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The United States in World War II How can the United States use its resources to achieve victory?

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Presentation on theme: "The United States in World War II How can the United States use its resources to achieve victory?"— Presentation transcript:

1 The United States in World War II How can the United States use its resources to achieve victory?

2 Mobilizing for Defense Main Idea Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States mobilized for war. Why it Matters Today Military Industries in the United States today are a major part of the American economy.

3 Americans Join in the War Effort The Japanese had attacked Pearl Harbor with the expectation that once Americans had experienced Japans power, they would shrink from further conflict. The Japanese had attacked Pearl Harbor with the expectation that once Americans had experienced Japans power, they would shrink from further conflict. War Effort Selective Service Expanding the Military George Marshall WAAC Recruiting & Discrimination Dramatic Contributions 300,000 Mexicans 1 mil African-Americans 25,000 Native Americans 13,000 Chinese Ams 33,000 Japanese Ams.

4 A Productions Miracle Early in February 1942, American newspapers reported the end of automobile production for private use. Early in February 1942, American newspapers reported the end of automobile production for private use. The Industrial Response The Industrial Response Automobile plants began to produce tanks, planes, boats, and command cars. Automobile plants began to produce tanks, planes, boats, and command cars. Shipyards produced tanker, cargo carriers, aircraft carriers. Shipyards produced tanker, cargo carriers, aircraft carriers. Labors Contribution Labors Contribution Women contribute in factories Women contribute in factories African Americans still faced discrimination African Americans still faced discrimination Mobilization of Scientists Mobilization of Scientists Office of Scientific Research & Development (OSRD) Office of Scientific Research & Development (OSRD) Improved radar and sonar Improved radar and sonar Atomic Bomb Atomic Bomb Albert Einstein Albert Einstein Manhattan Project Manhattan Project

5 The Federal Government Takes Control As war production increased, there were fewer consumer products available for purchase. As war production increased, there were fewer consumer products available for purchase. Government Control Office of Price Admin. (OPA) Freezing Wages, prices,and rent. Rationed food War Production Board (WPB) Rationed fuel, heating oil, metals, Rubber, and plastics Department of Treasury Issued War bonds to raise money for the War effort and to fight inflation

6 Mobilizing for Defense Review How did U.S. military reflect the diversity of American society during World War II? How did U.S. military reflect the diversity of American society during World War II? It included large number of white, African- Americans, Native Americans, Mexican Americans, and Asian Americans. It included large number of white, African- Americans, Native Americans, Mexican Americans, and Asian Americans. How did the federal governments actions influence civilian life during World War II? How did the federal governments actions influence civilian life during World War II? It drafted civilians and established a system of rationing and other economic controls. It drafted civilians and established a system of rationing and other economic controls.

7 The War for Europe and North Africa Main Idea Allied forces, led by the United States and Great Britain battled Axis powers for control of Europe and North Africa. Why it Matters Today During World War II, the United States assumed a leading role in world affairs that continues today.

8 The United States and Britain Join Forces War Plans War Plans On December 22, 1941 Churchill and Roosevelt met to work out war plans. On December 22, 1941 Churchill and Roosevelt met to work out war plans. Churchill convinces Roosevelt to attack Hitler first. Churchill convinces Roosevelt to attack Hitler first. Battle of the Atlantic Battle of the Atlantic Hitler orders submarine attacks on Americas east coast. Hitler orders submarine attacks on Americas east coast. Germanys aim was to prevent food and war materials from reaching Great Britain. Germanys aim was to prevent food and war materials from reaching Great Britain. Hitler wanted to cut Britains life-line. Hitler wanted to cut Britains life-line. 1 st four months of ships were sunk 1 st four months of ships were sunk Convoys were formed Convoys were formed Shipbuilding increased Shipbuilding increased

9 The Eastern Front and the Mediterranean By the winter of 1943, the Allies began to see victories on land as well as sea. By the winter of 1943, the Allies began to see victories on land as well as sea. Eastern Front Mediterranean Battle of Stalingrad Summer 1942 Germans surrender Jan. 31, 1943 North African Front Operation Torch Dwight D. Eisenhower Erwin Rommel Italian Campaign July 25, 1943 Mussolini stripped of power Bloody Anzio

10 Heroes in Combat Tuskegee Airmen- 99 th Pursuit Squadron Tuskegee Airmen- 99 th Pursuit Squadron 92 nd Infantry Division- Buffaloes 92 nd Infantry Division- Buffaloes Company E- All Chicano unit Company E- All Chicano unit Purple Heart Battalion- Hawaiian Nisei Purple Heart Battalion- Hawaiian Nisei

11 The Allies Liberate Europe Even as the Allies were battling for Italy in 1943, they had begun work on a dramatic plan to invade France and free Western Europe from the Nazis. Even as the Allies were battling for Italy in 1943, they had begun work on a dramatic plan to invade France and free Western Europe from the Nazis. D-Day D-Day 3 million British, American, and Canadian troops 3 million British, American, and Canadian troops Operation Overlord (Allied invasion) Operation Overlord (Allied invasion) June 6, 1944 June 6, 1944 Omaha Beach Omaha Beach Allies Gain Ground Allies Gain Ground General Omar Bradley General Omar Bradley General George Patton General George Patton Aug. 23, Paris liberated Aug. 23, Paris liberated The Battle of the Bulge The Battle of the Bulge October Americans captured their first German town, Aachen. October Americans captured their first German town, Aachen. Germans lost 120,00 troops, 600 tanks, 1,600 planes Germans lost 120,00 troops, 600 tanks, 1,600 planes Liberation of the Death Camps Liberation of the Death Camps Soviets were the first to come upon the death camps Soviets were the first to come upon the death camps Majdanek in Poland Majdanek in Poland

12 Allies Liberate Europe-cont Unconditional Surrender Unconditional Surrender April 25, Soviet storm Berlin April 25, Soviet storm Berlin Hitler and wife Eva Braun commits suicide Hitler and wife Eva Braun commits suicide May 8, V-E Day (Victory in Europe) May 8, V-E Day (Victory in Europe) Roosevelts Death Roosevelts Death April 12, Roosevelt dies of a stroke April 12, Roosevelt dies of a stroke Harry S. Truman- 33 rd President Harry S. Truman- 33 rd President

13 The War for Europe and North Africa What was the significance of the Battle of the Bulge? What was the significance of the Battle of the Bulge? Soviets stopped Hitlers eastward expansion, destroyed the German Sixth Army, and diverted German troops from the western front. Soviets stopped Hitlers eastward expansion, destroyed the German Sixth Army, and diverted German troops from the western front. How did the Battle of the Bulge signal the beginning of the end of World War II in Europe? How did the Battle of the Bulge signal the beginning of the end of World War II in Europe? Germany could not replace the manpower and weapons it lost, and could not only retreat. Germany could not replace the manpower and weapons it lost, and could not only retreat.

14 The War in the Pacific Main Idea In order to defeat Japan and end the war in the Pacific, the United States unleashed a terrible new weapon, the atomic bomb. Why it Matters Today Countries of the modern world struggle to find ways to prevent the use of nuclear weapons.

15 The Allies Stem the Japanese Tide While the Allies agreed that the defeat of the Nazis was their first priority, the United States did not wait until V-E Day to move against Japan. While the Allies agreed that the defeat of the Nazis was their first priority, the United States did not wait until V-E Day to move against Japan. Battle with Japan Japanese Advances Douglas MacArthur Phillipines Doolittles Raid James Doolittle Raid on Tokyo Battle of the Coral Sea Americans & Australians Battle of Midway Chester Nimitz Turning point in the Pacific Island Hopping

16 The Allies Go on the Offensive The first Allied offensive began in August 1942 when 19,000 troops stormed Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands. The first Allied offensive began in August 1942 when 19,000 troops stormed Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands. The victory at Guadalcanal marked Japans first defeat on land, but not its last. The victory at Guadalcanal marked Japans first defeat on land, but not its last. The Japanese Defense The Japanese Defense Battle of Leyte Gulf and a new tactic Battle of Leyte Gulf and a new tactic Kamikaze or suidcide-plane Divine wind Kamikaze or suidcide-plane Divine wind Iwo Jima Iwo Jima Sulfur Island Sulfur Island Most heavily defended spot on earth Most heavily defended spot on earth 20,700 Japanese- 200 survived 20,700 Japanese- 200 survived Battle for Okinawa Battle for Okinawa Japanese send 1,000 kamikaze pilots Japanese send 1,000 kamikaze pilots Fighting ended on June 21, 1945 Fighting ended on June 21, ,600 Americans killed 7,600 Americans killed 110,000 Japanese killed 110,000 Japanese killed

17 The Atomic Bomb End the War The taking of Iwo Jima and Okinawa opened the way for an invasion of Japan. The taking of Iwo Jima and Okinawa opened the way for an invasion of Japan. Atomic Bomb Manhattan Project J. Robert Oppenheimer July 16, 1945 July 25, 1945 Hiroshima Nagasaki Enola Gay Little Boy-Hiroshima Fat Man-Nagasaki

18 Rebuilding Begins With Japans surrender, the Allies turned to the challenge of rebuilding war-torn nations. With Japans surrender, the Allies turned to the challenge of rebuilding war-torn nations. Rebuilding Yalta Conference Nuremberg Trials Occupation Of Japan

19 The War in the Pacific Review Briefly describe the island war in the Pacific. Briefly describe the island war in the Pacific. The Allies adopted a policy of leapfrogging from island to island, all the time moving westward toward the Japanese homeland. The Allies adopted a policy of leapfrogging from island to island, all the time moving westward toward the Japanese homeland. Why did President Truman decide to use atomic weapons? Why did President Truman decide to use atomic weapons? The U.S. wanted to avoid the casualties that would result from an invasion of Japan, and to end the war quickly. The U.S. wanted to avoid the casualties that would result from an invasion of Japan, and to end the war quickly.

20 The Home Front Main Idea After World War II, Americans adjusted to new economic opportunities and harsh social tensions. Why it Matters Today Economic opportunities afforded by World War II led to a more diverse middle class in the U.S.

21 Opportunity and Adjustment In contrast to the Great Depression, WW II was a time of opportunity for millions of Americans. In contrast to the Great Depression, WW II was a time of opportunity for millions of Americans. Opportunities Adjustments Economic Gains Paychecks rose 35% Crop production 50% Women in workforce Population Shifts Families uprooted and moved California population increase African Ams. Moved north Social Adjustments Mothers raise children GI Bill of Rights-1944

22 Discrimination and Reaction Despite the opportunities that opened up for women and minorities during the war, old prejudices and policies persisted, both in the military and at home. Despite the opportunities that opened up for women and minorities during the war, old prejudices and policies persisted, both in the military and at home. Civil Rights Protests Civil Rights Protests African Ams. Moved to the Midwest African Ams. Moved to the Midwest James Farmer James Farmer Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) 1943 Riots in Detriot 1943 Riots in Detriot Tension in Los Angeles Tension in Los Angeles Summer Zoot-Suit Riots Summer Zoot-Suit Riots 11 Sailors reported they had been attacked by zoot-suit Mexicans 11 Sailors reported they had been attacked by zoot-suit Mexicans

23 Internment of Japanese Americans When the war began, 120,000 Japanese Americans lived in the U.S. When the war began, 120,000 Japanese Americans lived in the U.S. Frighten people believed false rumors that Japanese Americans were committing sabotage by mining coastal harbors and poisoning vegetables. Frighten people believed false rumors that Japanese Americans were committing sabotage by mining coastal harbors and poisoning vegetables. The War Dept. called for the mass evacuation of all Japanese Americans from Hawaii. The War Dept. called for the mass evacuation of all Japanese Americans from Hawaii. U.S. is forced to order the internment or confinement of 1,444 Japanese Americans. U.S. is forced to order the internment or confinement of 1,444 Japanese Americans. Feb. 19, 1942-Roosevelt signed an order requiring the removal of people of Japanese ancestry from California and parts of Washington, Oregon, and Arizona. Feb. 19, 1942-Roosevelt signed an order requiring the removal of people of Japanese ancestry from California and parts of Washington, Oregon, and Arizona. No specific charges were ever filed and no evidence of subversion was ever found. No specific charges were ever filed and no evidence of subversion was ever found Korematsu vs. U.S Korematsu vs. U.S. Gov. decision was justified on the basis of military necessity Gov. decision was justified on the basis of military necessity Japanese American Citizens League (JACL) Japanese American Citizens League (JACL) Compensation for those sent to the camps Compensation for those sent to the camps

24 The Home Front Review How did the U.S. economy change during World War II? How did the U.S. economy change during World War II? Unemployment decreased, women took jobs outside the home, and housing and food were in short supply. Unemployment decreased, women took jobs outside the home, and housing and food were in short supply. What events show the persistence of racial tensions? What events show the persistence of racial tensions? Racial riots in Detroit, zoot-suit riots in Los Angeles, and the internment of Japanese Americans. Racial riots in Detroit, zoot-suit riots in Los Angeles, and the internment of Japanese Americans.


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