Presentation on theme: "The United States in World War II"— Presentation transcript:
1The United States in World War II How can the United States use its resources to achieve victory?
2Mobilizing for Defense Main IdeaFollowing the attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States mobilized for war.Why it Matters TodayMilitary Industries in the United States today are a major part of the American economy.
3Americans Join in the War Effort The Japanese had attacked Pearl Harbor with the expectation that once Americans had experienced Japan’s power, they would shrink from further conflict.
4A Productions MiracleEarly in February 1942, American newspapers reported the end of automobile production for private use.The Industrial ResponseAutomobile plants began to produce tanks, planes, boats, and command cars.Shipyards produced tanker, cargo carriers, aircraft carriers.Labor’s ContributionWomen contribute in factoriesAfrican Americans still faced discriminationMobilization of ScientistsOffice of Scientific Research & Development (OSRD)Improved radar and sonarAtomic BombAlbert EinsteinManhattan Project
5The Federal Government Takes Control As war production increased, there were fewer consumer products available for purchase.
6Mobilizing for Defense Review How did U.S. military reflect the diversity of American society during World War II?It included large number of white, African-Americans, Native Americans, Mexican Americans, and Asian Americans.How did the federal government’s actions influence civilian life during World War II?It drafted civilians and established a system of rationing and other economic controls.
7The War for Europe and North Africa Main IdeaAllied forces, led by the United States and Great Britain battled Axis powers for control of Europe and North Africa.Why it Matters TodayDuring World War II, the United States assumed a leading role in world affairs that continues today.
8The United States and Britain Join Forces War PlansOn December 22, 1941 Churchill and Roosevelt met to work out war plans.Churchill convinces Roosevelt to attack Hitler first.Battle of the AtlanticHitler orders submarine attacks on America’s east coast.Germany’s aim was to prevent food and war materials from reaching Great Britain.Hitler wanted to cut Britain’s life-line.1st four months of ships were sunkConvoys were formedShipbuilding increased
9The Eastern Front and the Mediterranean By the winter of 1943, the Allies began to see victories on land as well as sea.
10Heroes in Combat Tuskegee Airmen- 99th Pursuit Squadron 92nd Infantry Division- BuffaloesCompany E- All Chicano unitPurple Heart Battalion- Hawaiian Nisei
11The Allies Liberate Europe Even as the Allies were battling for Italy in 1943, they had begun work on a dramatic plan to invade France and free Western Europe from the Nazis.D-Day3 million British, American, and Canadian troopsOperation Overlord (Allied invasion)June 6, 1944Omaha BeachAllies Gain GroundGeneral Omar BradleyGeneral George PattonAug. 23, Paris liberatedThe Battle of the BulgeOctober Americans captured their first German town, Aachen.Germans lost 120,00 troops, 600 tanks, 1,600 planesLiberation of the Death CampsSoviets were the first to come upon the death campsMajdanek in Poland
12Allies Liberate Europe-cont’ Unconditional SurrenderApril 25, Soviet storm BerlinHitler and wife Eva Braun commits suicideMay 8, V-E Day (Victory in Europe)Roosevelt’s DeathApril 12, Roosevelt dies of a strokeHarry S. Truman- 33rd President
13The War for Europe and North Africa What was the significance of the Battle of the Bulge?Soviets stopped Hitler’s eastward expansion, destroyed the German Sixth Army, and diverted German troops from the western front.How did the Battle of the Bulge signal the beginning of the end of World War II in Europe?Germany could not replace the manpower and weapons it lost, and could not only retreat.
14The War in the Pacific Main Idea In order to defeat Japan and end the war in the Pacific, the United States unleashed a terrible new weapon, the atomic bomb.Why it Matters TodayCountries of the modern world struggle to find ways to prevent the use of nuclear weapons.
15The Allies Stem the Japanese Tide While the Allies agreed that the defeat of the Nazis was their first priority, the United States did not wait until V-E Day to move against Japan.
16The Allies Go on the Offensive The first Allied offensive began in August 1942 when 19,000 troops stormed Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands.The victory at Guadalcanal marked Japan’s first defeat on land, but not its last.The Japanese DefenseBattle of Leyte Gulf and a new tacticKamikaze or suidcide-plane “Divine wind”Iwo Jima“Sulfur Island”Most heavily defended spot on earth20,700 Japanese- 200 survivedBattle for OkinawaJapanese send 1,000 kamikaze pilotsFighting ended on June 21, 19457,600 Americans killed110,000 Japanese killed
17The Atomic Bomb End the War The taking of Iwo Jima and Okinawa opened the way for an invasion of Japan.
18Rebuilding BeginsWith Japan’s surrender, the Allies turned to the challenge of rebuilding war-torn nations.
19The War in the Pacific Review Briefly describe the island war in the Pacific.The Allies adopted a policy of leapfrogging from island to island, all the time moving westward toward the Japanese homeland.Why did President Truman decide to use atomic weapons?The U.S. wanted to avoid the casualties that would result from an invasion of Japan, and to end the war quickly.
20The Home Front Main Idea After World War II, Americans adjusted to new economic opportunities and harsh social tensions.Why it Matters TodayEconomic opportunities afforded by World War II led to a more diverse middle class in the U.S.
21Opportunity and Adjustment In contrast to the Great Depression, WW II was a time of opportunity for millions of Americans.
22Discrimination and Reaction Despite the opportunities that opened up for women and minorities during the war, old prejudices and policies persisted, both in the military and at home.Civil Rights ProtestsAfrican Ams. Moved to the MidwestJames FarmerCongress of Racial Equality (CORE)1943 Riots in DetriotTension in Los AngelesSummer “Zoot-Suit” Riots11 Sailors reported they had been attacked by zoot-suit Mexicans
23Internment of Japanese Americans When the war began, 120,000 Japanese Americans lived in the U.S.Frighten people believed false rumors that Japanese Americans were committing sabotage by mining coastal harbors and poisoning vegetables.The War Dept. called for the mass evacuation of all Japanese Americans from Hawaii.U.S. is forced to order the internment or confinement of 1,444 Japanese Americans.Feb. 19, 1942-Roosevelt signed an order requiring the removal of people of Japanese ancestry from California and parts of Washington, Oregon, and Arizona.No specific charges were ever filed and no evidence of subversion was ever found.1944- Korematsu vs. U.S.Gov. decision was justified on the basis of “military necessity”Japanese American Citizens League (JACL)Compensation for those sent to the camps
24The Home Front ReviewHow did the U.S. economy change during World War II?Unemployment decreased, women took jobs outside the home, and housing and food were in short supply.What events show the persistence of racial tensions?Racial riots in Detroit, zoot-suit riots in Los Angeles, and the internment of Japanese Americans.