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Product & Product Life Cycles

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1 Product & Product Life Cycles
Marketing BUS 232 Product & Product Life Cycles Dr. Mohammed A. Nasseef

2 What is a product Jobber (2004) gives a simple definition :
A product is anything that has the ability to satisfy a customer need

3 Delivery and installation
Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior This CTR relates to Figure 5-2 on p.135 and previews the material on pp Level of Product Credit arrangement Influences on Consumers Cultural. Culture is the most basic influence on a person's values, priorities, and beliefs. Cultural shifts make marketing opportunities although most such changes are in secondary rather than core cultural values. Subcultures are important markets as these groups are often significantly different in their needs to warrant different marketing approaches. Social. Social class is determined by a combination of income, occupation, education, wealth and other variables. Social factors within one's class that affect consumer behavior include reference groups & aspirational groups. Families also exert strong social influences. Finally, each relationship a person has with his or her group carries with it certain roles and status that may carry consumptive responsibilities. Personal. Major personal factors are age and life cycle stage, occupation, economic situation, life style and personality/self-concept. Texts vary in their treatment of the PLC stages but it is clear that singles buy different products than do young marrieds with small children. Occupations differ in time constraints and social pressures to conform that affect consumption decisions. Lifestyles measured by AIO or VALS typologies can reveal different consumption patterns across otherwise dissimilar groups. The unique characteristics of each person that make up their personality also affect behavior. Psychological. Maslow's hierarchy reminds marketers that need states vary in their intensity or motivation. Perception is the process of organizing stimuli and is influenced by selective exposure, distortion, & retention. Learning occurs in response to the presentation of information linked to relevant drives, cues, responses, and reinforcement only some of which is under the control of the marketer. Beliefs and attitudes, though shaped by cultural and social forces, may vary considerably on the individual level. Quality Core product Features And styling warranty packaging After sales service Brand name Delivery and installation

4 Product Life Cycles and Portfolio
Product Life Cycle – shows the stages that products go through from development to withdrawal from the market Product Portfolio – the range of products a company has in development or available for consumers at any one time Managing product portfolio is important for cash flow

5 Product Life Cycle (PLC):
Each product may have a different life cycle PLC determines revenue earned Contributes to strategic marketing planning May help the firm to identify when a product needs support, redesign, reinvigorating, withdrawal, etc. May help in new product development planning May help in forecasting and managing cash flow

6 The Stages of the Product Life Cycle:
Development Introduction/Launch Growth Maturity Saturation Decline Withdrawal

7 The Stages of the Product Life Cycle
Saturation Decline Maturity Growth Development Introduction Sales Time

8 The Development Stage Initial Ideas – possibly large number
May come from any of the following – Market research – identifies gaps in the market Monitoring competitors Planned research and development (R&D) Luck or intuition – stumble across ideas? Creative thinking – inventions, hunches? Futures thinking – what will people be using/wanting/needing 5,10,20 years

9 Product Development Stages
Market analysis – is it wanted? Can it be produced at a profit? Who is it likely to be aimed at? Test Marketing – possibly local/regional Analysis of test marketing results and amendment of product/production process Preparations for launch – publicity, marketing campaign

10 Introduction/Launch:
Advertising and promotion campaigns Target campaign at specific audience? Monitor initial sales Maximise publicity High cost/low sales type of product

11 Growth: Increased consumer awareness Sales rise Revenues increase
Costs - fixed costs/variable costs, profits may be made Monitor market – competitors reaction?

12 Maturity: Sales reach peak Cost of supporting the product declines
Ratio of revenue to cost high Sales growth likely to be low Market share may be high Competition likely to be greater Monitor market – changes/amendments/new strategies?

13 Saturation: New entrants likely to mean market is ‘flooded’
Necessity to develop new strategies becomes more pressing: Searching out new markets: Linking to changing fashions Seeking new or exploiting market segments Linking to joint ventures – media/music, etc. Developing new uses Focus on adapting the product Re-packaging or format Improving the standard or quality Developing the product range

14 Decline and Withdrawal:
Product outlives/outgrows its usefulness/value Fashions change Technology changes Sales decline Cost of supporting starts to rise too far Decision to withdraw may be dependent on availability of new products and whether fashions/trends will come around again?

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