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China & the New Imperialism Chapter 12: Section I Ms. Garratt.

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Presentation on theme: "China & the New Imperialism Chapter 12: Section I Ms. Garratt."— Presentation transcript:

1 China & the New Imperialism Chapter 12: Section I Ms. Garratt



4 China & Trade China traditionally place strict limits on foreign trade Balance of trade surplus vs. trade deficit Europe requested more trading rights & were refused 3 things changed: Ch entered period of decline (Qing) Indus Rev required new markets Indus Rev required new markets West had military power to enforce its will West had military power to enforce its will

5 Opium Britain decides to sell Opium which is illegal in China This is protested by China Lin writes letter to Queen Victoria asking why she is allowing such a harmful substance to be sold in China that is illegal in Britain

6 The Opium War 1839 Chinese ships were no match for the steam-powered gunboats. British naval victory Results in the Treaty of Nanjing

7 Treaty of Nanjing 1842 British gained: –Hong Kong –Indemnity –Extraterritorial rights –Most favored nation (MFN) –Access to more trade

8 The Taiping Rebellion 1850-1864 Just when you thought things couldn’t go worse…… The Taiping Rebellion occurs. Over the course of the next 15 years approx 20-30 m died Led by Hong Xiuquan who wanted to establish “heavenly kingdom” His radical ideas included land reform, community ownership of property, gender equality, strict morality & end to Qing Dynastt Foreigners took further advantage of Chinese weaknesses and seized more territory

9 Sino-Japanese War Japan industrialized quickly after 1868 Japan joined Western imperialists in competition for global empire In 1894 they seized Taiwan

10 Impact of the Japanese Defeat By revealing how weak China was Europeans began to carve out more spheres of influence. The US insisted in 1899 that there be an “open door” policy which allowed all countries to trade freely in China on an equal basis


12 Impact of US Open Door Policy Ensured that Chinese trade would be open to all Prevented China from full scale colonization

13 To Reform or not to reform…. Many saw reform as the only way to free China from Western imperialism In 1860s the Self-Strenghening Movement t ried to industrialize and build an infrastructure Little progress due to lack of gov support

14 Hundred Days of Reform” Movement 1898 Second attempt concentrated on modernizing government, military & bureaucracy Conservatives were threatened & halted reforms Reformers imprisoned Kang Youwei >>>>

15 Catalyst for Reform

16 Resentment Against Foreigners Treaty of Nanjing –Extraterritorial rights Missionaries Spheres of Influence Society of Righteous & Harmonious Fists (the Boxers) led campaign against foreigners >>Martyrs of rebellion

17 The Boxer Rebellion 1899 Goal was to drive out “foreign devils” who were “polluting” the land with un-Chinese ways. Attacked foreign communities which led the West to organize a multinational force. Boxers were easily defeated.

18 Impact of Boxer Rebellion Greater sense of nationalism Convinced conservatives of the need to support westernization Confucianism was replaced with emphasis on math & science China expanded economically Industry developed with new Chinese business & working class

19 Sun Yixian & the Three Principals of the People Western educated Founded the Kuomintang to create a republic based on these 3 principles: 1. Nationalism 2. Democracy 3. Economic Security for all

20 World War I China felt betrayed after the war. Declared war against Germany in the hopes that Allies would return control of Chinese territory held by Germany Instead the territory was given to Japan as part of the Treaty of Versailles

21 May Fourth Movement 1919 Demonstrations erupted across the country in what came to be called the May Fourth Movement. Commitment to nationalism and modernization Many turned away from Kuomintang toward communists out of frustration

22 Communist Party Communist Party Mao adapted Marxism to China Sun allies the Kuomintang with the Communists due to frustration with the West Lenin provided military aid After Sun’s death the Kuomintang become corrupt and do little to improve the lives of peasants. They align themselves with the Communists 1927 slaughters of Communists would plunge China into 4 decades of Civil War

23 Jiang Betrays Communists

24 Civil War & the Long March 100,000 march 6000 miles to escape Jiang Recruit peasants Guerilla warfare Only 7-8000 survive when they reach the north Japan takes advantage of domestic turmoil

25 Japanese Invasion and the Uneasy Truce

26 World War II Communists Controlled the north Promoted literacy & food production Won support of the peasants Kuomintang Control of the South Received US aid ($1.5 b) Corruption Few battles fought with Japanese Saved their energy for final battle with Communists

27 Civil War 1946-1949

28 China and the Cold War

29 The Great Leap Forward 1958

30 The Cultural Revolution 1966

31 Legacy of Mao

32 China & the West

33 Tiananmen Square

34 China in the 21 st Century







41 Spheres of Influence

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