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Environmental Health Specialist II

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1 Environmental Health Specialist II
Outdoor Play Areas Susan Lane, REHS, CPSI Environmental Health Specialist II

2 Outdoor Grounds Maintenance: The grounds shall be maintained in a sanitary condition, well drained and free of refuse, litter, animal droppings, insect and rodent harborages, poisonous plants, weed overgrowth, and unused equipment. 7.0

3 Outdoor Grounds Exterior Garbage: Exterior garbage and rubbish containers shall be easily cleanable, covered with a tight fitting lid, well maintained, inaccessible to children and removed on a frequency that prevents creation of a nuisance.

4 Swimming and Wading Pools Permanent Water Features
A Health Permit to operate a public pool shall be maintained for a Child Care Center swimming pool or permanent wading pool. All bodies of water shall have a barrier that conforms to NAC

5 Swimming and Wading Pools
Swimming and permanent wading pools shall meet all requirements of the Nevada Administrative Code (NAC) 444, “Public Bathing Places and Spas.” Portable wading pools are prohibited

6 Playground Statistics
Purpose of Hazard Identification is to reduce the number and severity of life-threatening and seriously debilitating injuries #1 cause of DEATH: Entanglement due to clothes or something around a child’s neck becoming caught or entwined on a component of playground equipment

7 Playground Statistics
#1 cause of INJURY: Falls which result in brain damage, permanent paralysis, long bone fractures, other long term, life-impacting injuries Both of these causes may be abated by proper use of equipment, supervision, and handholds, guardrails and protective barriers

8 Child Care Center Outdoor Play Areas 7.4
An outdoor play area must meet SNHD criteria for the following: 7.4.1 Construction Plan Review 7.4.2 Enclosures 7.4.3 Visibility 7.4.4 Drinking Water 7.4.5 Shade 7.4.6 Playground Equipment 7.4.7 Protective Surfaces 7.4.8 Maintenance and Supervision

9 Construction Plan Review 7.4.1
Properly developed plans for construction, expansion, renovation or conversion shall be submitted to SNHD Plan Review.

10 Enclosures Perimeter fencing or walls must be no less than 48” in height Fencing and components must be sturdy, rigid and non-deforming

11 Enclosures 7.4.2 Spacing between vertical components
and under the fence must be 3.5” or less Non-compliant fence

12 Enclosures 7.4.2 Hand or foot holds Chain link exposed
The fence shall be constructed so that it is non-climbable. Both examples show climbable fencing due to hand or foot holds under 48 inches, and abatement netting in disrepair. Hand or foot holds Chain link exposed

13 Climbable Fences—Not Allowed
Both violations show hand or foot holds under 48 inches

14 Enclosures 7.4.2 Acceptable measures to abate climbable enclosures
Slats Netting Both!

15 Enclosures 7.4.2 An additional abatement measure for climbable fencing is total replacement of the climbable fencing. Suitable non-climbable alternatives are compliant vertical component fencing (spacing between vertical components and under the fence less than 3.5 inches) or a solid wall

16 Enclosures 7.4.2 Two examples of acceptable non-climbable fencing

17 Enclosure Hazards An exposed bolt end that protrudes more than 2 full threads is an entanglement hazard—bolt ends must be trimmed to two or less threads and sanded if necessary to avoid an abrasion hazard

18 Enclosure Hazards Trip Hazard Inadequate

19 Good solution—tennis balls
Enclosure Hazards Good solution—tennis balls work also Protrusion

20 Visibility 7.4.3 The outdoor play area must be arranged so all areas are visible to the Child Care Providers. Areas to the sides of a facility must be inaccessible. 7.4.3

21 Side yard inaccessible
Visibility 7.4.3 Side yard accessible Side yard inaccessible

22 Drinking Water 7.4.4 Potable water must be available in each outdoor area. Fixtures must be clean and sanitary Fountain pressure must be regulated to keep the stream in the fountain basin and to avoid mouths touching the water source 7.4.4 9.1.4

23 Drinking Water 7.4.4 Dirty fountain Stream overshoots

24 Drinking Water 9.1.4 Potable water may be provided from containers capable of being washed, rinsed and sanitized. The container must be properly secured to prevent tipping and contamination. Single service cups must be stored in a sanitary manner 7.4.4

25 Approved means of supply
Drinking Water 9.1.4 Approved means of supply

26 Drinking Water 9.1.4 Metal surfaces must be coated or shaded
to avoid burns Before coating After 7.4.6

27 Drinking Water 9.1.4 Fountain has been made safe –
push button is covered with plastic, bubbler is also plastic

28 Unshaded plastic slide
Minimum 5 ft2 per child per maximum facility capacity as determined by the Licensing Authority. Excludes shade provided by walls of building Required in each separately fenced area The ground area of the canopy of mature living trees can satisfy shade requirements. Unshaded plastic slide temperature on a summer day 7.4.5

29 Playground Equipment 7.4.6 Commercial grade only, in compliance with U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission Standards (CPSC) 7.4.6

30 Antique fire engines or vehicles, unshaded metal
Playground Equipment 7.4.6 Items not allowed: Antique fire engines or vehicles, unshaded metal 7.4.6

31 Playground Equipment Items not allowed: Concrete pipes Truck tires

32 Playground Equipment 7.4.6 Age Appropriate Use: Access to play equipment must be limited to developmentally appropriate age groups Playground equipment must have signage that defines the age range of children for which the equipment is intended. 7.4.6

33 Playground Equipment 7.4 Playground equipment must be of safe design and maintained in good repair. Hazards that require time for correction shall be maintained inaccessible to children until corrections are made.

34 Playground Equipment Testing
Required Equipment: 1. National Playground Safety Institute test probes and gauges 2. Spade or digging tool 3. Tape Measure 4. Camera 7.4.6

35 Playground Equipment Testing
Completely Bounded Opening Head and Torso Probes: If the Torso Probe passes through an opening, the Head Probe must also pass Torso Head

36 Playground Equipment Testing
The anthropometric basis for the three- dimensional Head and Torso Probes: 5th percentile 2-year old for the Torso Probe (smallest torso) 95th percentile 5-year old for the Head Probe (largest head) “Where the smallest torso goes, the largest head must follow”

37 Playground Equipment Testing
50 FtLb Gauge used in conjunction with the head and torso probes to test completely bounded nonrigid openings such as flexible nets, tot seats, and plastic enclosures

38 Playground Equipment Testing
Partially Bounded Opening Test Template

39 Playground Equipment Testing
Protrusion Gauges used to determine whether a projection is a protrusion

40 Playground Equipment Testing
Pipe-size template used for any components intended for use as a hand support

41 Playground Equipment Testing
Angle finder used for: Designated Play Surfaces Steps/Rungs/Platforms to be Horizontal to within ±2° See Saw angle ≤ 25° Slide Slope and Exit regions 55° Entrapment Angles

42 Playground Equipment Testing
S-Hook connectors are properly closed when there is no gap or space greater than 0.04 in./1.0mm (width of a dime)

43 Playground Equipment Testing
Check upper and lower loop alignment Neither loop of an S hook may overlap the body Non-compliant

44 Equipment Maintenance 7.4.8
Worn equipment and cracked or broken plastic components are common problems

45 Equipment Maintenance
Missing bolts and screws 7.4.6

46 Equipment Maintenance
Duct tape used for repair—also cracked plastic 7.4.6

47 Equipment Maintenance
View from underneath equipment—missing fasteners replaced with plastic coated cable

48 Equipment Maintenance
Missing fasteners 7.4.6

49 Equipment Maintenance
Check for structural integrity, missing pieces, equipment that has “settled” causing joints to open 7.4.6

50 Equipment Maintenance
Broken swing chain Corroding metal bridge Rusty surface 7.4.6

51 Equipment Maintenance
Worn connecting devices at points of moving contact Duct tape used for repair

52 Equipment Hazards Very common finger entrapment—equipment has been modified from original design, leaving this hazard

53 May be abated by restricting movement
Equipment Hazards Crush, shear, entanglement hazard Abatement May be abated by restricting movement of wheel or replacing with a solid, not open-spoked wheel or solid mounting piece

54 Equipment Hazards Hand holds at the top of this chain climber
are missing—note the empty attachment bracket

55 Non-commercial materials
Equipment Hazards Non-commercial materials used for repair

56 Two examples of entanglement hazards due to protrusion of fasteners
Equipment Hazards Two examples of entanglement hazards due to protrusion of fasteners

57 Finger entrapment hazards
Equipment Hazards Finger entrapment hazards

58 Equipment Hazards Are these missing bolts or just
Finger entrapment/integrity— Are these missing bolts or just non-essential caps or plugs?

59 Equipment Hazards 7.4 Metal equipment must be shaded
or coated to prevent burns 7.4

60 Equipment Hazards 3.5”-9.0” opening is an entrapment hazard

61 Head Probe (9.0”) will not follow
Equipment Hazards Entrapment Hazard: Torso probe (3.5”) passes through bars on play equipment— Head Probe (9.0”) will not follow

62 Equipment Hazards The highest designated play surface
may not exceed 8 feet for school aged, and 6 feet for preschool aged children. (Inspector is 5’11”)

63 Equipment Hazards This little girl is 3 years old.
Highest play surface of equipment is greater than 6 feet.

64 Equipment Hazards CPSC recommends that swings not be attached to a composite structure Swings attached to composite resulting in insufficient use zone

65 Equipment Hazards Both of these structures are non-compliant due
This piece was modified by the center to add the swings Both of these structures are non-compliant due to insufficient use zones

66 Equipment Hazards CPSC recommends no more than 2 swings per bay

67 Protrusion/Impalement
Equipment Hazards Protrusion/Impalement

68 Equipment Hazards Two legs of this play structure
did not touch the ground, and contained metal edges

69 Maintenance/Supervision
The Child Care Center Director or designee shall inspect the outdoor play area daily before children go out to play to ensure there are no hazards present. 7.4.8

70 Maintenance/Supervision
Sand boxes smaller than 100 square feet shall be covered when not in use. Larger sand play areas left uncovered shall be inspected a minimum of daily, prior to children entering the area, to remove any animal fecal matter or other foreign debris. 7.4.8

71 Debris present in children’s area
Playground Hazards Debris present in children’s area

72 Playground Hazards Climbable Fence Abandoned Vehicle
Inadequate Use Zone Inadequate Surfacing

73 Playground Hazards Accessible storage area Numerous debris hazards

74 Playground Hazards Overhead obstructions (tree branches, ropes), within the use zones of play equipment must be at least 84 in. (7 ft) above each designated play surface and the pivot point of swings

75 Tree branches within children’s reach
Playground Hazards Tree branches within children’s reach

76 Playground Hazards Overhead hazards

77 Playground Hazards Plumbers tape used to secure a fence opening
A splintered, climbable remnant of an old piece of equipment

78 Playground Hazards Umbrella Stand Base—Trip/Impalement
Splintered, peeling paint

79 Playground Hazards Impalement and entanglement hazards

80 Playground Hazards Broken bench Missing cap exposing rough surface

81 Playground Hazards Trip hazards

82 Playground Hazards Trip hazards

83 Playground Hazards Trip Hazard

84 Playground Hazards Fencing in disrepair

85 Playground Hazards Violation Utility meters must be inaccessible
Power supply boxes must be locked or inaccessible Violation 7.4.8

86 Playground Hazards Utility poles and their supports need to be
made inaccessible Tree supports need to be high enough to eliminate any hazard 7.4.8

87 Bird droppings on play structure handholds
Playground Hazards Bird droppings on play structure handholds 7.4.8

88 Surfacing Outdoor play areas may be dirt, grass, concrete, asphalt, etc., and may not contain hazards such as leftover construction debris, rocks, irrigation equipment or irregular surfaces. Adequate surfacing must be in good repair—not lifting, cracking and free of holes, trip hazards or worn spots

89 Cracked and uneven surfacing

90 Required in the use zone of
Protective Surfacing Required in the use zone of climbable equipment. When a center has no climbable equipment or swings no special surfacing is required. 7.4.7

91 Protective Surfacing Fall height—The vertical distance from a
designated play surface and the protective surfacing beneath it Designated play surface—Any elevated surface for standing, walking, sitting or climbing, or a flat surface greater than 2 inches wide by 2 inches long having an angle less than 30° from horizontal

92 Protective Surfacing The slide platform is the highest elevated
surface on this piece. The fall height is measured at this point.

93 Protective Surfacing Critical height—The fall height below which a life-threatening head injury would not be expected to occur Protective surfacing—Material(s) to be used within the use zone of any playground equipment

94 Protective Surfacing Check for proper surfacing in the use zones of equipment Protective surfacing must be installed to a depth appropriate to the fall height of the equipment and the critical height of tested materials per Handbook for Public Playground Safety, Consumer Product Safety Commission Pub. No. 325, Table 1 7.4.7

95 Protective Surfacing Asphalt, concrete, soil, hard packed dirt, grass and turf are unsuitable for use under and around playground equipment of any height Acceptable playground protective surfacing materials are available in two basic types, unitary or loose-fill

96 CPSC Table 1-Critical Heights of Tested Materials (in feet/9in depth)
Tests were conducted in accordance with ASTM F1292

97 Protective Surfacing The CPSC Table 1 contains select loose-fill material data only. For other materials, including unitary materials such as pour-in-place urethane and rubberized artificial turf, or loose-fill materials such as tire crumbs and bark nuggets, test data from an independent testing laboratory certifying the critical height of material (per ASTM F1292) must be obtained and maintained on file by the operator.

98 Garden spade used to determine depth of material
Protective Surfacing Centers must maintain loose surfacing integrity. The surface material must be properly drained. When loose fill, resilient material becomes compacted, it must be raked and/or turned to restore resilience. Garden spade used to determine depth of material 7.4.7

99 Protective Surfacing Inadequate surfacing often exposes trip hazards—in addition to the hazard of inadequate impact attenuation material.

100 Trip hazard and an exposed rock
Protective Surfacing Trip hazard and an exposed rock

101 Protective Surfacing Surfacing material accumulates under platforms and slides…

102 Protective Surfacing …leaving the use zone areas with
inadequate protection and exposed hazards

103 Protective Surfacing Inadequate surfacing in equipment use zones will result in play area closure until surfacing is restored; the Licensing Authority is notified. 7.4.7

104 Surfacing Problems Squares have become hardened and no longer provide protection. They also pose a trip hazard.

105 Surfacing Problems Worn surfacing and exposed sub-surface which has hardened— this center attempted to replace the green turf without going through Plan Review or replacing the resilient surfacing underneath.

106 Surfacing Problems Missing pieces in use zones mean no protection
plus they present trip hazards

107 Surfacing Problems Uneven surfacing with a hole Exposed tree roots

108 Unitary material in disrepair
Surfacing Problems Unitary material in disrepair

109 “Puzzle squares” are not appropriate surfacing
Surfacing Problems “Puzzle squares” are not appropriate surfacing

110 Surfacing Problems Check the integrity of these mats. They
age and harden and often need to be removed because they provide no additional impact attenuation protection, and are actually a harder surface than the protective surface underneath.

111 Equipment Use Zones Minimum 6 ft radius from perimeter of equipment to any unyielding surface Consult CPSC Handbook for Public Playground Safety for specific equipment

112 Equipment Use Zones: Stationary Equipment (excluding slides):
6 feet in all directions from the perimeter of the equipment Use zones of two stationary adjacent pieces may overlap (6 ft) if the designated play surfaces are less than 30 inches— 9 ft if greater than 30 inches

113 Use Zone for Slides In front of access and to the sides:6ft
At the slide exit: H + 4ft where H=distance from protective surfacing to highest point of the chute Slide use zones may never overlap

114 Use Zone for Single-Axis Swings
Front and rear of swing: 2X Height from the protective surfacing to the pivot point Side of swing: 6 feet Front and rear use zones may not overlap. Side use zones may overlap .

115 Minimum Clearances for Single-Axis Swings

116 Use Zone for Multi-Axis Swings

117 Tot Swings The distance from the underside of an occupied tot
swing seat should be no less than 24 inches

118 Equipment Use Zones Many of the large child care centers have composite play structures. Shade structures are often installed after the equipment—verify that use zones have not been compromised.

119 Use Zones, Metal Equipment, Fencing, Surfacing, Overhead Hazards
Multiple Hazards Use Zones, Metal Equipment, Fencing, Surfacing, Overhead Hazards

120 Inadequate Use Zones …due to non-anchored, non-commercial equipment
in same area with permanent equipment

121 Inadequate Use Zones

122 Inadequate Use Zones

123 Inadequate Use Zones

124 Inadequate Use Zones

125 Fall Protection Either guardrails or protective barriers may be used to prevent inadvertent or unintentional falls off elevated platforms. In addition, they should be designed to prevent intentional attempts by children seeking to defeat the barrier either by climbing over or through the barrier.

126 Fall Protection Guardrails or protective barriers should completely surround an elevated platform except for entrance and exit openings necessary to access the play equipment.

127 Fall Protection The recommended elevated surface heights that require protection are: Preschool-Age—more than 20” School-Age—more than 30” Platforms that are more than 48” require a protective barrier.

128 Fall Protection The minimum height should prevent the largest children from inadvertently falling over the guardrail or protective barrier. A guardrail should extend low enough to prevent the smallest child from inadvertently stepping under it. A protective barrier should not permit children to climb through or under it, and should preclude passage of the torso template.

129 Fall Protection Recommended specifications for Guardrails taken from
CPSC Publication No. 325

130 Guardrail Protective Barrier
Fall Protection Guardrail Protective Barrier

131 Not required on this piece
Fall Protection Not required on this piece

132 Fall Protection The recommended minimum height of a protective barrier is: Preschool-Age Children—minimum 29” School-Age Children—minimum 38”

133 Consult the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission Handbook for Public Playground Safety Publication No. 325 for additional information regarding: Surfacing Use Zones for Equipment Layout and Design Installation and Maintenance of Equipment Platforms, Guardrails & Protective Barriers Stairways, Ladders & Handrails General Hazards

134 Family Care Homes The street address must be
affixed to the residence and easily readable from the street. 12.1.1

135 Family Care Homes Enclosures:
Perimeter fencing or walls and gates must be no less than 48 inches (48”) in height Spacing between vertical components or under the fence must be 3.5” or less Gates must be secured so children cannot gain unauthorized exit 12.3

136 Family Care Homes All mechanical equipment including heating, ventilation, air conditioning systems (HVAC) must be inaccessible 12.1.3

137 Family Care Homes Exterior garbage and rubbish containers shall be easily cleanable, covered with a tight fitting lid and inaccessible to children. Anti-siphon, backflow prevention, or vacuum breakers shall be installed on all water outlets to which a hose may be attached. 12.1 14.1.6

138 Family Care Homes Use of residential swimming pools, spas and portable wading pools is prohibited for children in care during business hours. 12.2.1

139 Bodies of Water--Barriers to Access:
Family Care Homes Bodies of Water--Barriers to Access: Wall or non-climbable, permanent fence, minimum 5 ft (5’0”) high Vertical openings not more than 3 ½” apart 12.2.2

140 Family Care Homes Bodies of Water--Barriers to Access:
Gates or doors must be self-closing with positive self-latching mechanisms located 42-48” above the ground on the side facing the body of water 12.2.2

141 Family Care Homes Shade must be provided in addition to the shade offered by the exterior walls of the residence: Minimum 50 sq feet for Family Care Homes Minimum 100 sq feet for Group Care Homes Mature trees may satisfy this requirement 12.3.2

142 Family Care Homes An elevated, portable water table may be used for water play—it must be emptied, cleaned and sanitized immediately after each use Sprinkler play is permitted as long as the area remains free of pooling water 12.2.3 12.2.4

143 Family Care Homes An outdoor play area shall be arranged so that all areas in a given enclosed play yard are visible to the Child Care Provider 12.3.1

144 Family Care Homes Age Appropriate Use: Access to play equipment shall be limited to age groups for which the equipment is developmentally appropriate according to the manufacturer instructions. Equipment not commercially manufactured shall comply with the requirements of the most current edition of the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, Handbook for Public Playground Safety, Publication No. 325.

145 Family Care Homes Outdoor Play Equipment
Climb-on equipment shall be positioned at least 6 feet away from any unyielding surface such as pavement, fences, trees or other equipment. Surfacing and use zones are non-compliant

146 Family Care Homes Backyard Hazards
Potentially dangerous tools or equipment, pesticides and other toxic substances must be maintained inaccessible to children 12.1.2

147 Family Care Homes Backyard Hazards
Gas grills need to be inaccessible, and trampoline use is not allowed 12.1.3 12.3.3

148 Family Care Homes Backyard Hazards
Storage sheds shall be locked at all times 12.1.2

149 Family Care Homes Backyard Hazards
Garden hoses and loose cable or phone wires on exterior walls pose an entanglement hazard

150 Family Care Homes Multiple Hazards
Impalement Entanglement Tripping Abrasion

151 More Hazards, Same Location
Insufficient Use Zone—6’ minimum Insufficient Surfacing—positioned on unyielding surface

152 Family Care Home Backyard Hazards
Inadequate Use Zone Insufficient Surfacing Chairs in the Use Zone

153 Inspection and Compliance
The operator of the Child Care Facility shall maintain a copy of the last health inspection report as well as a copy of the regulations on file at the facility, readily available for parental review. Unless otherwise noted on the inspection report, all items of violation shall be corrected within 30 days. 2.0

154 Resources which has links for:
--Southern Nevada Health District Regulations Governing the Sanitation of Child Care Facilities --Southern Nevada Health District Regulations Governing the Sanitation of Food Establishments --Playground Resource Guide (a copy of this presentation) --U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission publication No. 325, Handbook for Public Playground Safety, and the Outdoor Home Playground Safety Handbook

155 Everybody play nice!


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