحده لا شريك له، وأن محمد اً عبده ورسوله،
Conversion to Islam Uthman’s conversion to Islam enraged his clan, the Benu Umayya, Benu Umayya, (a powerful, materialistic, and greedy), opposed Muhammad's Message to their maximum. Benu Umayya felt the Message of Islam was a great threat to them. The only relatives of Uthman who supported his decision were Saadi, Uthman’s maternal aunt, and Umm Kulthoom, Uthman’s stepsister who had also converted to Islam. Because of his conversion to Islam, Uthman's wives deserted him, and he subsequently divorced them. Muhammad then asked Uthman to marry his daughter Ruqayya Bint Muhammad.
Migration to Abyssinia Uthman and his wife Ruqayya migrated to Abyssinia (Ethiopia) in , along with 11 men and 11 women, all Muslims. As Uthman already had some business contacts in Abyssinia, he continued to practice his profession as a trader. He worked hard, and his business soon flourished. After two years, the news had spread among the Muslims in Abyssinia that the Quraish of Mecca had accepted Islam, and that convinced Uthman, Ruqayya, and some other Muslims to return to Mecca.
Migration to Abyssinia, Continued When they reached Mecca however, it transpired that the news about the Quraish's acceptance of Islam was false. Some of the Muslims who had come from Abyssinia returned to Abyssinia, but Uthman and Ruqayya decided to stay. A second group of more than 80 Muslims migrated to Abyssinia shortly after. They stayed for several years, returning when Khaybar was conquered by Ali In Mecca, Uthman had to start his business afresh, but the contacts that he had already established in Abyssinia worked in his favor, and his business prospered once again.
Life in Medina: Badr In 624, some Muslims from Medina departed to assist in the capture of a Quraish caravan. This culminated in the battle of Badr. At this time, Uthman's wife Ruqayya suffered from serious sickness. Uthman stayed in Medina to look after the ailing Ruqayya, and did not join those who left with Muhammad. Ruqayya died while the Battle of Badr was being fought, and when the news of the victory of Badr reached Medina Ruqayya was being buried. Because of the battle Muhammad could not attend the funeral of his daughter.
Life in Medina: Ohod Uthman and most of the Sahaaba fled in the Battle of Ohod which was fought in 625. They returned back after Ali had repulsed the attacks on Muhammad as stated in the Quran all those who fled were forgiven by God. Following the Battle of Ohod Al-Hasan, son of Ali, was born and Uthman married Muhammad's second daughter, Umm Kulthoom Bint Muhammad. The next year, Uthman’s son, Abdullah ibn Uthman died. Uthman did not participate in the Trench Encounter Which was fought in 627, Uthman was put in charge of a sector of Medina.
Disposal of the Slaves After the Trench encounter a campaign was undertaken against the Jews of Benu Quraidha, and when the Jews were taken captive, the question of the disposal of the slaves became a problem. Uthman solved the issue by purchasing all the slaves, and depositing their price in the Bayt al-mal (Treasury). Any of these slaves who accepted Islam were set free by Uthman in the name of Allah. Slaves were granted equality, given shelter and food under Islamic rule.
Treaty of Hudaibiyah In March of 628 (6 Hijrah), Muhammad set out for Mecca to perform the ritual pilgrimage of Haj. The Quraish denied the Muslims entry into the city and posted themselves outside Mecca, determined to show resistance, even though the Muslims had no intention or preparation for battle. Muhammad camped outside Mecca, at Hudaibiya, and sent Uthman as his envoy to meet with the leaders of Quraish and negotiate Muslim entry into the city. The Quraish made Uthman stay longer in Mecca than he originally planned and refused to inform the Muslims of his whereabouts.
At Hudaibiya The treaty of Hudaibiya was such as to raise objections, especially by Omar. Omar objected over a clause of the treaty saying: that any citizen from Mecca entering Medina is eligible to be returned back to Mecca (if they want), while any Muslim from Medina entering Mecca is not eligible to be returned to the Muslims, even if Muhammad requested. After the signing of the treaty, there was still lingering disappointment among some Muslims because they did not like the stipulations of the treaty. Muhammad, binding onto the Islamic ethic (fulfill every promise), ordered that Muslims do exactly as the treaty says.
Omar and the Hudaibiya Treaty Omar, and a few Muslims, objected strongly to the treaty, and even went as far as regarding that Muhammad's decision was wrong. Since in compliance to the treaty, Muslims were not to enter Mecca for Omrah in that year Therefore, many Muslims even objected when Muhammad repeated three times to perform their Omrah rites in the location they were in. But Muhammad kept emphasizing that Muslims had been victorious. A while later, Omar became worried the Prophet was displeased with him on account of his attitude. Shortly after, revelations came out in support of the Prophet: (Al-Fat’h, the victory: 48:1). (Al-Fat’h, the victory: 48:18-19) See next slide:
22 Al-Fat’h, the Victory: 48:1 and 48:18-19 Verily We have granted thee a manifest Victory …. Allah's Good Pleasure was on the Believers when they swore Fealty to thee under the Tree: He knew what was in their hearts, and He sent down Tranquility to them; and He rewarded them with a speedy Victory; And many gains will they acquire (besides): and Allah is Exalted in Power, Full of Wisdom. إِنَّا فَتَحْنَا لَكَ فَتْحًا مُبِينًا ….. لَقَدْ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِذْ يُبَايِعُونَكَ تَحْتَ الشَّجَرَةِ فَعَلِمَ مَا فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ فَأَنْزَلَ السَّكِينَةَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَأَثَابَهُمْ فَتْحًا قَرِيبًا وَمَغَانِمَ كَثِيرَةً يَأْخُذُونَهَا ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا وَمَغَانِمَ كَثِيرَةً يَأْخُذُونَهَا ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا
23 Treaty of Hudaibiyah: Continued When Uthman was delayed, the Muslims worried that Uthman might have been killed by the people of Quraish. On this occasion, Muhammad gathered his nearly 1,400 Muslims with him to pledge to fight unto death To avenge the death of Uthman if it so happens, They all pledged by placing a hand on top of Muhammad's hand. It is reported that Muhammad placed one of his hands on top of the other and pledged on behalf of Uthman as well. This pledge took place under a tree and was known as the Pledge of the Tree and was successful in demonstrating to the Quraish the determination of the Muslims. Quraish soon released Uthman and sent Suhail ibn Amr to negotiate terms of treaty that later became known as the Treaty of Hudaibiya.
The Omrah, then Conquering Mecca In 629, following Hudaibiya Uthman was at the Battle of Khaybar and later that year, he followed Muhammad to perform Omrah in Mecca. While in Mecca Uthman visited his mother and found that his family was not as hostile to Islam as they used to be. In 630, the Quraish broke the treaty of Hudaibiya, and because of that, the Muslims attacked and conquered Mecca. General amnesty was granted to the people of the city, although an exception was made in the case of half a dozen people. Amongst those not granted amnesty was Abdullah, a foster brother of Uthman. Later, following an appeal by Abdullah's mother to Uthman, he was forgiven by Muhammad.
The Conquest of Mecca Following the Conquest of Mecca Uthman's family converted to Islam and Uthman rejoined his mother and siblings. Two weeks later: Uthman participated in the Battle of Hunain which was followed by the Siege of Ta'if. To Uthman: the conquest of Mecca and Ta’if were of particular significance, as he had considerable property in both cities, and he could now profitably develop them. He set up sub-offices for his businesses at both Mecca and Ta’if. Uthman's wife, Umm Kulthoom Bint Muhammad, died soon after the conquest of Mecca.
Tabuk In 630 Muhammad decided to lead an expedition to Tabuk on the Syrian border. In order to finance the expedition Muhammad invited contributions from his followers. Uthman made the largest contribution: 1,000 Dinars in cash, 950 camels for transport, and 50 horses for the cavalry, which Muhammad greatly appreciated. In 631, Uthman, along with other Muslims, went to Mecca to perform Haj under Abu Bakr while Muhammad stayed in Medina. A year later, in 632 Uthman was present in the Farewell Pilgrimage under the leadership of Muhammad.
Ghadeer Khum Following the Haj, the Prophet and multitude of others were on their way home, including Abu Bakr and Omar. Juhfa was an intersection between Mecca and Medina Near Juhfa, at an oasis called Ghadeer Khum, the Prophet delivered a speech The Prophet stood on an elevation to be seen by the massive crowd He took Ali with him, raising up both his and Ali’s arms He gave a long speech, the highlight was: Ali is Appointed as the Wali (in charge of the Ummah) after the Prophet
The Prophet ’ s Speech at Ghadeer Khum من كنت مولاه فهذا عليٌ مولاه اللهم وال من والاه وعاد من عاده وانصر من نصره واخذل من خذله وأدر الحق معه حيثما دار O' people, whosoever I am his leader, So is Ali to be his leader O' lord, uphold him who upholds Ali, And antagonize him who antagonizes Ali, And support him who supports Ali, And impede him who impedes Ali, And let the truth be with Ali wherever he goes
After the Speech in Ghadeer Khum Omar came forward congratulating Ali saying: Omar came forward congratulating Ali saying: بخٍّ بخٍّ لكَ يا علي، أصبَحتَ مولايَ ومولى كُلّ مؤمنٍ ومؤمنه بخٍّ بخٍّ لكَ يا علي، أصبَحتَ مولايَ ومولى كُلّ مؤمنٍ ومؤمنه Congratulations, congratulations, O' Ali! You have become my leader And the leader of every believer, man or woman. Abu Bakr did likewise The multitude of others came to congratulate Ali before heading home
Ghadeer Khum Nowadays
Marriages Throughout his life, Uthman married the following: 1. Umm Amr Bint Jundub أم عمرو بنت جندب 2. Fatima Bint Al-Walid فاطمة بنت الوليد 3. Ruqayya Bint Muhammad رقية بنت محمد 4. Umm Kalthoom Bint Muhammad أم كلثوم بنت محمد 5. Fakhita Bint Ghazwaan فاختة بنت غزوان 6. Umm al-Baneen U'yainah Bint Husn أم البنين بنت عيينة بن حصن 7. Ramla Bint Shaiba رملة بنت شيبة 8. Na’ila Bint al-Farafisa نائلة بنت الفرافصة
During the Last Days of the Prophet It was only not long afterwards that Prophet Muhammad fell sick While the Prophet asked Abu Bakr and Omar to be in U'sama expedition He did not ask Uthman to be in it The Prophet’s sickness got worse, then he died In 632 Uthman, like other Muslims, was grief-stricken. Uthman was not at Saqifa of Benu Sa‘ida But he certainly knew of Abu Bakr becoming Khalifa, and of the aftermath and its consequences. Uthman was not at the Ridda wars.
Uthman: Hagia Sophia, Istanbul,
Uthman Appreciated for: His generosity Twice son-in-law of the Prophet Prowess at business His closeness to Muhammad Good Demeanor
In Conclusion Uthman, from birth up to the Khilaafah Discussed in this slide show are: Lineage Conversion to Islam Migration to Abyssinia Life in Medina Treaty of Hudaibiya Tabuk During the Last Days of the Prophet
Finally we quote the Quran: By the Token of Time Verily Man is in loss, Except those who believe and do good works, and exhort one another to Truth and exhort one another to patience. بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ وَالْعَصْرِ إِنَّ اِلانسَانَ لَفِي خُسْرٍ إِلا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالْحَقِّ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالصَّبْرِ