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6 Chapter Managing Human Resources Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
6-2 Learning Objectives Describe the key components of the HRM process and what influences it Discuss the tasks associated with identifying and selecting competent employees Explain how employees are provided with needed skills and knowledge Describe strategies for retaining competent, high- performing employees Discuss contemporary issues in managing human resources Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
6-3 What Is the Human Resource Management Process? Human Resource Management (HRM) – The management function concerned with getting, training, motivating, and keeping competent employees Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
6-4 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
6-5 What Is the Legal Environment of HRM? Since the mid-1960s, the federal government in the United States has greatly expanded its influence over HRM by enacting a number of laws and regulations including: Affirmative Action Programs – Programs that ensure that decisions and practices enhance the employment, upgrading, and retention of members of protected groups Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
6-6 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
6-7 Are HRM Laws the Same Globally? HRM laws aren’t the same globally. For example, German laws provide for worker representation in management decisions through Work Councils – Groups of nominated or elected employees who must be consulted when management makes decisions involving personnel Board Representatives – Employees who sit on a company’s board of directors and represent the interest of employees Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
6-8 What Is Employment Planning? Employment Planning – The process by which managers ensure they have the right numbers and kinds of people in the right places at the right timewho are capable of effectively and efficiently completing those tasks that will help the organization achieve its overall objectives. Human Resource Inventory – A report listing important information about employees such as name, education, training, skills, languages spoken, and so forth Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
6-9 What Is Job Analysis? Job Analysis – An assessment that defines jobs and the behaviors necessary to perform them Job Description – A written statement that describes a job (what a jobholder does, how it is done, and why) Job Specification – A written statement of the minimum qualifications that a person must possess to perform a given job successfully It identifies the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to do the job effectively. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
6-10 HOW DO ORGANIZATIONS RECRUIT EMPLOYEES? Recruitment – Locating, identifying, and attracting capable applicants Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
6-11 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
6-12 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
6-13 How Do Managers Select Job Applicants? Selection Process – Screening job applicants to ensure that the most appropriate candidates are hired Reliability – The degree to which a selection device measures the same thing consistently Validity – The proven relationship between a selection device and some relevant criterion Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
6-14 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
6-15 Pre-Employment Testing One criticism of written tests is that they may measure characteristics which are not related to job performance. As a result, performance- simulation tests are gaining popularity Performance-Simulation Tests – Selection devices based on actual job behaviors Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
6-16 Closing the Deal Providing only details of positive aspects of a job may lead to satisfaction problems later. Realistic Job Preview (RJP) – A preview of a job that provides both positive and negative information about the job and the company Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
6-17 How Are New Hires Introduced to the Organization? Orientation – Introducing a new employee to the job and the organization Employee Training – A learning experience that seeks a relatively permanent change in employees by improving their ability to perform on the job Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
6-18 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
6-19 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
6-20 What Is a Performance Management System? Performance Management System – A system that establishes performance standards that are used to evaluate employee performance 360-degree appraisal – An appraisal device that seeks feedback from a variety of sources for the person being rated Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
6-21 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
6-22 What Happens If an Employee’s Performance Is Not Up to Par? Discipline – Actions taken by a manager to enforce an organization’s standards and regulations Employee Counseling – A process designed to help employees overcome performance-related problems Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
6-23 How Are Employees Compensated? Compensation Administration – The process of determining a cost-effective pay structure that will attract and retain employees, provide an incentive for them to work hard, and ensure that pay levels will be perceived as fair Skill-based Pay – A pay system that rewards employees for the job skills they demonstrate Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
6-24 Compensation (cont.) Variable Pay – A pay system in which an individual’s compensation is contingent on performance Employee Benefits – Nonfinancial rewards designed to enrich employees’ lives Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
6-25 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
6-26 How Can Managers Manage Downsizing? Downsizing – The planned elimination of jobs in an organization Layoff-Survivor Sickness – A set of attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors of employees who survive layoffs Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
6-27 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
6-28 What Is Sexual Harassment? Sexual Harassment – Any unwanted action or activity of a sexual nature that explicitly or implicitly affects an individual’s employment, performance, or work environment Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
6-29 What Is Workplace Spirituality? Workplace Spirituality – A spiritual culture where organizational values promote a sense of purpose through meaningful work that takes place in the context of community Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
6-30 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
6-31 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education Career Module Managing Your Career
6-32 Building Your Career Career – The sequence of work positions held by a person during his or her lifetime Boundaryless Career – When an individual takes personal responsibility for his or her own career Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
6-33 How Can I Have a Successful Career? Assess Your Personal Strengths and Weaknesses – Where do your natural talents lie? Identify Market Opportunities – Where are tomorrow’s job opportunities? Take Responsibility for Managing Your Own Career Develop Your Interpersonal Skills – Interpersonal skills, especially the ability to communicate, top the list of almost every employer’s “must have” skills Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
6-34 Career Success (cont.) Practice Makes Perfect – If you want to excel in any field, you should expect to have to put in a lot of deliberate practice Stay Up-to-Date – To keep your career on track, you need to make learning a lifetime commitment Network – Create and maintaining beneficial relationships with others in order to accomplish your goals Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
6-35 Career Success (cont.) Stay Visible – You increase your mobility and value in the marketplace by keeping visible Seek a Mentor – Employees with mentors are likely to have enhanced mobility and increased knowledge of the organization Leverage Your Competitive Advantage – Develop skills that will give you a competitive advantage in the marketplace Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
6-36 Career Success (cont.) Don’t Shun Risks It’s OK to Change Jobs – To keep your skills fresh, your income increasing, and your job tasks interesting, it will be increasingly likely that you’ll need to change employers Opportunities, Preparation, and Luck = Success Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
6-37 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
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