Presentation on theme: "Eating with Wisdom: Cultivating Mindful Eating"— Presentation transcript:
1Eating with Wisdom: Cultivating Mindful Eating Jean L. Kristeller, Ph.D.Center for the Study of Health, Religion, and SpiritualityThe Center for Mindful EatingDept. Of Psychology, Indiana State UniversityThis work is based on a number of years of research on meditation -- including basic physiological research, effects of meditation on anxiety and behavior, and recently, the spiritual effects of meditation in cancer patients who are novice meditators.I should also note that unlike Dr. Newberg, I have worked primarily with novice meditators -- but have also worked within various meditative traditions, including transcendental meditation and vipassana, or mindfulness meditation.
2This work was supported by grants from National Center for Complementary and Alternative MedicineNational Institutes of HealthU.S. Department of Health and Human ServicesFunded by Grants #1R-21 AT and U01-AT to Jean Kristellerfrom the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine
3Richard Surwit, Ph.D. and Richard Liebowitz, M.D. AcknowledgmentsIndiana State University Brendan Hallett, Psy.D. and Virgil Sheets, Ph.D. Juli Buchanan, M.A., Brandy Dean, M.A., and Janis Leigh, B.A.Duke University Ruth Quillian-Wolever, Ph.D. Sasha Loring, M.S.W., Jennifer Davis, M.S., and Jennifer Best, Ph.D.Richard Surwit, Ph.D. and Richard Liebowitz, M.D.This work is based on a number of years of research on meditation -- including basic physiological research, effects of meditation on anxiety and behavior, and recently, the spiritual effects of meditation in cancer patients who are novice meditators.I should also note that unlike Dr. Newberg, I have worked primarily with novice meditators -- but have also worked within various meditative traditions, including transcendental meditation and vipassana, or mindfulness meditation.
9“The faculty of voluntarily bringing back a wandering attention, over and over again, is the very root of judgment, character, and will…. An education which should include this faculty would be the education par excellence...”William James. (1918). Principles of Psychology. Vol. 1, p. 424.So -- get started. What is meditation?
10“MEDITATION …. A family of techniques which have in common a conscious attempt to focus attention in a non-analytical way, and an attempt not to dwell on discursive, ruminating thought.”Deane Shapiro, 1980So -- get started. What is meditation?
11“ Mindfulness … moment to moment non-judgmental awareness cultivated by paying attention.” Jon Kabat-ZinnSo -- get started. What is meditation?
12MINDFULNESS: a cognitive state, marked by attentional stability, that disengages habitual reactions and allows for inner wisdom to emerge.Review meanings of mindfulness.Comment about Langer??
14Process ? Mechanisms ? Effects ? Mindfulness Meditation: Making Sense of the Parts?Process ?Mechanisms ?Effects ?
15Meditation as an Attentional Self-Regulatory Process Focus on an object, often repetitive, and often the breath to train attention and disengage ruminative thinking (quietening the ‘monkey mind’)A physically awake stateQuiet detached noting of other thoughts, experiences, sounds, feelings, etc., as they ariseA gentle return to the original point of focus whenever attention has wanderedUse of mindfulness to increase awareness of, and a shift in response in, other aspects of functioning, such as pain, anxiety, relation to others, eating, etc.
16Meditation: Mechanisms and Misunderstandings Meditation is NOT primarily a trance state.Meditation is NOT primarily a relaxation tool.Meditation is FUNDAMENTALLY a cognitive-attentional process that promotes self-regulation.It has potential effects across MULTIPLE DOMAINS of psychological functioning: cognitive, physiological, emotional, behavioral, relation to self/others, and spiritual.
17Habitual Reactivity and Disregulation The brain/mind is designed to be constantly scanning -- both externally and internally -- for meaningful information.Threatening, gratifying, novel, or personally-meaningful information has predominance.Much of this happens without awareness.Responses are then triggered as rapidly as possible.Such responses may be particularly characteristic of disregulation disorders, such as anxiety reactions, chronic depression, addictions, and eating disorders.
18Usual Processing: Conditioning Model & Eating Problems Usual Thoughts and ExperiencesConditioning ~~ Survival ~~ Attachment/AvoidanceXXCognition/AttentionEmotionsSelf/OthersPhysiology/HealthSpiritualBehavior
19Usual Thoughts and Experiences Usual ProcessingUsual Thoughts and ExperiencesAutomatic ReactionsCognition/AttentionEmotionsSelf/OthersPhysiology/HealthSpiritualBehavior
20Meditation: Self/Transcendent/Spiritual Model Meditation PracticeEngagement of Transcendent Self/No-self/SpiritCognition/AttentionEmotionsSelf/OthersPhysiology/HealthSpiritualBehavior
21Meditation: Physiological/Stress Reactivity Model Meditation PracticeEngagement of Relaxation ResponseCognition/AttentionEmotionsSelf/OthersPhysiology/HealthSpiritualBehavior
22Mindfulness Processing: Multi-Domain Model Usual Thoughts and ExperiencesMindfulness: Disengagement of Automatic ResponsesEngagement of More Integrated “Wiser” ResponsesCognition/AttentionEmotionsSelf/OthersPhysiology/HealthSpiritualBehavior
23Mindfulness Meditation: Self-Regulation and a Multi-Domain Model The first stage of mindfulness meditation heightens awareness of the reactive process.The second stage disengages the automatic reactivity.The third stage allows emergence of more integrative response potentials in whichever domain of functioning is being engaged.
24Mindfulness Meditation and Treatment of Anxiety Disorders Pre-TreatmentTreatmentPost-TreatmentKabat-Zinn, Massion, Kristeller et al. (1992). Am. J. Psychiatry
26The Six Domain Model: Eating Mindlessly Cognitive: Preoccupation with food/eating; black and white thinking.Physiological: 1) hyper-reactivity around food. 2) Disconnect from normal hunger and satiation cues.Emotional: Depression; craving; anxiety.Behavioral: Binge eating; highly conditioned responses to food; general overeating.Relationship to Self/Others: Poor self-acceptance; self- hatred; anger at others; over-valuing thinness.Spiritual: No wise eating; spirituality does not engage honoring body; value and meaning attached to food abundance.
27Psychiatric Criteria for Binge Eating Disorder (DSM-IV) Recurrent binges, characterized by:Eating, in a discrete period of time, much more than most people would eat.A sense of lack of control during the episode.At least two episodes of binge eating per week for six months.Associated with eating more rapidly, eating until uncomfortably full, eating without being physically hungry &/or feeling very guilty or depressed afterwards.Marked distress regarding binge eating.
283500 KCalories: Overeating vs. Bingeing Overeating PatternTime KCal7 am 2 eggs, bacon2 slices toastOJ 45010 am Doughnut 150Noon WhopperMedium Fries 11306 pm 6 oz. SteakBaked potato2 vegies, rollApple pie 132010 pm 2 oz. Doritos1 beer 450TOTAL 3500Bingeing PatternKcalCereal/milkOJSalad/diet dressingRollDiet Coke 3003 oz steakBaked potato2 vegies 5002 pieces Apple pie7 oz. Doritos1 pint ice cream 2440TOTAL
29Models of Binge Eating Disorder Cognitive-Behavioral Models: Binging serves various conditioned functions, including positive reinforcement and escape from negative experiences (inc. anxiety, intrusive thoughts, etc.). (Fairburn).Chronic Dieting/Restraint Models/Abstinence Violation Effects: Chronic dieting and efforts at food avoidance leads to both physiological and psychological deprivation. (Herman & Polivy; Marlatt).Appetite and Satiety Disregulation: Binge eaters have disrupted hunger and satiety regulation. (Heatherington & Rolls; Bartoshuk; Geliebter).Affect Regulation/Escape Models: Binge eaters find eating particularly comforting in the face of negative affect, particularly situations that create a vulnerable sense of self, including trauma history. Eating disorders often reflect a rejection of self, depression, and feelings of helplessness. (Baumeister).
30Mindfulness Processing: Multi-Domain Model Usual Thoughts and ExperiencesMindfulness: Disengagement of Automatic ResponsesEngagement of More Integrated “Wiser” ResponsesCognition/AttentionEmotionsSelf/OthersPhysiology/HealthSpiritualBehavior
31Current Treatment for BED Cognitive-Behavioral TherapyWilfley, Agras, Telch et al. (1993). JCCP; Agras, Telch et al. (1994). Behavior Therapy; Wilfley, Welch, Stein et al. (2002). Arch Gen PsychiatryInterpersonal TherapyWilfley, Agras, Telch et al. (1993). JCCP; Wilfley, Welch, Stein et al. (2002). Arch Gen PsychiatryAppetite Awareness TrainingAllen & Craighead (1999). Behavior Therapy.Dialectical Behavior TherapyTelch, Agras & Linehan (2001). JCCP; Baer, in progress.Nutritional Counseling/Weight Loss TherapyAgras, Telch et al. (1995). JCCP
32Binge Eating and Meditation: A Disregulation-Self-regulation Model Disregulation Model: A combination of these processes leads to chronic “disconnections” between normal and flexible controls of food intake and actual intake, in regard to both appetite & satiety mechanisms. Heightening awareness (biofeedback model) tends to increase regulation (Schwartz; Rodin).Binge eating - a disconnection between psychological and physiological needs for food.Binging - a lack of balanced response to normal hunger and satiation cues.Eating disorders - often reflect a rejection of self, depression, and feelings of helplessness.Mindfulness meditation may therefore be well suited to promoting Self-Regulation: awareness of physical hunger and satiation cues, emotional cues, and dysfunctional self-talk, and to bringing these into better balance.
33Stages in Current Research Clinical Development: Clinical use and manual development (at Brown, UMMC, ISU, and Duke).Unfunded Pilot Study: Single group design, 7 sessions, 1 month followup (Kristeller & Hallett, 1998).NIH-funded Two Year Randomized Trial: Completed research, at ISU and Duke University Center for Integrative Medicine, with 9 sessions, active and waiting list control, 4 month followup, and further manual development.NCCAM Multiple Linked Trials: Three sites (ISU, Duke, Penn), with broader samples, adding weight loss as goal, and neuro-imaging.Other Research: Currently in progress or under development at UC-SF, UNM, Georgia Medical School.
34MB-EAT: Mindfulness-Based Eating Awareness Training Mindfulness meditationEating experience meditations:Awareness of binge triggersAwareness of hungerAwareness of satiety (taste-specific, fullness)Food-related meditations: raisin, chocolate, cheese/crackers, pot luck meal/buffet.Mini-meditations with daily meals and snacks.Forgiveness and wisdom meditationsHomework: meditation practice, mindful eating.
35MB-EAT: Outline of Sessions Introduction to mindfulness meditation. Mindfully eating a raisin.Introduction to “mini-meditation”. Mindfully eating cheese and crackers.Binge trigger meditation. Mindfully eating sweet, high fat food.Hunger Signals meditation (physical vs. emotional hunger).Taste-Specific Satiation Signals meditation. Chips and cookies.Stomach Fullness Satiety meditation. Pot luck meal.Forgiveness meditation.Wisdom meditation.Have others noticed?; where do you go from here?
36Basic Elements of the Pilot Study Participants: 18 obese women who met DSM criteria for BED; avg. age ~ 42; avg. wt. = 242 lbs.Design: Singe-group extended baseline design (3 week baseline line and followup period)Intervention: 6 week (7 session) mindfulness meditation based group treatmentMeasures: Binge Eating Scale, measures of depression and anxiety (BDI and BAI), behavioral measures, ratings of mindfulness, and awareness of hunger and satiety.
37Number of Binges per Week (n = 18, pre/post mean: t = 6.37**)
38Changes in the Binge Eating Scale across Treatment (n = 18, pre/post mean: t = 9.86**)
39Summary of Pilot Study Binges decreased from 4/week to 1.5/week. Depression and anxiety decreased significantly.Decreases on the Binge Eating Scale correlated with using eating-related meditations (r=.66) but not use of general mindfulness meditation.Sense of control around food and enjoyment of food increased.
40NIH TrialNCCAM-funded randomized clinical trial with 3 groups: Meditation-based; Psycho-educational; Waiting List.Two-site design (ISU and Duke).9 week manualized intervention1 and 4 month followupsMore extensive measures including process measures and change in biological markers of self-regulation (lipid and metabolic profiles)
41SampleSample size: N = 150 evaluated on all baseline measures; 14% men.Approximately 14% African-American recruitmentAverage age = 47.5; Avg. Wt. = 240 lbs.; Avg. BMI = 39.
42Treatment Effects on Binge Eating Scale p<.001(N =85)
51Relationship Between Practice and Improvement in Relation to Eating (n = 31-34) Change in:Type of PracticeBESLess DisinhibitionLess HungerWeightGeneral Mindfulness-.28-.17-.26-.20Eating Meditation-.34+Mini-Meditations-.51**-.19-.33+Combined Index-.52**-.38*-.41*
52Change in # of Days Binging and Change in HbA1Cs and Fasting Levels (n = 43-50) Fasting GlucoseFastingInsulinInsulin SensitivityChange in # of Binge Days.33*.28**.36**.35**Change in Weight (M=.07 lbs.; range: -15 to +45).05.10.22.20Change in # of Binge Days,Controlling for Wt..31*.27*.34*
53Relationship between Improvement in Bingeing and Psychological Measures Change in:Change inBinge Days per Month and…Eating Self-EfficacyFood Available(Lowe’s PoF)Food PresentDis-inhibition(TFEQ)CogRestrBDI: Beck DepressionInventoryMB-EAT Group-.37*.38*.35*.45**-.15.43*Psycho- Ed Group-.32+.51**-.23.12
54Rosenberg Self-Esteem Relationship between Improvement in Depression and Psychological MeasuresChange in:Change inDepression and…Binge DaysFood Available(Lowe’s PoF)EatingSelf-EfficacyDis-inhibition(TFEQ)Cog RestrRosenberg Self-EsteemMB-EAT Group.43.23.15.04-.09-.25Psycho- Ed Group.12.57**.48**.42*-.42*-.66**
55Results in Relation to the Multi-Domain Model Cognitive: Disengagement from food preoccupation.Physiological: Normalization of hunger and satiation cues; improvement in physiological/metabolic regulation.Emotional: Decreased depression.Behavioral: Decreased binging, interruption of highly conditioned responses.Relationship to Self/Others: Improved self-acceptance; anecdotally, forgiveness of others.Spiritual: Anecdotally, sense of connecting with the higher, wiser self; using meditation as prayer time.
56Current NIH Study: MB-EAT II Mindfulness Meditation: Regulating Eating and Obesity PI: Jean L. Kristeller, Ph.D., ISUNCCAM-funded randomized clinical trial with 2 groups: MB-EAT vs. Wait List Control.Focus on obesity - moderately to morbidly obese (BMI>34).12 week manualized intervention with increased focus on weight loss, plus 3 month support followup.6 month total followup.
firstname.lastname@example.org The Center for Mindful Eating www.TCME.org I’m going to talking about meditation, about creating mental space – about the process of doing so – and about the value of this for creating change in a very fundamental aspect of human behavior – eating, and the enjoyment of food. I’ll be talking about how creating this space through meditative practice may lead to balance, self-regulation and even wisdom - .