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Marijuana, K2 and Other Drugs What Athletics Administrators Should Know

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2 Marijuana, K2 and Other Drugs What Athletics Administrators Should Know
NCAA Convention January 13, 2010 Panelists: Andrea Wickerham, The National Center for Drug Free Sport Doug Padron, Monmouth University John Sullivan, Providence College and University of Rhode Island

3 Marijuana Effects/NIDA
impaired learning and memory anxiety, panic attacks, psychosis cough, frequent respiratory infections possible mental health decline addiction euphoria and relaxation slowed reaction time distorted sensory perception impaired balance and coordination increased heart rate and appetite

4 Drug Use and Grades

5 Marijuana – 2009 NCAA Study 23.6% reported use within the last 12 months. Over 1/2 report use as less than once per month. Majority indicated use only during their off season. Majority obtained from a friend, family member or teammate.

6 NCAA Positive Tests for Marijuana
Championship test results 98 99 00 2000 01 2001 02 2002 03 2003 04 2004 05 2006 07 Total No. of Tests 1128 1488 1474 1657 1513 1561 1516 2565 2581 2512 2481 2568 Street Drugs 5 20 7 10 8 17 37 21 30 26 71 Percent positive .4 1.3 .6 .5 1.1 1.4 .8 1.2 1.0 2.8%

7 Science and Legal Issues
Andrea Wickerham Vice-President The National Center for Drug Free Sport

8 K2 – What is it? Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist
AKA Spice, Spice Gold, Pot-pourri, Serenity and herbal incense JWH-018, JWH-073, HU-210, CP 47, 497 (over 100 synthetic cannabinoids) Developed for research purposes Pain management Brain research Anti-slip agent Contaminant found in many plastics Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) substitute? But structurally quite different Potentially more potent than THC

9 K2 – What is it? Street drug?
Marketed as “all natural” to teens and young adults Smokeable (pipe, water pipe, rolled papers, inhaled smoke or vapors) Internet, tobacco and pipe stores, “head shops,” convenience stores Not made for human consumption JWH-018 and its chemical cousins have a chemical structure shared with known cancer-causing agents

10 K2 – What is it? No published safety data
No published known effects in humans Anecdotal reports of the following: Agitation Anxiety Tachycardia Vomiting Very high blood pressure Seizures Hallucinations Non-responsiveness

11 Drug Testing for K2 “We have a student-athlete who was in the emergency room over the weekend! Says he was smoking ‘Spice’. His heart was racing, his BP was off the charts, and he was hallucinating. This went on for hours!! Can you drug test him for this stuff.”

12 Drug Testing for K2 Remember – K2 or Spice Gold or Spice is NOT marijuana (THC) Traditional “street drug panel” will not find these synthetic cannabinoids Developing a test is complex Must first locate and isolate the substance Pure metabolite or in an excretion urine Human use for research purposes (ethical issues) Create the assay and validate the testing methodologies Cost prohibitive for most labs UCLA Olympic Analytical Lab has developed a screen and confirmation for JWH-018 in urine Screen for JWH-073 Only the metabolites appear in urine Short detection window (up to 72 hours?) Qualitative test (indicates presence or no presence, no threshold)

13 Drug Testing for THC ∆9 – tetrahydrocannabinol acid (metabolite of THC) Banned Drug Class = Street drug (NCAA) Quantative test (concentration found in urine) e.g. 75 ng/mL Traditional testing methodologies Immunoassay (screen) GC/MS (confirmation) Reasons for testing for THC Workplace (safety) Sport (use, deterrence, health and safety) Thresholds/Cutoffs for positive NCAA = > 15 ng/mL (confirmation) Institutional autonomy to lower threshold > 5 ng/mL (confirmation)

14 Drug Testing for THC Detection period
It depends … Chronic user Recent use Amount smoked THC concentration Body size Body metabolism Second-hand smoke/passive inhalation Not likely Consider the research Investigate, gather the facts, ask questions

15 Legal Landscape K2 Legal Issues Initially legal
Currently illegal or regulated in 15 states Bills pending in other states Sanctions vary depending on possession, sale, manufacture or distribution November 24, 2010 – DEA issued a notice of intent to place 5 of the synthetic cannabinoids into the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) Demonstrated an “imminent hazard to safety of the public” Schedule I substance Impose federal criminal sanctions

16 Legal Landscape THC Issues Federal offense to possess
Proposition 19 in California failed (Regulate, Control and Tax Cannabis Act) Legal in 15 states and DC for medical purposes 6 states have pending legislation for medical marijuana Numerous state differences Amount allowed for use Amount allowed for plant cultivation Approved medical conditions Written documentation from a physician Dispensaries

17 Other NGB and Anti-Doping Organization’s Policies
World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited List Potential to enhance or enhances sport performance Use of the substance or method represents an actual or potential health risk to the athlete Use of the substance or method violates the spirit of sport as described in the WADA Code Must meet 2 of these 3 Bans THC “In Competition” Bans synthetic cannabinoids (JWH-018, JWH-073, HU-210) “In Competition”

18 Other NGB and Anti-Doping Organizations’ Policies
Professional Leagues Ban and test for THC NFL (Substance of Abuse Program) NBA, NBA D-League, WNBA LPGA and PGA MiLB (Minor League Baseball)

19 Andrea S. Wickerham, J.D. Vice President The National Center for Drug Free Sport
2537 Madison Ave. | Kansas City, MO | ext. 118|

20 NCAA and CSMAS Considerations Regarding Drug Testing (Deterrence, Student-Athlete Health and Safety)
Doug Padron, ATC Associate Athletic Director, Monmouth University Chair of NCAA Drug Education and Testing Subcommittee

21 Overview Current Penalties Medical Use CSMAS Recommendations
Education: APPLE Conference Power of Peer Education Monmouth University Experience

22 Current Penalties Loss of one full season of participation
NCAA Bylaw Often, student-athletes do not recover and return to play: Game passes them by Team moves on without them University may not renew scholarship Wasted opportunity…

23 Medical Use The terminally ill Cancer Amelioration of nausea
Stimulation of hunger in chemo and aids patients Decreasing pressure for glaucoma

24 CSMAS Position on Medical MJ
regulation of medical marijuana is variable, with no FDA review or approval there are no uniform procedures for procuring a medical marijuana card marijuana delivered through smoking is a crude delivery system that also delivers harmful substances there are approved effective treatments for those medical conditions generally identified for medical marijuana

25 Education Strategies What’s already in your backyard
SAAC, SAM, & Champs Life Skills NCAA Apple Conference Guest Speakers Institutional Drug Testing

26 MU Apple Experience Initiated Alcohol and Other Drug Education Program in Spring 2003 Education programs Creation of Peer Leadership Program Spring 2003 Drug Testing, Fall 2oo4 1st Trip to Apple 2004 (6 S-As, 2 ATCs) Alcohol Education Student-Athletes and Administration work together to enhance Alcohol Policy 2nd Trip to Apple 2006 (7 S-As, 2 ATCs) Code of Conduct Frosh Student-Athlete Orientation/Education Program Apple Indianapolis in 2007 Awarded the Prism Award for excellence in athletic administration 4th Trip to Apple 2009 (4 S-As, 1 SWA, 1 ATC) Host Education Program Information Pamphlet for Host 5th Trip to Apple 2010 (4 S-As, 1 SWA, 2 ATC) Presented Host Education Program 2 Projects: Play Day with the Hawks “Don’t Do Anything That Could Change Everything” campaign

27 Host Education Meeting Action Plan Summary
Actions People Resources Date Survey Student-Athletes Apple Team Peer Leaders Time 11/09 Discuss Results/Plan with Coaches ATC, SWA 1/09 Attend Apple UVA Time, $ Meet w/Athletic Director Apple Team/AD 2/09 Development Meetings Time/Space Sp/09 Create Host Information Handout Time, $ Print 4/09 Finalize Plan for Meeting 5/09 Host Education Meeting Entire Athletic Dept Time, $ Food 9/09

28 Monmouth University Athletic Department Code of Conduct
As Hawks we will protect the integrity of the University, others, and ourselves. To accomplish this mission I WILL: Make progress towards a degree and graduate from Monmouth University Actively participate in both the campus and surrounding community Maintain good sportsmanship by respecting opponents, teammates, fans, and officials Abide by Team, NEC, and NCAA rules Agree to the MUAOD Education Policy Have an open mind toward other’s cultural beliefs and backgrounds Adhere to the law and respect the rights and property of others Respect Myself Respect the Game Conduct myself like a Champion…

29 Goals Respond to issues on campus and throughout collegiate athletics
Orient new student-athletes on the philosophy and expectations of the athletic department Create the Frosh Education Program by implementing education programs developed in the Peer Leader Program for all first year student-athletes Teach everyone what it means to be a HAWK Leadership Accountability = Role Model Pride Maturity

30 Don’t Do Anything That Could Change Everything!
Recruit additional team leaders Orient group on mission Hold closed door team meeting Poor Decision Making Impact on you and your team Pride Respect Accountability

31 (Approximately 200 drug tests)
Result In one calendar year MU went from the highest percentage of positive screens to 0%! (Approximately 200 drug tests) Student-athletes can/will have the biggest impact on any change you need to make to your culture!

32 Contact Information Doug Padron, ATC Associate Athletic Director Monmouth University West Long Branch, NJ 07764 (732)

33 Marijuana Use and College: A Time of Risks
John P. Sullivan, Psy.D. Clinical Sport Psychologist Providence College and University of Rhode Island Chief Consultant,Clinical & Sports Consulting Services

34 Marijuana Use and College: A Time of Risks
Student-athletes at greater risk for Substance Abuse/Substance Dependence issues The hidden gateway drug 98% of marijuana users later used another substance (Mohler-Kuo, Lee, & Wechsler 2002)

35 Marijuana Use and College: A Time of Risks
About one third of college students reported use before college Johnson et al., 2008 First-year students have highest prevalence Nearly 1 in 2 (47%) reported having used marijuana Relationship between marijuana and other drugs Increase in prevalence of use nationally from

36 Marijuana Use and College: A Time of Risks
Interventions and College Campuses Remember culture counts! Early Intervention can alter the typical course Have a program Incoming student-athletes can be targeted for prevention interventions directly and indirectly Use multiple modes of contact (e.g. didactic, peer mentor, feedback-based, web-based)

37 Marijuana Use and College: A Time of Risks
Campus Resources Look in your backyard Counseling Center Build a relationship/ partnership Collaborate early and often for programming Conduct screenings (Alcohol, Marijuana, Depression, Anxiety, etc.)

38 Marijuana Use and College: A Time of Risks
Campus resources Applied Degree Programs (Psychology, Public Health, Nursing programs, Medical Schools) Research Consulting Centers/Supervised Care Providing Cross discipline exchange of effort and ideas

39 Marijuana Use and College: A Time of Risks
Looking over the fence The Pro Ranks Prevention [Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary] Character Development Program (CDP) Identification/Assessment Education Skill Based Program/Transferable Direct Treatment

40 John P. Sullivan, Psy.D. Clinical Sport Psychologist (401) 40

41 To promote the Health and Safety NCAA Student-Athletes!
NCAA Resources APPLE Conferences CHOICES Grant Awards Educational Affairs Program Grants Health and Safety Publications Heath and Safety Posters REC Sports Medicine Handbook To promote the Health and Safety of the more than 400,000 NCAA Student-Athletes!


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