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Attention 1. Definitions of Attention Concentration of mental resources Allocation of mental resources 2.

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Presentation on theme: "Attention 1. Definitions of Attention Concentration of mental resources Allocation of mental resources 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 Attention 1

2 Definitions of Attention Concentration of mental resources Allocation of mental resources 2

3 Multiple Aspect of Attention Divided attention Selective attention Theories of attention 3

4 Divided Attention 4

5 5 Reinitz & Colleagues (1974) Divided Attention Condition Subjects count the dots Full Attention Condition No instruction about dots

6 6 Proportion of Responses that were “old” for Each of Two Study Conditions and Two Test Conditions (Reinitz & Colleagues, 1994). Study Condition Test Condition Full AttentionDivided Attention Old Face Conjunction Faces

7 Divided Attention & Practice Hirst, et. al Spelke,

8 Demo 8

9 Upset Hotel Judge Employment Map Indulge Pencil Problem Key Terrible 9

10 Can we always divide our attention with practice? 10

11 Cell Phones & Driving – What Does the Research on Divided Attention Show? Is it safe to drive while talking on a cell phone? Some states have passed legislation prohibiting hand-held but not hands-free cell phones. Does this make any sense What about talking to someone in the car while driving versus talking on a cell phone? What are the chances of an accident? Does practice make a difference? Why not? Compare driving under the influence to cell phone driving 11

12 Selective Attention 12

13 Selective Attention (Dichotic Listening Task) Shadowing Irrelevant Channel Cocktail Party Effect - Morray (1959) Wood and Cowan (1995) Treisman (1960) 13

14 14 Dichotic Listening Task T, 5, H LEFT T 5 H RIGHT S 3 G

15 Cocktail Effect 15

16 Treisman’s Shadowing Study 16

17 Stroop Effect 17

18 Experiment 1 18

19 Read the Word. 19 Green Blue Red Purple Green Blue Orange Red Blue Green Red Blue Orange Green Blue Red Purple Orange Green Black Stop!

20 Read the Word. Ignore the color 20 Green Blue Red Purple Green Blue Orange Red Blue Green Red Blue Orange Green Blue Red Purple Orange Green Black Stop!

21 Experiment 2 21

22 Name the Color of the Ink 22 xxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxx xxxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxx xxxxxx xxxxx Stop!

23 Name the Color (e.g. Red say “blue”) 23 Green Blue Red Purple Green Blue Orange Red Blue Green Red Blue Orange Green Blue Red Purple Orange Green Black Stop!

24 Stroop’s 3 Experiments Exp 1 - Selectively attend to the verbal aspect of the stimulus; ignore ink color Exp 2 – Selectively attend to the ink color of the stimulus; ignore verbal aspect Exp 3 – Why does ignoring the verbal aspect of the stimulus interfere strongly with color naming; but not the reverse? 24

25 Change Blindness Video 25

26 Theories of Attention 26

27 Filter Models of Attention 27

28 Capacity Model of Attention 28

29 29 Diagnostic Criteria for Automatic Processes

30 Cerebral Cortex & Attention 30


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