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Children with Disabilities HRBA, Equity and Inclusive Development Mozambique, May 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "Children with Disabilities HRBA, Equity and Inclusive Development Mozambique, May 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 Children with Disabilities HRBA, Equity and Inclusive Development Mozambique, May 2012

2 Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Article 1 - Purpose To promote, protect and ensure the full and equal enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms by all persons with disabilities, and to promote respect for their inherent dignity. Persons with disabilities include those who have long- term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments which in interaction with various barriers may hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others. CRPD 153 signatories 110 ratifications Optional Protocol 90 signatories 63 ratifications

3 UNICEF’s Mandate UNICEF’s mission statement: -priority to the most disadvantaged children; -identifies CWD as being among the most disadvantaged ; -requiring special protection. CRC, together with CRPD and CEDAW: - UNICEF foundation to uphold the civil, cultural, economic, political, and social rights of all girls, boys and women in the world, including those with disabilities.

4 Disability Terminology The CRPD institutes: - PERSON(S) WITH DISABILITIES Also Correct: individual(s) with disability or disabilities people with disabilities or disability Disabled People also acceptable.

5 Traditional Model Disabilities as: - Will of God/test from God - Divine punishment - More humane to end “life of pain/suffering” I will kill you so you stop suffering Charity Model People with disabilities considered: inferior, useless, dependent A burden to society, live on charity, lower social status Families hide them out of shame Objects of pity, humiliated in relationships with others

6 Medical or Biological Model -- Post WW II  Disability considered only a health problem, medical issue  Solutions decided by "experts”, based on diagnosis  Focus in elimination or cure of disability, “normalization” (includes pre-natal genetic testing & selective abortion) We will rehabilitate you so you can overcome all barriers EMPLOYMENT Problem belongs to individual: disability results directly from impairment of the person.

7  People with disabilities are part of society and inclusion must be promoted (health, education, training, work…)  Independent living movement is born  PwD are organized, get stronger  Sectors of society, especially “disability professionals”, see this as cause to worry The 70’s : Disability Movement & Social Inclusion

8 From MEDICAL to SOCIAL model SOCIAL/HR MODEL He cannot vote because the stairs prevent him from reaching the ballot box. MEDICAL MODEL He cannot vote because he is disabled.

9 Interaction between persons with different levels of functioning and an environment that does not take those differences into consideration. HOW IS DISABILITY DEFINED AFTER THE CRPD? Disability= Functioning limitation x Environment Note: we are using “functioning limitation” as a synonym of “impairment”.

10 Environment Impact in the relation between disability and functioning FL 1 x E 0 => 0 Disability FL 5 x E 0 => 0 Disability FL 1 x E 1 = 1 Disability FL 5 x E 5 = 25 Disability FL: FUNCTIONING LIMITATION E: ENVIRONMENT

11 Beyond the typical areas of impairments (physical, sensory, intellectual and mental), people in general face ‘disabling’ conditions in a society that is unprepared for diversity. Disability is part of each and every individual’s life cycle

12 Why not make life easier for all? This could be the SAME person at different times of their life

13 Advances in medicine HIV-AIDS survivors = = higher life expectancy. People living with AIDS potentially living with disability associated with, or as consequence of, medication. Every day, new causes of disability… Also, PwD at risk of contracting STI, HIV-Aids due to greater vulnerability to sexual abuse, and lack of access to information, communication and services.

14 Equity issue becomes clear when 1+1= minus 2 Gender + disability Minorities + disability Indigenous + disability Race + disability Refugees + disability Orphans + disability Poverty + disability and other associations, including all of the above INVISIBILITY – STIGMA - EXCLUSION most excluded are the ones with multiple factors combined

15 Functioning Diversity Environment To guarantee a fair selection, all will have the same exact test – climb up on that tree. Equity = Equal Opportunities

16 None of them would be able to open that door… INCLUSIVE DESIGN

17 A HUMAN-CENTERED DESIGN

18 All principles, actions and components should be conceived under an inclusive approach, from design to implementation. Persons with disabilities should be visible and actively engage in all phases Inclusive & Sustainable Public Policies

19 It is estimated that the additional costs to bring inclusive access to infrastructure is lower than 1% in the stage of designing and planning

20 Poverty & Disability WHO/WB estimate approximately 15 percent of world’s population has a disability. This translates into over a million people, at least 200 million being children with disabilities (CWD), 80% of them living in developing countries.

21 Poverty not only from economic perspective, but social exclusion and powerlessness Vicious cycle between poverty and disability

22 About 80% of disabilities have causes associated to poverty. An estimated 130 million people globally acquired a disability due to malnutrition. Causes of Impairments

23 High prevalence of disability amongst conflict-affected populations: ex- combatants, civilian and refugees. Refugees with disabilities face double vulnerability of being a refugee and having a disability. Disability and Conflict

24 Disability and Education Estimated 40 million of 115 million out-of-school children have disabilities. UNESCO: 90% of children with disabilities in developing countries do not attend school; therefore absent in school data sets, and invisible on national policy agenda. Estimated 30% of world’s children who live on the street are children with disabilities.

25 Disability, Child Mortality and Child Protection In Kazakhstan, 80% of fathers are reported to abandon their wife and family upon the birth of a child with a disability (ADB). The situation is similar elsewhere. Mortality for children with disabilities may be as high as 80% in countries where under-five mortality, as a whole, has fallen to below 20%. In some cases, it seems as if disabled children are being “weeded out.” (DfID, UK)

26 Nearly a third (26%) of the total number of households have one or more members with disabilities, while just 6% of people have participated in the 2009 INE/SINTEF survey have a disability. Given the methodological procedures of the research, the prevalence of disability in Mozambique for this study is estimated at 6.5%. The proportion of women and men in the group was almost the same, 5.3% and 6.5% respectively. Generally, PWDs in Mozambique have an average age of 35 years of age while those without disabilities have an average age of 21 years. 36 households (5.8%) had more than one member with disabilities. Half of people with disabilities (52%) reported that their disability was due to a disease. However, no medical check was made ​​ to find out types of diseases. Over a fifth (24%) reported disability from birth. Disability Data in Mozambique

27 Education: A higher proportion than normal of PWD who have never attended school; or have a low frequency; or high dropout rate. Men with disabilities have a higher proportion of school dropout than women (65%). A higher proportion of women with disabilities have never attended school (53%) - twice than of women without disabilities, as well as men with and without disabilities. The proportion of PCD who can write was higher than the general population (24% versus 15%). Almost a quarter of PCD cannot write while in the general population the proportion is less than 1/6. The number of women/men with disabilities who cannot write was higher than that of the general population. Communication and information: availability and accessibility to telephone, radio, television, internet, banking facilities, newspapers, post office and library. PWDs have significantly limited access to different forms of communication and information compared to the general population. PWDs Living Conditions Study in MOZ

28 Based on Human Rights and Equity Approaches: Recognizes DIVERSITY as fundamental aspect in process of socioeconomic and human development. Recognizes the contribution that each human being can make to development process. Promotes an integrated strategy benefiting society as a whole, rather than implementing isolated policies and actions. Is an effective approach for overcoming social exclusion, combating poverty and ensuring social and economic sustainability. Sustainable Development means Inclusive Development!!! Inclusive Development

29 Build on existing opportunities ; propose inclusive strategies in initiatives already being implemented; Develop capacities among different actors to advocate and negotiate for inclusive policies, programs, humanitarian actions; Establish mechanisms for participation and collaboration of PwD,CwD & families in design, implementation, M&E of policies, programs and humanitarian actions. Invest in public discourse & communication to change attitudes towards people with disabilities. Strategies for Promoting Inclusive Development Across all MTSP FAs:

30 PREVENTION: ALL OF US HAVE A ROLE TO PLAY

31 THANK YOU! Rosangela Berman Bieler Chief, Disability Unit Gender, Rights and Civic Engagement Section Program Division UNICEF Three United Nations Plaza, Room 452, New York, NY Tel: Fax: – web site:


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