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NEW THEORIES OF DISSOCIATION: APPLICATIONS TO THERAPY AND HEALING ROBERT SCAER, M.D.

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Presentation on theme: "NEW THEORIES OF DISSOCIATION: APPLICATIONS TO THERAPY AND HEALING ROBERT SCAER, M.D."— Presentation transcript:

1 NEW THEORIES OF DISSOCIATION: APPLICATIONS TO THERAPY AND HEALING ROBERT SCAER, M.D.

2 THE ROOTS OF TRAUMA A THREAT TO LIFE IN THE FACE OF HELPLESSNESS THE FIGHT /FLIGHT / FREEZE RESPONSE

3 THE FREEZE RESPONSE NUMBING THROUGH ENDORPHINSNUMBING THROUGH ENDORPHINS VAGAL (PARASYMPATHETIC) TONEVAGAL (PARASYMPATHETIC) TONE BIMODAL SYMPATHETIC /BIMODAL SYMPATHETIC / PARASYMPATHETIC CYCLING (ACCELERATOR / BRAKE ANALOGY)

4 HYPNOSIS - FREUD: “…a paralysis produced by the influence of an omnipotent person on a defenseless, impotent subject” - PAVLOV: ANIMAL HYPNOSIS - “…a self-protecting reflex of an inhibitory nature” - PERSISTANCE OF REFLEX MOTOR POSTURES IMITATING THE LAST POSITION OF THE LIMBS BEFORE HYPNOSIS ENSUED - PERSISTANCE OF REFLEX MOTOR POSTURES IMITATING THE LAST POSITION OF THE LIMBS BEFORE HYPNOSIS ENSUED

5 LESSONS FROM THE WILD: THE CRITICAL IMPORTANCE OF DISCHARGING THE FREEZE RESPONSE

6 FREEZE/IMMOBILIZATION AND SURVIVAL BABY CHICKS BABY CHICKS NOT NOT IMMOBILIZED IMMOBILIZED IMMOBILIZED SPONTANEOUS FORCED RECOVERY RECOVERY RECOVERY RECOVERY BEST INTERMEDIATE WORST BEST INTERMEDIATE WORST DROWNING DROWNING DROWNING SURVIVAL SURVIVAL SURVIVAL SURVIVAL SURVIVAL SURVIVAL

7 ANIMALS THAT DO NOT DISCHARGE THE FREEZE ZOO ANIMALSZOO ANIMALS LABORATORY ANIMALSLABORATORY ANIMALS DOMESTIC ANIMALSDOMESTIC ANIMALS HUMAN ANIMALSHUMAN ANIMALS Q: WHAT DO THESE ANIMALS HAVE IN COMMON? A: THEY ALL LIVE IN A CAGE!

8 MEMORY IN TRAUMA TRAUMATIC STRESS: A LIFE THREAT WHILE IN A STATE OF HELPLESSNESSTRAUMATIC STRESS: A LIFE THREAT WHILE IN A STATE OF HELPLESSNESS THIS LEADS TO THE FREEZE RESPONSETHIS LEADS TO THE FREEZE RESPONSE DISCHARGE OF THE FREEZE RESPONSE ALLOWS “COMPLETION” OF ESCAPE OR DEFENSE IN PROCEDURAL MEMORY, EXTINGUISHES CONDITIONED SOMATIC CUESDISCHARGE OF THE FREEZE RESPONSE ALLOWS “COMPLETION” OF ESCAPE OR DEFENSE IN PROCEDURAL MEMORY, EXTINGUISHES CONDITIONED SOMATIC CUES

9 CONDITIONING IN TRAUMA LACK OF “COMPLETION” IMPRINTS THE CONDITIONED ASSOCIATION OF: LACK OF “COMPLETION” IMPRINTS THE CONDITIONED ASSOCIATION OF: - THE THREAT - ITS SENSORIMOTOR EXPERIENCE (OR TRAUMATIC CUES) - AND THE STATE OF AROUSAL WITHIN PROCEDURAL MEMORY! THIS ASSOCIATION LEADS TO FEAR CONDITIONING, OR TRAUMATIZATION THIS ASSOCIATION LEADS TO FEAR CONDITIONING, OR TRAUMATIZATION

10 DISSOCIATION: ? THE PERCEPTUAL COMPONENT OF THE FREEZE RESPONSE ?

11 THE HISTORY OF TRAUMA AND DISSOCIATION IN PSYCHIATRY

12 CHARCOT AND THE SALPÊTRIÈRE THE STUDY OF HYSTERIA AS A NEUROLOGICAL SYNDROME

13 JANET AND DISSOCIATION “ FIXED IDEAS”: THE SPECTRUM OF SYMPTOMS IN HYSTERIA“ FIXED IDEAS”: THE SPECTRUM OF SYMPTOMS IN HYSTERIA SOMATIC, EMOTIONAL, PERCEPTUAL SYMPTOMS TRIGGERED BY TRAUMASOMATIC, EMOTIONAL, PERCEPTUAL SYMPTOMS TRIGGERED BY TRAUMA “ABSENT MINDEDNESS” AND ABULIA - THE INABILITY TO INITIATE ACTION“ABSENT MINDEDNESS” AND ABULIA - THE INABILITY TO INITIATE ACTION TRIGGERING OF HYSTERIA BY CUES IN THE ENVIRONMENTTRIGGERING OF HYSTERIA BY CUES IN THE ENVIRONMENT

14 THE AGE OF HYSTERIA BREUER, THE “TALKING CURE”, AND “REMINISCENCES”BREUER, THE “TALKING CURE”, AND “REMINISCENCES” FREUD, INCEST AND “THE AETIOLOGY OF HYSTERIA”FREUD, INCEST AND “THE AETIOLOGY OF HYSTERIA” FREUD AND BREUER: RECANTATIONFREUD AND BREUER: RECANTATION JANET: PROFESSIONAL OSTRACISMJANET: PROFESSIONAL OSTRACISM

15 LESSONS FROM WW I THE HELPLESSNESS OF TRENCH WARFARE AND THE PREDOMINANCETHE HELPLESSNESS OF TRENCH WARFARE AND THE PREDOMINANCE OF DISSOCIATIVE SYNDROMES (SHELL SHOCK) FERENCZI ( 1919): “..TIC..AN OVERSTRONG MEMORY FIXATION ON THE ATTITUDE OF THE BODY AT THE MOMENT OF...TRAUMA” FERENCZI ( 1919): “..TIC..AN OVERSTRONG MEMORY FIXATION ON THE ATTITUDE OF THE BODY AT THE MOMENT OF...TRAUMA” HYSTERIA AND MALINGERINGHYSTERIA AND MALINGERING LOW PTSD INCIDENCE IN PILOTS AND OFFICERSLOW PTSD INCIDENCE IN PILOTS AND OFFICERS

16 NEUROIMAGING IN CONVERSION DISORDER fMRI STUDIES IN HYSTERICAL MOTOR PARALYSIS AND ANESTHESIA, WITH CHRONIC PAIN REVEAL: fMRI STUDIES IN HYSTERICAL MOTOR PARALYSIS AND ANESTHESIA, WITH CHRONIC PAIN REVEAL: - REDUCED SUPRASPINAL RESPONSES IN HYSTERICAL PARALYSIS - REDUCED ACTIVATION OF BRAIN SENSORY PATHWAYS WITH STIMULATION OF THE HYSTERICALLY NUMB LIMB i.e.: IMPAIRED BRAIN MESSAGE TRANSFER IN CONVERSION DISORDER

17 NEUROIMAGING IN CONVERSION DISORDER HYSTERICAL PARALYSIS AND SENSORY LOSS (CONVERSON DISORDER) IS ASSOCIATED WITH OBJECTIVE, LONG-STANDING DYNAMIC CHANGES IN REGIONS OF THE BRAIN THAT PROCESS SENSORIMOTOR INFORMATION i.e.: CONVERSION “HYSTERIA” IS PHYSIOLOGICAL, NOT “PSYCHOLOGICAL”

18 MANIFESTATIONS OF DISSOCIATION DEREALIZATIONDEREALIZATION DEPERSONALIZATIONDEPERSONALIZATION DISTORTED TIME PERCEPTIONDISTORTED TIME PERCEPTION DISTORTED SENSORY PERCEPTIONDISTORTED SENSORY PERCEPTION AMNESIAAMNESIA FUGUE STATESFUGUE STATES CONVERSION REACTIONCONVERSION REACTION DISSOCIATIVE IDENTY DISORDERDISSOCIATIVE IDENTY DISORDER

19 DISSOCIATION PSYCHOBIOLOGY SCHORE (2005):…”vagal outflow from the dorsal vagal nucleus …is the psychobiological engine of …dissociation”SCHORE (2005):…”vagal outflow from the dorsal vagal nucleus …is the psychobiological engine of …dissociation” …”early trauma expressed as emotional neglect and abuse…predict…dissociation.”…”early trauma expressed as emotional neglect and abuse…predict…dissociation.” i.e.: IMPAIRED ATTACHMENT AND RIGHT O.F.C. DEVELOMENT LEADS TO AUTONOMIC DYSREGULATION, AND THE EMERGENCE OF DORSAL VAGAL FREEZE / DISSOCIATIVE STATES

20 THE DORSAL VAGUS NERVE THE DORSAL VAGAL COMPLEX (DVC) THE DORSAL VAGAL COMPLEX (DVC) - THE DORSAL VAGAL NUCLEUS - PRIMITIVE, REPTILIAN - LOW O2 UTILIZATION - THE DIVE REFLEX (APNEA, BRADYCARDIA) - THE FREEZE RESPONSE, THE RISK IN MAMMALS, AND “VOODOO DEATH”

21 BUT! THE DORSAL VAGUS / FREEZE THEORY DOES NOT EXPLAIN THE OCCURRENCE OF HIGH SYMPATHETIC- DOMINANT DISSOCIATVE STATES: HOMICIDAL DISSOCIATIONHOMICIDAL DISSOCIATION “BERSERKER” BEHAVIOR IN COMBAT“BERSERKER” BEHAVIOR IN COMBAT

22 DISSOCIATION STRUCTURE A CAPSULE, COMPARTMENT OR STATE OF PERCEPTION COMPOSED OF THE VARIED PROCEDURAL MEMORIES OF THE EXPERIENCES OF A PAST TRAUMATIC EVENT WHERE A FREEZE RESPONSE OCCURRED WITHOUT A FREEZE DISCHARGE

23 THE DISSOCIATION CAPSULE IS COMPOSED OF: SOMATOSENSORY MESSAGES AND MOTOR ACTIONS SOMATOSENSORY MESSAGES AND MOTOR ACTIONS AUTONOMIC STATES AUTONOMIC STATES EMOTIONS EMOTIONS ENDORPHINERGIC ALTERATION OF PERCEPTION ENDORPHINERGIC ALTERATION OF PERCEPTION EMOTION-LINKED DECLARATIVE MEMORY EMOTION-LINKED DECLARATIVE MEMORY ALL SPECIFIC TO THE TRAUMATIC EXPERIENCE

24 FEATURES OF THE DISSOCIATIVE CAPSULE CAPSULES CONSIST OF PROCEDURAL MEMORIES FOR THE PAST TRAUMA, BUT ARE PERCEIVED AS BEING PRESENT, AND ARE THEREFORE DISSOCIATIVE

25 EXAMPLES OF CAPSULE PROCEDRAL MEMORIES PAIN, NUMBNESS, DIZZINESS, PAIN, NUMBNESS, DIZZINESS, TREMOR, TICS, PARALYSIS TREMOR, TICS, PARALYSIS NAUSEA, CRAMPS, PALPITATIONS NAUSEA, CRAMPS, PALPITATIONS ANXIETY, TERROR, SHAME, RAGE ANXIETY, TERROR, SHAME, RAGE FLASHBACKS, NIGHTMARES OR INTRUSIVE THOUGHTS FLASHBACKS, NIGHTMARES OR INTRUSIVE THOUGHTS

26 THE DISSOCIATIVE CAPSULE IS BROUGHT INTO CONSCIOUS AWARENESS (THE PRESENT MOMENT) BY EXTERNAL REPRESENTATIVE CUES OR INTERNAL KINDLED MEMORIES

27 THE SIZE, SPECIFICITY AND STRENGTH OF A DISSOCIATIVE CAPSULE DEPENDS ON THE INTENSITY OR REPETITIVE EXPERIENCE OF THE TRAUMA THAT CAUSED IT

28 THE NUMBER OF ONE’S DISSOCIATIVE CAPSULES IS DETERMINED BY THE SUM TOTAL OF ONE’S CUMULATIVE LIFE TRAUMAS

29 THE MORE THE NUMBER OF DISSOCIATIVE CAPSULES, THE LESS TIME ONE IS ABLE TO SPEND IN CONSCIOUSNESS (THE PRESENT MOMENT)

30 THE PRESENT MOMENT 1-10 SECOND PERIOD OF AWARENESS OF “NOW” 1-10 SECOND PERIOD OF AWARENESS OF “NOW” A “ LIVED STORY” A “ LIVED STORY” BACKGROUND FEELINGS FROM THE BODY BACKGROUND FEELINGS FROM THE BODY AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL MEMORY AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL MEMORY CHANGING INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL PERCEPTIONS CHANGING INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL PERCEPTIONS CONCEPTS OF TIME, INTENTIONALITY, SHIFTING EMOTIONAL TONE CONCEPTS OF TIME, INTENTIONALITY, SHIFTING EMOTIONAL TONE A MEASURE OF CONSCIOUSNESS A MEASURE OF CONSCIOUSNESS OUR CHANGING SENSE OF SELF OUR CHANGING SENSE OF SELF

31 THE SELF ANTONIO DAMASIO: “THE EMBODIED MIND” SOMATIC SENSATIONS ( FEELINGS) OF THE PRESENT MOMENT SUPERIMPOSED ON OUR AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL MEMORY

32 THE PRESENT MOMENT AUTONOMIC CUES SOMATOSENSORY CUES LIMBIC CUES SHAMING, GRIEF THE STRUCTURE AND RELATIONSHIPS OF DISSOCIATIVE CAPSULES INCEST MVA INJURY PROCEDURAL MEMORY CUES - SOMATOSENSORY - LIMBIC/EMOTIONAL - AUTONOMIC - EMOTION-LINKED DECLARATIVE MEMORY PROCEDURAL MEMORY CUES - AUTONOMIC - LIMBIC/EMOTIONAL - EMOTION - LINKED DECLARATIVE MEMORY PROCEDURAL MEMORY CUES - SOMATOSENSORY - LIMBIC/EMOTIONAL - AU TONOMIC - EMOTION-LINKED DECLARATIVE MEMORY PROCEDURAL MEMORY CUES - SOMATOSENSORY - LIMBIC/EMOTIONAL -AUTONOMIC - EMOTION-LINKED DECLARATIVE MEMORY DEATH OF PARENT PROCEDURAL MEMORY CUES - AUTONOMIC - LIMBIC/EMOTIONAL - EMOTIONA-LINKED DECLARATIVE MEMORY

33 WHAT IMPLICATIONS DOES THE DISSOCIATIVE CAPSULE HAVE FOR HEALING TRAUMA? TO HEAL TRAUMA WE MUST EXTINGUISH POSTTRAUMATIC PROCEDURAL MEMORY CUES

34 AND YOU CAN’T DO THAT WITH WORDS ALONE!

35 SENSORY INPUT – HEAD AND NECK AMYGDALA EMOTIONAL CONTENT ANTERIOR CINGULATE GYRUS MODULATES AMYGDALA CEREBRAL CORTEX HYPOTHALAMUS HPA AXIS HIPPOCAMPUS DECLARATIVE MEMORY COGNITIVE MEANING ORBITOFRONTAL CORTEX ORGANIZES RESPONSE TO THREAT LOCUS CERULEUS EARLY WARNING

36 THE KEY INGREDIENT IN HEALING TRAUMA EXTINGUISHING THE DISSOCIATIVE CAPSULE CONTENTSBYDOWNREGULATING/ INHIBITING THE AMYGDALA DURING IMAGINAL EXPOSURE TO ITS CONTENTS

37 TRAUMA THERAPY: THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS EXTINCTION OF CONDITIONED CUES: IMAGERY WHILE INHIBITING THE AMYGDALAEXTINCTION OF CONDITIONED CUES: IMAGERY WHILE INHIBITING THE AMYGDALA - THE POWER OF RITUAL - INTEGRATING THE CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES - EMPOWERMENT THROUGH AFFIRMATION RECONSOLIDATION OF MEMORYRECONSOLIDATION OF MEMORY “COMPLETION” OF DEFENSE/ESCAPE: THE “ DISCHARGE” “COMPLETION” OF DEFENSE/ESCAPE: THE “ DISCHARGE” RESTORING HOMEOSTASISRESTORING HOMEOSTASIS TRANSFORMATION AND WISDOM THROUGH MEANINGTRANSFORMATION AND WISDOM THROUGH MEANING

38 THE DILEMMA OF PHARMACOTHERAPY SRI’s, ANTICONVULSANTS, BENZODIAZEPINES, ANTIPSYCHOTICS, BETA BLOCKERSSRI’s, ANTICONVULSANTS, BENZODIAZEPINES, ANTIPSYCHOTICS, BETA BLOCKERS TREATING A BIPOLAR SYNDROMETREATING A BIPOLAR SYNDROME RECIPROCAL SIDE EFFECTSRECIPROCAL SIDE EFFECTS SIDE EFFECTS AS TRAUMATIC EXPERIENCES DUE TO NEUROSENSITIZATIONSIDE EFFECTS AS TRAUMATIC EXPERIENCES DUE TO NEUROSENSITIZATION NARCOTICS IN CHRONIC PAINNARCOTICS IN CHRONIC PAIN

39 TRAUMA THERAPY PSYCHOTHERAPYPSYCHOTHERAPY - COGNITIVE/BEHAVIORAL THERAPY: MOST THOROUGHLY EVALUATED - EXPOSURE THERAPIES: - IMAGINAL EXPOSURE - IN-VIVO EXPOSURE - SYSTEMATIC DESENSITIZATION BEST FOR AROUSAL AND ANXIETY, LESS EFFECTIVE FOR AVOIDANCE AND DISSOCIATION; ? LONG-TERM EFFICACY

40 TRAUMA THERAPY RECONNECTING WITH THE BODYRECONNECTING WITH THE BODY - SOMATIC DISSOCIATION AND THE FELT SENSE - THE USE OF MOVEMENT THERAPY: YOGA, DANCE, BALANCE, EQUESTRIAN THERAPY - THE USE OF THERAPEUTIC BODY WORK AND EXERCISE - THE USE OF ARTISTIC MEDIA - BIOFEEDBACK

41 GUIDED IMAGERY USED IN ALMOST ALL TECHNIQUESUSED IN ALMOST ALL TECHNIQUES DERIVING THE SUD’s SCALEDERIVING THE SUD’s SCALE ACCESSING THE MEMORY TO BE EXTINGUISHEDACCESSING THE MEMORY TO BE EXTINGUISHED MANIPULATING THE MEMORY THROUGH IMAGINAL REVERSALMANIPULATING THE MEMORY THROUGH IMAGINAL REVERSAL FACILITATING THE FELT SENSEFACILITATING THE FELT SENSE

42 SOMATIC EXPERIENCING ACCESSING THE FELT SENSE ACCESSING THE FELT SENSE TRACKING AND TITRATION THROUGH “PENDULATION”TRACKING AND TITRATION THROUGH “PENDULATION” ELICITATION OF SOMATIC SENSORIMOTOR RESPONSES: THE FREEZE DISCHARGE ELICITATION OF SOMATIC SENSORIMOTOR RESPONSES: THE FREEZE DISCHARGE AUTONOMIC RESPONSES AUTONOMIC RESPONSES CONCEPTS OF COMPLETION, UNCOUPLING, EXTINCTION CONCEPTS OF COMPLETION, UNCOUPLING, EXTINCTION

43 ENERGY PSYCHOLOGY THOUGHT FIELD THERAPY (T.F.T.), EMOTIONAL FREEDOM THERAPY (E.F.T.), HEALING TOUCHTHOUGHT FIELD THERAPY (T.F.T.), EMOTIONAL FREEDOM THERAPY (E.F.T.), HEALING TOUCH * USE OF SUD’s SCALE * AFFIRMATIVE STATEMENTS, MERIDIAN TAPPING, SINGING, VOCALIZATION, EYE MOVEMENTS AND IMAGERY * AFFIRMATIVE STATEMENTS, MERIDIAN TAPPING, SINGING, VOCALIZATION, EYE MOVEMENTS AND IMAGERY * EMPOWERMENT, HOMEOSTASIS, INTEGRATING THE HEMISPHERES, RITUAL, EXTINCTION

44 EMDR USE OF SUD’s SCALE USE OF SUD’s SCALE ALTERNATING EYE MOVEMENTS, ALTERNATING EYE MOVEMENTS, AUDITORY OR TOUCH STIMULI LINKED TO IMAGERY OF THE TRAUMA POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE COGNITIONSPOSITIVE AND NEGATIVE COGNITIONS THE REM CONNECTION:THE REM CONNECTION: - PROCESSING AROUSAL MEMORY - MEMORY RECONSOLIDATION - CEREBELLAR – CINGULATE CONNECTION AFFIRMATION, RITUALAFFIRMATION, RITUAL

45 NEUROFEEDBACK DRIVING THE BRAIN INTO THE PRESENT MOMENTDRIVING THE BRAIN INTO THE PRESENT MOMENT ALPHA/HIGH THETA ENHANCEMENTALPHA/HIGH THETA ENHANCEMENT COMPARISON TO DEEP MEDITATIONCOMPARISON TO DEEP MEDITATION APPLICABLE CONDITIONS:APPLICABLE CONDITIONS: - ADD/ADHD, OCD - ADDICTIONS - CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR - FIBROMYAGIA/CFS - MOOD DISORDER, PTSD, ANXIETY - SOMATIZATION - MTBI

46 RESTORATION OF THE TRIUNE BRAIN

47 THE ROLE OF COGNITIVE MEANING AND THE ACQUISITION OF WISDOM

48 TRANSFORMATION AND WISDOM 1. THE RECOGNITION AND MANAGEMENT OF UNCERTAINTIES 1. THE RECOGNITION AND MANAGEMENT OF UNCERTAINTIES 2. THE INTEGRATION OF AFFECT AND COGNITION2. THE INTEGRATION OF AFFECT AND COGNITION 3. THE RECOGNITION AND ACCEPTANCE OF HUMAN LIMITATIONS, INCLUDING THE FINITUDE OF LIFE3. THE RECOGNITION AND ACCEPTANCE OF HUMAN LIMITATIONS, INCLUDING THE FINITUDE OF LIFE i.e.: LIFE IN THE PRESENT MOMENT


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